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As a onetime outpost of Rome, England was greatly influenced by Roman genealogy-ancestors which were god-like (Mars), superhuman (Hercules), fearless musicians (Pompey) that flourished in a patriarchal society (early 4). I'd like to discuss the way Shakespeare uses these traits within his Roman tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, as a means to express sixteenth century England's cultural upheavals, one of which was the transformation of masculinity defined in terms of power to masculinity rooted in humanism. The monarch of a country is the "head of their nobility"(Giddens two) and also skilled in weaponry in order to fight side by side with his soldiers. Queen Elizabeth shattered this tradition together with her femininity and physiological inability to fight a war. Since Eugene Giddens points out, Elizabeth was viewed as "conflict-shy". Because she didn't "enter warfare softly", a terrific anxiety arose over the army and the English nobility. After all, their important source of honors and advertising in the monarch's court - good military feats - was constricted by the absence of war (Giddens 2). Shakespeare's focus on Rome's martial society at Antony and Cleopatra addresses the importance that a martial society held for men in England during Elizabeth's reign. Army art defined masculinity by honor and power. Giddens highlights a Francis Bacon quote from "Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms and Estates" in which Bacon writes "No body can be healthful without exercise, neither natural body nor politic: and certainly to a kingdom or estate, a just and honourable warfare is the authentic exercise... for in a slothful peace, both courages will effeminate and manners corrupt" (Giddens 13). Be aware exactly the identical sentiment for the association between war,.