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James Thomson's poem 'The City of Dreadful Night' greatly features pessimism, uncertainty and restless supporting the transition of modernisation moving through the nation. The uncertainty reflects the changes happening in Victorian Era; the poem was composed in 1873, only a few decades following the Industrial Revolution had occurred. Not only that, but also doubt and scepticism about faith was emerging to public discourse along with new scientific and intellectual ideas dividing however (Wild). Thomson's poem mirrors this restless and the doubt toward the modernisation of the Victorian Era. This can be portrayed throughout the formal features of this poem; rhythm and shape convey the restless that the narrator of the poem is experiencing not just mentally as well as physically. Also a want to return to the traditional civilization that provided certainty and safety. What's more, the use of imagery communicates the harsh, dark character of modernity that the persona experience: there's a shortage of description and colour of people of town that expresses feelings of depression and isolation. Last, the motif of the temporal setting of nighttime communicates the sense that the modern town is supernatural. The poems formal attributes draw upon influences from previous writers to emphasize the sterile nature of the traditional and the way that modernisation is contributing to this rust. The usage of the rhythm illustrates this. Iambic pentameter is utilized through the canto. Throughout the late 19th Century, the iambic pentameter was getting less depended upon by amateurs. It was being exchanged for a less rigid and strict rhythm, experimenting in new practices. The iambic pentameter was used by writers like Shakespeare and Milton that were renowned for their wor...