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In the essay "Naturalism and the Venetian 'Poesia': Grafting, Metaphor, and Embodiment in Giorgione, Titian, and the Campagnolas," Campbell explains the role of poetic painting, poesia, in Venetian artwork during the 1500s. Titian personally used the term poesia when he "[referred] to paintings he was making for [King Philip II] with subject matter derived from the ancient poets." Poesia now refers to a type of sixteenth century Venetian painting, which Giorgione and Titian initiated and used within their works. Campbell's main argument is that poesia is not simply aesthetic or reflective of poetry, but rather "grounded in the practice of making -- and in making meaning -- rather than in an aesthetics of self-sufficiency or self-referentiality." Like poetry, it is not self-contained; meaning lies outside of the work, within the interpretations of the viewers. He discusses the idea of grafting in poetry and the way the exact same grafting model is utilized in the visual arts. Different images, such as pagan figures and contemporary figures and settings, are juxtaposed to create visual discordance and provide an intrinsic meaning to the viewer. Campbell then uses many examples of writing, poetry, engravings, and paintings to explore his argument and the connections between artists during the 1500s. Campbell examines thirteen Venetian engravings and paintings, in addition to an example of early poetry, to illustrate the grafting effect of different imagery sources within a single picture, along with poetic imagery and form used with poesia. Many examples of art that Campbell examines focuses on the nature of the works, such as the juxtaposition of "pagan opposites" in Christian subject matter, the idea of the gaze, juxtaposing two pictorial.