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For hundreds of years people were tortured and executed, since they were thought to be witches. Based on three key reports by Pope The French novelist, Victor Hugo, formerly explained, "There is in every village a torch- the school teacher; and the extinguisher; the priest." Although Victor Hugo lived in the age of modernism, the medieval idea of expression, encouraged through politics and faith, wasn't foreign to him; had he been living two hundred years earlier, his defiant attitude and constant séances to get in touch with his deceased daughter, could have gotten him accused of witchcraft, or heresy. Even though the Puritan Salem Witch trials have obtained great notoriety, (Placeholder2) the basis of their justification of intolerance may well have been set from the rulings and writings which originated in the papal throne of Pope Innocent VIII. The Puritan society that was made to promote a more pure way of living, located itself justifying the very acts of elitism that they had accused the Church of England using against them. They adopted a method of witch trials and ethical justice that might have very well come from the "Hammer of Witches" which was published by Pope Innocent VIII' German Inquisitors. (Placeholder3) In The Hammer of witches, vigilantes are taught to start with torture to gain a confession and then take the accused aside to get the confession. When a confession is not publicly given then more torture is applied. Back in Salem, an 80 year old farmer from the name of Giles Cory refused to confess his guilt and put in a plea, therefore he was invited to death by way of thick stones being placed on his torso until he could no longer breathe. He was said to have picked death since he realized that there was no way o.. .