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Herbert Marcuse's An Essay on Liberation '' We are aware that the economic evolution of the modern world refutes a certain number of those postulates of Marx. If the revolution is to occur at the end of two parallel motions, the boundless decreasing of funds and the unlimited growth of the proletariat, it will not occur or shouldn't to have occurred. Capital and proletariat have both been equally stern to Marx. - Albert Camus, 1953 The validity of Marxist political theory has been severely challenged by the realities of European culture, both throughout the inter-war years and especially after WWII. The threat was two-fold; about the one hand, was that the refusal of capitalism to fail, a failure that Marxists was predicting as immanent since the mid-twentieth century; on the flip side, was the collapse of the Soviet Union to create an effective or humane society. Marxists living in the West, beyond the range of Soviet Union, have attempted to create a detailed concept more in tune with the complexities of contemporary society than Classical Marxism. Most prominent among these "Western Marxists" is a group known as the Frankfurt School. An eclectic group of glowing intellectuals who fled Germany in the 1930s, they've sought to create a "critical theory" that combines Freud and Weber (among others) with Marx. Herbert Marcuse's An Essay on Liberation is an illustration of how they've attempted to maintain their social and revolutionary notions essential and relevant. It deals with an increasingly intricate society in an increasingly sophisticated manner. This effort creates an interesting historical tension within Marcuse's work since the complexity of the investigation makes it impossible to adhere t.. .