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Women in the man dominated progession of engineering

ENGINEERING is a guy dominated profession. Regardless of the differences in the representations of women in engineering in various countries, it is characterization and conception as a `masculine profession' remains the same (Uhi, 2003). Women are a minority in this field at both academics and the professional level more so than in other special occupations because of cultural and technological barriers for them. Furthermore, it is still generally regarded as a profession only for men (Kazemi, 2000). Being a female myself I have and I am still battling for special offers and became of this I would like to clarify this subject matter further.

It's my story that is why I'm so enthusiastic about it. .

My ambition as a young petroleum engineer was to be always a professional engineer with excellent technical knowledge in my own line of field of expertise.

At my first job with Eni Oil Company as a petroleum engineer, I put to put in enormous efforts in learning the essential ideas of petroleum engineering and to demonstrate myself. Working at the town offices a long way away from the field work was completely a throw away of time and I had not been in a position to gain the knowledge that we needed because field work is the foundation of almost infinite knowledge on well performance, field management, connections, drilling, conclusion, product measurement, and data gathering. It given contacts which were essential to good job performance on every olive oil well. But I was not allowed to just work at petroleum fields as a result of Arabic culture which inhibits the blending of women with men within an isolated place. So if I made a decision to work in petrol fields to improve myself I'll lose my children and I am outcast of the contemporary society more over I'll not be capable of geting married and begin a family group. That was absolutely disappointing. This is one of why I've chosen this research topic so that I can explore the response for this problem so that my government can take some actions to rectify this problem.

Literature Review:

Engineering is the backbone of the technology that drives the world, and the participation of ladies in dominantly male occupations usage of high education and professional type of career are terribly represented in engineering (Carnel, Oldenziel and Zachmann, 2000).

At the beginning of the twentieth hundred years it was unusual for women to enter higher education while few took up professional training. It was even more unusual for them to contemplate becoming scientists and engineers. Since then it's been improvement, but it still has been made very slow. Today the image of women's role in the world of knowledge and engineering become more and much more clear but still form only a tiny proportion of these employed in practising and managing engineering (The rising Tide, 1999).

This fact should be assessed in relation to the gendered culture of technology. Technology hasn't been neutral in terms of gender (Wajcman, 2001) and has been made culturally and historically as masculine (Cockburn, 1999). It should be noted that this argument will not presuppose the idea that technology must be masculine in its substance. Technology has always been a site for carrying on discursive problems on meanings, images and representations. The annals of technology provides circumstances of fields which were crowded with ladies in the beginning but developed into `obviously' masculine domains. The existing configuration of scientific occupations demonstrates women `operate the equipment' instead of `controlling technology, developing it is use or maintaining or servicing it' (Cockburn, 1999). In other words, women are operators pushing the switches or the secrets and focus on the device without knowing what is going on within it.

This gendered segregation in complex professions items to the fact that the prominent discourse in technology is masculine. One of the ways through which the masculine discourse of technology constructs and legitimises itself is the naturalisation of the constructed distinctions between women and men; emphasising especially the male competence, feminine incompetence in technical knowledge and skills.

Nevertheless, as Cockburn (1999) argues the low number of women in the fields of technology and anatomist cannot be described by ideas that argue that there are `essential' difference between women and men

Women and men are evenly represented in University Education but more important are variations in types of education. (Khatib, 2009) argues that at very early in the school boys communicate more pursuits in technology and mathematics, and young girls stand out in verbal skills, which resulted in over representation of men in areas of hard wire science self-discipline and engineering and ladies in education and humanities.

But who's better learner? If occupational dreams by sex and various success in mathematics and hard sciences is seen very early therefore of modelling traditional behavior pattern, it can be expected that ladies in engineering aren't as good students as their male fellow workers having lower grades and longer amount of studying. Feminine students are better in both measurements they have higher marks and shorter amount of learning. In another words women who want to make job in engineering want to do superior to men and are higher motivated (Khatib, 2009).

It can be argued that women's entry into a technical field and engineering is not an easy task. For girls to mix into male work is to transgress gender rules and to ask penalties. It consists of abandoning women's traditional worth and concerns (Lloyd, 2003)

In Libya the design of engineering being truly a male dominated field repeats. Engineering departments have the cheapest percentage of women both as students and professors. In 2002, there have been 9, 650 female technical engineers in Libya, comprising 13. 6 % of all technical engineers (Alfateh University, 2002). This ratio is the first most affordable in all occupations in all sectors. When the circulation of female students and professors within Alfatah university engineering programs is evaluated, the ratios moreover favour men. The ratio of feminine students was 12. 6 percent in executive departments in 2002, although it was 45. 8 % in Literary Sciences, 13. 9 percent in Medical Sciences, and 27. 7 % in Social Sciences in the same academic year. These percentages echo the syndication of women in academia. And in addition it has been reported that women will be more greatly represented in some anatomist departments more than others. at Alfateh school (which is the first and the biggest school in Libya) for the year 2002-2003, the ratio of feminine students was: 35 % in architectural and civil executive, 32 % in substance and nuclear engineering, 23 per cent in computing anatomist, but only 10 per cent in petroleum anatomist, These ratios obviously illustrate a substantial gap is accessible between petroleum executive and other departments. Petroleum engineering has been always considered as unattractive department, Furthermore there is also a idea that exploration and production of coal and oil is frequently appeared as an un-charmed, dreary activity.

The interesting fact regarding Libyan that women in educational life do not survey having encountered any discrimination throughout their school education and academics lives. On the other hand, they claim that they `received good and equal treatment in the educational world but this very different for women designers in professional life. There are plenty of hurdles which deter talented females from working as professionals or make it problematic for them to achieve their full career potential.

"Petroleum Engineering is an applied research more than theoretical. to be a good effective engineer you should work in the coal and oil fields which are always located a long way away from the civilian life in the desert and also with an isolated sea programs. Digging wells linking pipes and drilling pieces because of your own hand measuring the pressure and temp in the well mind and also being able to deal with the everyday exploration and drilling surprises. In other words you must be following a procedure for exploration and drilling olive oil wells step-by-step from the beginning to the level of the petrol flowing from creation pipelines" (Cunha, 2004)

Cunha (2004) also argues that there surely is no alternative way to be always a successful petroleum engineer and to gain the mandatory and essential experience in the occupations of engine oil industry this might be ideal for male technicians but it is not permitted for the females in Arab societies( Shaban, 2006). According to Shaban (2006) there are several factors for this Prevention which is often summarized in three main reasons. The fist factor is the Islamic religious beliefs which prohibits the mixing up of women and men, especially in isolated places like olive oil domains. Another factor is the Libyan culture which really is a conservative population, has strong sociable ties and special practices that refuse women's be employed by long hours outside which can expand for weeks in the case of working hours in the oil fields. Finally the Libyan legislation, which does not allow any sensible person to carry out actions or assertions contravene Islamic religion and Libyan traditions and also will not allow women to work at any kind of jobs which do not commensurate using their physical and emotional abilities.

Therefore, female petroleum engineers would not have the possibility to just work at the oil domains and because of this will never be able to gain the required expertise and knowledge to reach your goals engineers.

Soltan (2008) show that in 2007 the percentage of female designers working at the in the Libyan oil and gas companies had come to 71% of the full total graduates from Libyan universities, while 19 percent preferred to leave essential oil sector and they engage in the education sector.

He also illustrate that this ratio is employed in the company's office buildings which mainly situated in Benghazi and Tripoli the key capital towns in Libya. This surplus in the number of female engineers lacking basic experiences and lower in competence has led to neglect them in immediate or indirect way, additionally they became unreliable even to do the simple tasks. Soltan (2008) argues that the price of training engineers at school is high. Therefore if the female engineers are underused or lost to the labor force, this symbolizes a financial lost to the country.

However the management type that can be classified as Revealing to style which imply high directive and low supportive style this type of managers with high amount of job behaviour, informing subordinates what, when, and the way to do it with reduced support relationship behaviour (Northouse, 2007). This form of management added effectively to isolate and disregard the female technicians.

The present review is dependant on main two questions that happen to be: What are main troubles that the Libyan woman experienced in petroleum executive sector? And exactly how advantages can be taken of this thrown away labor force? This question branches into other questions as follows:

Petroleum engineering will it well suited for females on the whole according to their physical and mental physiology?

Dose Libyan world accept women to be focusing on desert isolated petroleum domains? What are the consequences on the female sociable life?

Why females in Libya thought we would study Petroleum anatomist? Do they know the consequences of the diction on their future?

The reason for the proposed study is:

Focus on the primary challenges that the Libyan woman encountered in petroleum engineering industry.

Find out the reasons why Libyan females choose to review Petroleum anatomist?

Find out solutions for these problems and an attempt to discover a way for taking advantage of feminine petroleum engineers.

Research Design

A survey study will be conducted aiming to achieve the targets of the study. Quantitative data will be collected through online questionnaires for a sample of Libyan female engineers and individual online interviews for a few Libyan engine oil companies' professionals and supervisors.

Online questionnaires and interviews are have several advantages such as: instant communications access worldwide, satisfactory to those reluctant to participate in face to face interview, extremely economical promptly, response reaches interviewee's convenience and lastly no transcription required. For each one of these reasons and the researcher made a decision to conduct online studies and also because the respondents live a long way away from the researcher.

Population and Sample

The research in this analysis will occur Tripoli city, in the north of Libya. In Tripoli, there are a large numbers of petroleum companies, including Libyan and multinational companies.

A wide test from female petroleum engineering will be taken to find out their own view and also from petroleum companies managers and supervisors to obtain the best answer for the study problem.

Research Tools

Questions for concentrate group discussions and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire provided by researcher were translated into the Arabic vocabulary to be make the by the questionnaire simpler to understand and corporate.

Data Analysis

Quantitative data will be analyzed by the SPSS 9. 0 computer software.

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