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Appearance versus Reality in Othello and Twelfth Night Shakespeare cleverly utilizes the art of disguise, in both his tragedies and his comedies, to be able to use a literary device called dramatic irony, in which the audience members are conscious of something (in this case the true identity of personalities) that characters in the play aren't. This, of course, generates tension in a drama and excites the audience; activities occur on the point, where the viewer knows that the import, but characters on the stage do not. Additionally, it creates a setting for a great deal of irony where characters make remarks which take on a dual significance. Two examples of figures who use such disguise are Iago, from Othello, and Viola, from Twelfth Night. The functions that Iago chooses to disguise his motivations are to gain an office that he believes he deserves and also to get revenge on Othello for supposedly committing adultery with his wife. Most of the irony in Othello stems not from what Iago says, but instead from what the other characters say about him, like the references to him as "honest Iago," "the bold Iago," and "a very valiant fellow." Iago's disguise makes the viewer fearful for the other characters, and makes them shame people who endure...