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The Role of Vegetation at Coastal Development in Sand Dunes and Salt Marshes (a) Sand Dunes Before considering the use of vegetation At the evolution of coastal sand dunes, it can be helpful to summarise the overall conditions that are conducive to dune formation so as to set the biological processes involved in a broader context. Factors that encourage dune formation comprise prevailing onshore winds blowing across a broad inter tidal zone which allows the top sand to dry out between tides and to be set in motion by the end. There should also be a few attribute at the head of the shore to snare the sand being pushed onshore by the wind. This could be patches of coarse shingle or drifted debris or present vegetation just beyond the high water mark. Ideally, there should be a lack of plant on these parts of the beach where sand is being transferred, and lively colonisation by plants at the heart of the beach where dunes are accumulating. Apparently, not all of these conditions acquire be met in each field of dune formation, but they signify the best conditions for sand dune accumulation and growth. The initial accumulation of sand in the head of a beach can be about a clump of rough grass, such as sea couch grass (Agropyrum junceum). The following stage, assuming that the incipient dune isn't destroyed as fast as it gathers, is that the colonisation by marram grass (Ammophilia arenaria). Marram grass owns a deep branching system of roots which efficiently permeate the dune together. What's more, the plant itself just survives as long as a new supply of sand is continually added into the dune. Once this supply of new...