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In 1999, Koushun Takami created one of Japan's largest controversies surrounding literature and film with the launch of his book, Battle Royale, which has been made into a film only 1 year later. The novel and the movie, that detail the lives of a literary group of young pupils compelled to kill each other at a schedule designed by the government until just one remains standing, evoked a torrent of hostility from Japanese critics who felt that the plot would inspire schoolchildren to imitate the most violent acts depicted by Takami (Arai 367). The disapproval from this a huge number of literary critics was probably because of earlier offenses committed by pupils including the murder of an instructor by a teenaged student in 1998 along with the decapitation of a elementary school student by a 14-year-old boy at 1997 (Shotaro 77). These critics feared that the release of Takami's story would provoke additional criminal behavior that could conflict with the standards and values of Japanese society by promoting the ownership of weapons and homicide. However, in spite of these fears as well as the claims of a lot of these critics, Takami's novel actually strengthens the standards of conventional Japanese culture regarding its cultural expectations of pupils, collectivist attitudes, and gender roles through the portrayal of those consequences that arise from deviating from these standards. According to Kiefer, students in Japan have rigorous expectations to focus on their research and receive good grades. It's believed that in order for your pupil to attain financial success as an adult, they have to first achieve scholarly success throughout their education. This heavy demand for pupil achievement is exhibited through a term which has developed throughout the Western.