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For Christianity, the 12th century represented a century of both external and internal alterations. While the crusades sought to impose a "universalized Christian religion" on people outside of their faith, the inner mechanisms of the Church began to promote reformations which encouraged a unification of the "philosophy, liturgy, piety and politics within Western Christendom". In this century, Christians began to undergo a cohesive and sacred neighborhood. Anselm of Canterbury and Peter Abelard made theological advancements that permitted for the unification of the Church -- and also to get a drastic change in Jewish-Christian relations. Their notions of atonement started to shape the manner in which Christian's approached Jews in the questions of God. While Anselm's satisfaction theory of atonement started to promote an appeal to reason among Christians towards Jews, Abelard's moral influence theory of atonement had the potential on encouraging religious tolerance. Due to this political climate of this moment, Anselm's theory took hold and became the most prominent theological arguments against Jews. To understand the significance that the growth of the concept of atonement has had on Christian-Jewish relations, it must first be understood what the theory of atonement suggests in Christian practice. As Linwood Urban explains the doctrine of atonement or restitution is "the key response of God to the issue of evil. It states that the unification of the world with God's plan for this will bring about the eventual conquest of poor and suffering, or even in this world, at least in the world to come." The fall of mankind with Adam and Eve caused an imbalance in the relations between God and humanity. To achieve salvation, this inequity had.