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Paolo Frieri's 1968 work Pedagogy of the Oppressed is a thorough Marxist class analysis of the relationship between the oppressor and the oppressed, and while composed almost half a century ago in the context of poor and illiterate Brazilians, this dynamic is possibly just as important now in the industrialized West. Frieri was especially interested at the near affinity between education and liberation from oppression, however, understood that certain educational philosophies result in liberation's dichotomous sibling -- the upholding, as well as strengthening, of the societal associations inducing oppression. These ideas provide valuable insight into the ramifications of the growing anticipation for most American students to attend faculty and clarify how that very anticipation could be eroding the foundational principles of higher education. The intellectual and scientific Enlightenment of the eighteenth century created two pictures conceptualizing what should be the proper approach to schooling; one was the student as an empty vessel that is "filled" by the instructor, the other as a seed, nourished and assisted in growing, but ultimately becoming its own unusual blossom. Frieri explains in fantastic detail both of these strategies as the "banking" model and as the "problem-posing" version. From the "banking" model, Frieri clarifies that "schooling becomes an act of depositing" in which the instructor deposits information as well as the pupils "patiently receive, memorize, and repeat" (Frieri, 72). This version serves the oppressor by prescribing in the oppressed a false understanding (thoughts, attitudes, etc.) -- the consciousness of the oppressor himself -- further cementing the oppressor-oppressed dichotomy. Another word that concisely describes this approach to e.. .