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"Gender, refers not to a predetermined biological notion of gender, but rather to the "appropriate" social and cultural roles that society values as ordinary or desirable." Thus, gender issues can be described as those problems which evolve in reaction to these roles. The Middle East often attracts scrutiny in the global arena because of its responses to these gender issues, and the contradictory nature of their gender policies. However, it's important to be aware that many aspects can form these gender criteria, and such " are the result of long historical processes influenced by the state, faith, culture, law, morality, sexuality, ideology, and economic forces as well as modern challenges and changes." Hence the policies that have evolved in reaction to gender issues have done so contextually, as noticed in the Islamic Republic of Iran, along with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, both of which have very distinct, yet controversial policies in respects to sex problems. Thus, this essay will take a look at the historic and contextual development of these policies in each country. Next, it will take a close look at the development of gender policies, particularly focusing on the post-1979 period, and the reasons for such improvement. Ultimately, it is going to discuss and compare modern policies in an identical method. In the case of Saudi Arabia, it has to be noted that, "the historic socio-economic and political states of Saudi Arabia are a vital facet of understanding a woman's position in Western society," and consequently, Saudi Arabia's case is exceptional compared to the rest of the area, as it did not experience European colonisation. Thus the restrictions placed on women "can be credited to a social and traditional cultural boundaries.