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Article about Key waters

Project id 1003935
Subject area Biology
Document type Essay
Words 2711
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Forty years back, as a "large expanse of water," it deserved its designation: Chad, the local word for its lake that gives its title to the country that it boundaries. Situated west of Chad and sharing bounds by Nigeria, Niger, and Cameroon, Lake Chad is a remnant of a colossal arctic sea, which was once Africa's biggest water reservoir from the Sahel. Wildlife, especially countless migratory birds crossing the Sahara Desert, is dependent on this major watering center. For humanity, the Lake Chad Basin is home to over 20 million that rely on the lake's surrounding wetlands for farming, fishing, hunting, and grazing. Historically, Lake Chad has, for thousands of years, been a crossroads for commerce and cultural exchange involving North Africans and people of all Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, quick forwarding to today, this once excellent lake is almost no more. In the 1960s onwards, the substantially decreased rainfall and poorly managed irrigation generated a dramatic shrinkage of Lake Chad. This, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, led to the lake to reduce "by 95 percent over roughly 35 decades." Satellite picture comparisons from 1970 and 2007 genuinely demonstrate the disastrous change: forty years ago, there had been 15,000 square kilometers of water -- five decades ago, there was only 500, together with the number falling. Already, quarrels within this shortage have emerged, primarily between fishermen and farmers. As the drought takes its toll on their own perishing, dehydrated lands, farmers require the lake because of their cattle; nevertheless, anglers need to maintain water amounts to maintain fish populations. Even more worrisome, though, is the chance of much bigger conflicts. A number of the poorest and smallest HDI (Human Development Index) countries on earth.

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