Posted at 10.01.2018
Within modern society the modern-day debate from the population is, what do we want from our police forces and what's an acceptable level of performance should maintain terms of fairness and effectiveness of todays policing. Bowling (2007) in his study outlined the value of zero tolerance policing and problem orientated policing within society. The author in this assignment will analyse what the general public actually want off their police and also outline and measure the idea of zero tolerance policing and problem orientated policing by using Bowling (2007) views within his research papers.
Within police policies and powers that are governed by individual acts produced and enforced within Parliament and are sanctioned in the authorities and criminal evidence act (1994). This act handles the complex interpretation of criminal and police evidence which puts these policies into application that are practical within society. The majority of we were holding supportive of concepts that deal with various crime and criminal activities that are socially unacceptable such as anti-social behaviour. Within communities and neighbourhoods the concept of change in the police force was needed within modern society.
Zero tolerance idea of policing started in NY (US) at a period with time when the drug trade and various other socio-economic factors showed an increase in these criminal activities. Homicide specifically saw a rise, it increased an incredible 63% within the periods of 1985-1990 (Bowling 1999). Bowling (1999) states in his research paper that the rise of Homicide in the state of New York maybe linked to the decline in the drug market and inner fights with various street gangs within New York City. For this reason increase in criminal activities within NY, the New York Police Department commissioner promised prior to becoming elected that he'd try to reinvent the streets of the town of New York (McLaughlin 2007). With the full backing of the newly appointed Mayor of New York, they would now ensure that they will enforce the law and provide zero tolerance policing with NEW YORK.
In the united kingdom, Jack Straw and Tony Blair tried to recreate this policy on zero tolerance within the streets of Britain. Jack Straws concept was to permit the police the energy to,
. . Reclaim Britain increasingly brutalised urban spaces from winos, addicts, squeegee merchants, graffiti taggers, louts and disorderly youths". . McLaughlin (2007).
During the decades there have been a number of attempts of reforming the authorities force within society through legal changes that attempts to transform police cultures and accountability within the police force. Through the idea of police reform within todays society should be concerned with accountability and responsiveness to the communities and neighbourhood where the police are serving. Within the police forces geographical area, the communities should be guaranteed the maintained of peace and become protected by their local police force within society. It really is clear that with the introduction of the new police in the 18th Century, have played a pivotal role in the general literature within policing.
Policing within England perceived various problems in society, concerning popular disorder within various classes, including the poorer members of society. The new police were from the mechanisms of social order and control within society. The working poorer class was incorporated into a life which is seen as more of a disciplined movement in the development of reform, common and extremely recurrent in the 18th Century.
The policies of the authorities were to find effective means of avoiding and reducing criminal activities within society and provide a positive method and concept of policing for those members of the city. The policies and procedures of policing have general law enforcement duties that are the concept of regular patrols and responding to general publics demands various police service.
The role of the authorities within society goes far beyond the general publics imagination and their roles change from daily. Their work regime reflects on the various roles within society that can be directing traffic to homicide. In all of these activities the officer is carrying out their role in the criminal justice system. society. Within society the authorities are expected to totally protect and govern the streets within society, the idea of zero tolerance policing was introduced to establish a safer policing regime to safeguard and ensure the safety of communities and neighbourhoods within society.
Zero tolerance policing is incredibly popular with everyone who see this as the authorities being tougher on any types of criminal activity. In July 2003 a poll conducted by ICM (2003) analysed and figured the support from zero tolerance policing showed most everyone were towards this type of policing of their neighbourhoods and communities. Zero tolerance design of policing within society can be extremely good for communities which can lead to reductions in criminal activities within the geographical area. However zero tolerance policing can have a poor effect on the communities within society, with the existence of the police occurrence can antagonise racial motivated criminal activities in communities if not policed correctly and effectively.
Within the concept of zero-tolerance policing the idea of Broken windows theory is utilised by criminologists. Kelling et al (1982) they suggest that any low-level criminal activities must be solved quickly, thus, mending the broken windows if these activities are not resolved immediately further disorders and crimes may escalate within societies community. The idea of dealing with disorderly conditions to prevent any criminal activity is present in police strategies where the police the authorities try to impose social and community order through strict enforcement. According to Cordner (1998) and Skogan (2006) community and problem-orientated policing concepts and strategies where cops tried to develop order and reduce criminal activity through the method of cooperation within neighbourhoods and community members and address recurring criminal problems within society. This technique of policing varies from geographical area across police forces, however the concept of Broken windows is utilised in preventing crime control.
Weisburd et al (2007) analysed that the idea of broken windows con be thought as,
. "One's perception of incivilities in the neighbourhood or community that has more of a direct effect than the quantity of incivilities within the neighbourhood or community". . (Weisburd & Braga, 2007).
Houses that are unkempt and aren't cared for gives people who are committing criminal activities the misconception and impression that the city does not care or value the quality of life of their neighbourhood. The environment signals the criminal individuals the freedom to steal, litter, and vandalize this geographical area within the community. Within the community when there is numerous kinds of unkempt houses this could start the communities and neighbourhoods to come in contact with numerous kinds of disorders, such as loitering and public drunkenness, that if the situation is not dealt with could exculpate and for that reason lead to more serious crimes.
. . "Neighbourhood and community disorders can influence honest people to re-locate of the neighbourhood or lock themselves in their homes, but it influences the disorderly and especially criminals to move into the neighbourhood and commit criminal activities". . (Harcourt, Nov. 1998:297).
Within communities and neighbourhoods if certain folks are committing disorderly activities such as, youths and teenagers gathering in front of the local small convenience store. These individuals can learn to consume alcohol in front of the shop and over a period of time the area is unkempt and considered to be a problematic part of society. Community and neighbourhood members are can be therefore be approached and hassled by very persistent disorderly individuals. This may lead to local members of the city feeling that their neighbourhood is no longer safe location to live. The individuals can feel intense insecurity can therefore force the individuals to stay inside of their homes, or relocate to some other area, which contributes to empty houses and can result in further deterioration of the neighbourhood.
Zero tolerance approach to policing can be defined in many ways. The hottest approach involves strict non-discretionary enforcement of criminal law regardless of the circumstances and nature of the offence. Many advocates of zero tolerance stimulate that whilst it does consist of positive methods by the authorities, it does not automatically lead to the conviction and arrest of minor offences and criminal activities within society. Advocates also claim that zero tolerance policing can reduce criminal activity within society and also reduces worries of crime in communities. Zero Tolerance policing can also drastically boost the confidence in the power of the police by the community and neighbourhood members and can also be beneficial to the city and also assist with problem orientated policing.
The concept of Problem-Oriented Policingoffers the idea that
. . the greater the police force are accurately and can therefore identify and minimize the immediate factors behind trends and patterns of crime, hopefully the less crime you will see within society (Sherman, 1993).
In order to check this theory criminal activity needs to be measured. However, the measurement of crime can be hugely problematic due to the various amount and types of crime within society and also the fact that sadly not absolutely all crimes are recorded. Therefore measuring how effective prevention methods are is also in the same way difficult.
Adams (1996) study emphasised the study on reducing youth crime in communities, he concluded that police officers can avoid the intersection of motivated criminal offenders within time and space with suitable targets of crime, the less criminal activity there will be. However the research study found that there is no obvious reduction in criminal activity by the setting of curfews in most of offenders which in the study study was targeted at youths in society.
Another researcher Kennedy (1996) suggested the technique and concept that the more cops can remove weapons and guns from public open places and hopefully deter individuals in society carrying them in the environments of criminal events, the less criminal activities there must be. Through better knowledge and for that reason application of search procedures Kennedy found that the reduced amount of gun carrying significantly reduced gun crime within society.
Problem oriented policing can have massive benefits towards the community and hopefully it will promote more involvement in the issues of public safety, and in turn can decrease the feelings of fear and escalates the feelings of safety within everyone in society. With good policing of the idea of problem orientated policing, it can promote an exceptionally positive perception of todays modern police.
In conclusion most criminal activities within society are statistically increasing and almost all crime rates and especially the rates of violent related crimes are drastically increasing throughout the globe. Statistically the key targets for blame are higher drug consumption, higher inequality of individuals in communities and racial motivated crimes, and greater option of gun and knife crimes. Within the government some politics viewpoints can favor the principle of rehabilitation and structural improvement to fight crime within society. The concept of zero tolerance and problem orientated policing aims to prevents serious crime by controlling and clamping down on the many different types of minor crimes that police officers believe can result in further criminal activities and for that reason needs the idea of using custodial sentences for first-time offences.
A major body of research and many authors on the concept policing have analysed argued that modern day policing can be seen as not being an efficient way of controlling crime which regardless the method of dealing with criminal activity is not the only real portion of what the police force do and for that reason it is known as not the distinctly role within the modern police force in society (Neyroud and Beckley 2001).
Neyroud and Beckley (2001) in their research figured the pivotal role and functions of the modern police force highlights a move around in the techniques of the principle of police and criminal reduction and prevention in society.
This concept of zero tolerance policing and problem orientated policing will hopefully allow the public within communities to feel safer within their neighborhoods and have total reliance of the police force that are policing todays society.