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Nuclear Testing and Power With the evolution of nuclear energy came a significant moral debate between scientists and politicians. The authorities chose to safeguard its domestic security and engage in an "arms race," instead of protecting its citizens. The atomic testing involving 1951-1962 exposed thousands of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada residents ("Downwinders") to nuclear fallout, leading to genetic defects, leukemia, and cancer in many of the fallout's victims. In her 1992 publication Refuge, Terry Tempest Williams claims she "cannot establish her mom, Diane Dixon Tempest, or her ] grandmothers, Lettie Romney Dixon and Kathryn Blackett Tempest, along with [her ] aunts developed cancer by atomic fallout in Utah ( Tempest 286,);" however, scientific evaluations, although hard to run in this scenario, have proved a strong correlation between fallout exposure and cancer within the downwind population. However, Williams' chooses not to highlight this variable of fallout exposure until the final chapter of this memoir, which had been formerly released before the book. Therefore, an individual must wonder why Williams chose to write the memoir in this style, completely disregarding the unnatural source of her family's painful battle with cancer. Development of the Atomic Bomb and the AEC In 1938, an earth-shattering scientific breakthrough was attained by German physicists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman- the fission of a Uranium atom into a Barium atom- which allowed for the technological development of atomic power. This knowledge was passed onto famous scientists in America such as Neils Bohr and Albert Einstein. Einstein urged President Roosevelt to produce weapons before Hitler's nuclear physicists ( Ball, 6.) Therefore, America, bei...