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The Industrial Revolutions, spurred by technological innovation and the discoveries of new materials, created new businesses. One of the first to be mechanized is the fabric industry. From James Hargreaves' creation of the spinning jenny, workers, mainly women, managed to mass produce goods from house. Therefore, the cottage industry was born. However, with the growth of Richard Arkwright's water frame, John Kay's flying shuttle, also Edmund Cartwright's power loom, factories soon replaced the domestic system and the girls who lost their jobs today moved to the factories. Nevertheless, the factories were very successful due to high demand and cheap cotton sources in the Americas and in India. Ironically, American cotton was the product of captivity, which the British had prohibited in 1838. Iron, similar to cotton, became particularly significant as it helped support other industries. Iron was used in steamships, railways, and other machinery employed in factories. Materials and people could travel farther and faster than ever before. Prior to railroads, Europeans heavily relied upon local time--train schedules helped establish a national conformity for time. From the nineteenth century, steel triumphed iron. Though Great Britain dominated the marketplace for iron during the first Revolution, Germany managed to transcend British steel manufacturing during the moment. In addition to steel, chemistry made its way into the manufacturing enterprise. Germany generated 1.7 million tons of lactic acid by the start of World War I and 90% of the dyes used in fabrics (Wyatt 52-53, 133). While the new industries have had a positive impact on the economies, it did not help the environment. Ahead of the Revolutions, folks relied upon charcoal, but trees were scarce and took v.. .