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Throughout the middle ages, individuals have seen the cosmos as a basis for the social order here on Earth. The celestial layers were all representations of the medieval society and the church. The hierarchy of the Kings and Pope over their subjects was warranted by the hierarchy of the heavenly bodies; it had been considered natural and nobody questioned it because it has been like this for so long. Medieval life was based on God, abiding by the doctrines of the Catholic Church, and also the strengthening of religion. Arts and literature at the Victorian era featured divine and demonic beings that promoted the influence and power of the church. Spiritual and religious themes were constantly the subject of paintings, sculptures, and literary functions. On the other hand, the very same artists who were commission by the church would later pave the way for change in the how society looked at the world around them and just about everything that was believed to be fixed and stable. The long established arrangement of this church and the medieval society will slowly crumble because of manвЂ™s growing curiosity and thirst for learning which began when the Europeans recovered the ancient texts of the Greeks in the Arabs. Suddenly, math and science were very important to the great scholars who were slowly braking away from Aristotelian thinking as they searched for actual proof and explanations on how the world operated. However, education back then was exclusive to the royal family and wealthy, hence the only way ordinary individuals could acquire access to learning was to become a priest or a member of the church. One of those men was Roger Bacon, a Franciscan Friar, who was a tireless campaigner for both mathematics and experimental science (Wertheim, ch.2, pg.50). He urged the...