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Proach to understanding the properties of persons (their traits, desires, abilities, interests) which isn't only very popular and historically important, but also overwhelmingly plausible. It starts with a division of human properties into three categories. Natural properties are those persons possess in virtue of being members of a natural type, and they arise in the structures authoritative of their species. Other attributes are unnatural, in that they result from abnormal structures. And some attributes are nonnatural (or social) in that they signify replacements, alterations, or extensions brought about by the social environment functioning on the basic structures.1 Such is your ontology. It suggests immediately the epistemology for assigning detected possessions to the three groups, specifically to the organic and the nonnatural. The central epistemological thesis is a counterfactual: organic properties are those that men could exhibit were they never affected by a social environment. John Stuart Mill, in his The Subjection of Women, asserts this perspective: "the artificial country superinduced by society disguises the natural tendencies of the thing which is the topic of monitoring..." Suppose "all artificial causes of difference to be pulled," the "natural character would be revealed. "2 The fundamental epistemological thesis implies two methodological rules along with also a corollary for detecting which properties are natural and that are nonnatural. To begin with, the organic properties are those that are common among individuals who reside in different social environments. Properties which are observed in all types of social surroundings are only those properties which are resistent to societal influences and which would be observed regardless of social influences. In the same way, if detected properties vary as social environments change, this is proof for their being nonnatural. (Mill does, I think, argue the first rule at the Logic.) 3 Secondly, the properties of men who reside in environments containing relatively few societal influences are more inclined to be natural than those of persons who reside in environments containing lots of. However, most important for Mill is that the corollary, which states that differences in organic properties involving 2 sub-groups of those species are those differences which are observed although people in both sub-group...