Get help with any kind of project - from a high school essay to a PhD dissertation
The knee joint is formed by the articulation of the distal end of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia. The fibula is just associated with the extent that it functions as an attachment site for connective tissues. In this paper, the anatomy of the joint will be discussed. The knee is a hinge-type, diarthrotic, or freely moveable joint. Also referred to as a synovial jointthat the 2 articulating ends of bone are encased in a capsule that permeates the joint with synovial fluid to decrease friction. Each bone in a synovial joint gets articular cartilage at the back surface. The C-shaped lateral and lateral menisci serve to weaken the articulation in the superior surface of the tibia, thus enhancing the rectal stability of this joint. Also adding to the joints stability are the two key pairs of ligaments: the cruciates and the collaterals. The medial and lateral collateral ligaments have a stabilizing influence in a lateral plane of motion, helping to stop sideward displacement along with over-rotation. The medial collateral joins the femur to the tibia, also attaching to the lateral meniscus. The lateral security attaches the femur to the fibula but does not have any attachment to the lateral meniscus. The two collaterals lie slightly posterior to the lateral axis of the knee joint and also therefore are taut when the knee is full extension. This positioning of the ligaments causes a slackness if flexion happens, allowing medial and lateral rotation to take place. The cruciate ligaments are so named because of their cross-configuration inside the joint. The anterior cruciate ligament attaches to the tibia in its own anterior-superior surface, crossing via the joint in the lateral side to its lateral attachment to the femur. The posterior cruciate ligament attaches on the posterior-superior facet of the tibia, crossing diagonally and medially into its lateral attachment on the femur. The anterior and posterior cruciates shield against hyperextension and hyperflexion, respectively. The activities performed in the knee include flexion, extension, and lateral and lateral rotation. Flexion is that the bending of a joint so that the angle between both bones decreases. The main muscles which bend the knee are a number collectively known as вЂњhamstrings.вЂќ The hamstrings consist of those biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus. The muscles that help in flexion are the sartorius, gracilis,...