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In a tree of monotheistic religions, Judaism and Christianity, despite sharing common roots and religious tradition connected with Abraham, for many centuries diverged and developed in their own distinct ways. The partition, dependent on various theological doctrines, evolves around the concept of the essence of human relationships with God, which in case of Judaism are based on the Law of Torah, and in Christianity stem from the belief in Jesus Christ and its foundation -- that the doctrine of Trinity. Beyond a doubt the best illustration to the character of spiritual beliefs in Judaism, is "The Covenant at Sinai", which despite being part of Holy Scriptures in Christianity, brings a clear border between two religions. Not only it plays a crucial role in defining the self-identity of Jews as "the children of Israel", and "a holy nation", selected by God, but it will become the base of their "covenant theology" the law of Moses. Therefore, the certainty that the Jewish people were put apart from the remainder of nations is the cornerstone of that particular "covenant relationship" with God and does not imply their superiority but instead the fact that through all the commandments and laws given by God their religion is being tested. The Covenant at Sinai is, therefore, the emblem of the connection between God and people of Israel and also the law that has to be observed so as to keep God's will. The sense of distinctiveness, even some kind of liberty as God's "treasured possession among all the peoples", is the cornerstone of Judaism and is strengthened through ethnic self-consciousness, ritual practices, and the "lawful" way of living of Jews, that finally became component of anti-Jewish polemics. The key commandments of this covenant.