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This paper will attempt to define and contrast the following terms: a.Synchronous and asynchronous b.Analog and digital c.XON and XOFF d.Simplex and duplex e.Serial and parallel transmission f.Baseband and broadband g.Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and also Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) h.Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) i.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) It will also contain a brief description and analysis of the OSI layers that are used using the TCP/IP protocol stack. Synchronous and Asynchronous In reference to the sign that passes through phone lines, the transport procedures may be synchronous or asynchronous. A synchronous data transfer is delivered in a continuous, single flow of characters, grouped into buffered pieces. Before the transmission is sent, synchronous characters are sent that set the sending and the receiving ends to the same moment. Once affirmation of the syn pulse is returned, the stream is sent to the receiving end. An asynchronous data transfer consists of start and stop bits at the start and the end of the pulses that are sent. (Modem, 2004) Analog and digital An analog signal is an exact replica of the sound or picture being transmitted. An analog wave signal is a signal which is composed of changing amplitudes of frequencies. An analog transmission is used over telephone lines to transmit voice frequencies over a carrier frequency through the telephone line. An electric current reproduces the frequency for transmission, then it's converted at the other end back into the sound wave. A digital signal is a square wave signal composed of a voltage and then a lack of voltage. Digital transmission involves laser lights that flash on and off and are carried through fiber optic lines. This is a really speedy transmission rate (approximately 450 flashes per second) and may result in two fiber optic transmission lines to have the ability to transmit almost 15,000 conversations at the exact same moment. Digital transmission is faster than analog, and also is more stable, as less noise or other interference can disrupt.