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Wireless Vulnerabilities Threats And Countermeasures IT Essay

Introduction to Network Security retains its give attention to the network and its vulnerabilities, protocols, and security solutions. It includes network structures, the functions of layers in a typical network, and network centered disorders including header, protocol, and authentication attacks. Bottom-up approach, it provides understanding of the vulnerabilities and mechanisms of each coating of network security.

In any stadium there is certainly network security plan in order to regulate all the occurrences happened in the stadium like ticketing advertising, consumable buys, seating arrangement among others. Utilizing the wireless technology and mobiles we can plan the top level network security in the plan, the steps taken in this are all the members in the cordless channel have one cordless mobile. Through the mobiles all the members can give the information to channel that means it is a server. All the decisions taken by the empires are by the wireless only, the video channel also very much useful in handling the stadium.

Consider the cricket stadium

Chinnaswamy, Cricket Stadium in Bangalore, INDIA.

The boundary line of the stadium is marked by the rope and here the boundary range is called as the perimeter of the stadium having field diameter of 140 to 160 yards. Report board has to display ratings and sometimes should are one third empire for keen observation and all of this setup should work with wireless technology because wired transmitting cannot be carried out over there. This stadium with a seating capacity of 55, 000.

Features of the stadium:

The entire stadium has the very sensitive digital cameras, short and long distance explosive detectors. Totally it have 29 sealed circuit television surveillance cameras, in this 29 camcorders five of them are extremely highly advanced which are experiencing the 360 degree of vision and each one of these will comforters all the corners of the stadium. Trained marshals will operate the 29 shut circuit television cams (CCTV), nearly 20 trained marshals is there in the stadium. These marshals getting the helmets which can be with sensitive cameras and delicate detectors which have the capability for within the explosives that happen to be took place around of 300 meter, this is named as OSD(on-screen display) camera which in the helmet which is directly connected to the CMS(central monitoring system) vehicle. This CMS vehicle is position outside the stadium, so whatever the marshal see and do, every single point of the stadium and things occurring in the stadium are extremely clearly observed in the CMS (central monitoring system) vehicle. The complete system works on SNMP(simple network management protocol).

Total stadium is seen in the CMS vehicle, and another important thing is the fact that empires decisions for example take the out rather than out decisions it can be displayed on the big digital screen. The runs used by the both the clubs will be displayed on the digital display screen in stadium.

At the heart and soul of the present day stadium is a communications system capable of supporting the impressive new services and applications customers are looking for. Organizing and web host events requires a complete communications foundation essential to satisfying the communication needs of fans, guests, commercial employees, service and security staff, event organizers, press and press. It really is that to provide all the components needed to create a complete, converged, secure and reliable communications system.

Security, communication and services are the main aspects at the stadiums now-a-

days. The organizers and event managers can satisfy the entire communications foundation necessary to gratifying the communication needs of followers, guests, corporate and business employees, service and security personnel, event organizers, press and multimedia. As well as the communication system which gives all the components needed to create a complete, secure and regular marketing communications system.

Converged IP/Ethernet Key:

Stadiums support the communications needs of events with much number of users. Furthermore, the encouraging infrastructure is distributed by different teams with different needs including stadium corporate and business users, advertising and press and event promoters. It is important to the make the event successful with High-speed, regular and secure communication which doesn't fails. With reliable, secure, high-performance, smart Ethernet connectivity the enterprise LANs can intelligently prioritize real-time business communications like voice, video tutorial and media services.

Voice marketing communications: Voice marketing communications are important in any environment and mainly in the stadiums. IP networks provide the strength and quality of service that speech service requires. Converging voice and data over IP maximizes network efficiency, streamlines the structures, reduces capital and operating costs, and starts up new service opportunities. It would be secure for organizations of all sizes to use voice over IP (VoIP), with IP PBXs (Private Branch Exchange). Today the global market segments have a total variety of IP mobile phones, including desktop devices with displays, solid wireless handsets, and PC-based "softphones". All of these gain access to devices operate seamlessly across the selection of IP-enabled websites and applications.

Mobility: The type of the stadium environment is mobile. Personnel move constantly on making the event successful and provide the security at the very top level. For the users, it is vital to really have the usage of key information and communication tools and allows those to roam and stay in touch irrespective of where they can be.

In WLAN IP Telephony services, we've a large choice of mobile desktops and handsets. Words calls can be placed from notebooks or PDAs(Personal Digital Assistant) using very soft devices and employees can be prepared with voice over WLAN handsets that support multiple functions extremely useful for stadium staff, such as text messaging, conferencing and a push-to-talk feature that allows sets of handsets to work as walkie-talkies.

With this, the nice coverage can rest assured in areas that are difficult to attain with general public areas. Cellular Mesh Network extends the reach of Cellular LANs firmly and cost-effectively for situations where cabling for the LAN network is not in place or very costly to deploy.

Implementing new Technologies

With a thorough communications infrastructure as the base, stadiums have the foundation on which to build an intelligent environment filled with new, media-rich applications and services with the capacity of creating new income opportunities and enhancing the overall lover experience.

Wireless ticketing kiosks: High quality seats for sports and concerts can be costly. Stadiums can leverage cellular technology to put into practice standalone, mobile kiosks that appeal to fans to upgrade their existing tickets for an event - onsite.

Digital signage directs customers to the kiosk through the event. The lover simply inserts his solution, checks a map of available chairs, runs on the touch-screen to choose the new chair and inserts his credit-based card to pay. The machine will keep the old ticket and provides the update. The stadium fills the seats nearer to the action and generates income that would have been lost. It creates a win-win for the visitor, the team and the stadium.

Stadium owners can use the same kiosk to encourage customers to buy tickets for future occasions while guests are onsite and in the spirits to buy. The kiosk can advertise upcoming events and draw in fans ready to exit after watching a game or seeing a concert. The terminal shows a list of available events and allows users to check out the same simple steps to purchase a ticket.

Additionally, stadium owners may use the kiosk to capture and accumulate valuable information about its customer bottom. The kiosk can advertise loyalty programs and contests that provide incentives for enthusiasts to provide personal data that helps the stadium better understand and talk to its audience basic.

Public security and safety: With thousands of people participating in major events at one time, public safety and security is critical. Stadiums can leverage the marketing communications system to offer digital security options including digital video monitoring and RFID (Radio-Frequency Id) tagging and traffic monitoring. For example, stadiums can improve security threat recognition with high-resolution IP cams that provide full surveillance of the public using pre-sets by section: providers can decide on a stadium section and automatically acquire all video tutorial from that section in multiple views. Operations staff can establish rules to govern recognition of left handbags, perimeter admittance, threshold crossing and loitering - getting alarms if the guidelines are breached

Stadiums can improve event response through training video feeds and word notifications that are transmitted by hand or automatically to remote PDAs, laptop computers or offsite responders. All responders can be associated along automatically via dedicated music conferencing route. RFID tags may be used to track down and dispatch the closest security personnel to a crisis situation, ensuring a well-timed response.


Vulnerabilities, Threats and Countermeasures

Wireless networking has many advantages. Network construction and reconfiguration is simpler, faster, and less expensive. But, cordless technology creates new dangers and alters the existing information security risk profile. Cordless networking alters the potential risks associated with various risks to security, the security objectives remain exactly like with wired systems, preserving confidentiality, making sure integrity, and keeping availability of the info and information systems.

Wireless Systems present a bunch of issues for network managers. Unauthorized access things, broadcasted SSIDs, unknown channels, and spoofed MAC addresses are simply a several problems attended to in WLAN troubleshooting.

Wireless Vulnerabilities, Dangers and Countermeasures

The wireless networks contain four basic components: The transmission of data using radio frequencies; Access points offering a link with the organizational network and/or the Client devices (laptop computers, PDAs) and Users. Each of these components provides an avenue for harm that can result in the compromise of 1 or even more of the three important security targets of confidentiality, integrity, and availableness.

Wireless Network Attacks

Malicious association

"Malicious associations" are when cellular devices can be actively created by crackers to connect to a network through their cracking laptop instead of a access point (AP). These kinds of notebook computers are known as "soft APs" and are created whenever a cracker runs some software which makes his/her cellular network card appear to be a legitimate access point. After the cracker has gained gain access to, he/she can grab passwords, launch disorders on the wired network, or seed trojans. Since wireless systems operate at the Coating 2 level, Level 3 protections such as network authentication and online private systems (VPNs) offer no barrier. Wireless 802. 1x authentications do aid in protection but remain vulnerable to breaking. The theory behind this type of attack might not exactly be to break into a VPN or other security procedures. Probably the cracker is just trying to dominate the client at the Covering 2 level.

Ad-hoc networks

Ad-hoc sites can create a security threat. Ad-hoc systems are thought as peer-topeer sites between wireless personal computers that do not have an access point among them. While these types of networks will often have little safeguard, encryption methods can be used to provide security.

Identity robbery (Apple pc spoofing)

Identity fraud (or Mac pc spoofing) occurs when a cracker can pay attention in on network traffic and identify the Apple pc address of your computer with network privileges. Most cordless systems allow some type of Macintosh filtering to only allow certified computer systems with specific Macintosh personal computer IDs to get access and make use of the network. However, lots of programs can be found that contain network "sniffing" features. Incorporate these programs with other software that allow some type of computer to pretend it has any Macintosh personal computer address that the cracker wants, and the cracker may easily get around that hurdle.

Man-in-the-middle attacks

A man-in-the-middle attacker entices personal computers to log into some type of computer which is set up as a smooth AP (Gain access to Point). Once this is done, the hacker attaches to a real access point through another wireless card supplying a steady move of traffic through the transparent hacking computer to the true network. The hacker can then sniff the traffic. One kind of man-in-the-middle attack relies on security faults in task and handshake protocols to execute a "de-authentication attack". This attack forces AP connected personal computers to drop their connections and reconnect with the cracker's gentle AP. Man-in-the-middle attacks are increased by software such as LANjack and AirJack, which automate multiple steps of the procedure. What once required some skill is now able to be achieved by script kiddies. Hotspots are particularly susceptible to any harm since you can find little to no security on these systems.

Denial of service

A Denial-of-Service harm (DoS) occurs when an attacker continually bombards a targeted AP (Gain access to Point) or network with bogus demands, premature successful interconnection messages, failure announcements, and/or other commands. These cause reliable users to not be able to get on the network and could even cause the network to crash. These problems count on the maltreatment of protocols like the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP).

Network injection

In a network injection episode, a cracker can utilize access tips that are exposed to non-filtered network traffic, specifically broadcasting network traffic such as "Spanning Tree" (802. 1D), OSPF, RIP, and HSRP. The cracker injects bogus networking re-configuration directions that have an effect on routers, switches, and sensible hubs. A complete network can be helped bring down in this manner and require rebooting or even reprogramming of all wise networking devices.

Signal-Hiding Techniques In order to intercept cellular transmissions, attackers first need to identify and locate wireless networks. There are, however, a number of steps that organizations can take to make it more difficult to locate their wireless access points. Easy and simple and least costly are the pursuing: Turning offthe service set identifier (SSID) broadcasting by wireless access points, Assign cryptic labels to SSIDs, Reducing signal power to the lowest level that still provides requisite coverage or Finding wireless access factors in the inside of the building, from windows and outside walls. Far better, but also more expensive methods for reducing or hiding signals include: Using directional antennas to constrain transmission emanations within desired areas of coverage or Using of indication emanation-shielding techniques, sometimes known as TEMPEST, 1 to stop emanation of cellular signals.

Encryption The very best method for safeguarding the confidentiality of information sent over wireless systems is to encrypt all cordless traffic. This is especially very important to organizations subject to regulations.

Securing Wireless Access Points

Insecure, poorly configured wireless access points can compromise confidentiality by allowing unauthorized usage of the network.

Use anti-virus and anti-spyware software, and a firewall

Computers on a radio network need the same protections as any computer linked to the web. Install anti-virus and anti-spyware software, and keep them up-to-date. If your firewall was sent in the "off" setting, turn it on.

Change your router's pre-set password for administration

The producer of your cordless router probably designated it a typical default password that allows you to create and operate the router. Hackers know these default passwords, so change it to something only you understand. The longer the password, the tougher it is to crack.

Allow only specific computer systems to access your cellular network

Every computer that is able to communicate with a network is given its unique Media Gain access to Control (Mac pc) address. Cordless routers usually have a mechanism to allow only devices with particular Apple pc addresses usage of the network. Some hackers have mimicked Apple pc addresses, so don't rely upon this step only.

Training and Educating Users

Notice that Body 1 also includes users as the fourth basic element of cellular networking. As is the case with wired security, users will be the key component to cellular networking security. Indeed, the value of training and educating users about secure cordless behavior cannot be overstated. To work, individual training and education must be repeated periodically.

The Security Policy

To maintain a secured wireless network security, we need to apply these policies, so the cordless network can be guarded by the major threats and vulnerabilities.

Computer Appropriate Use. An over-all report covering all computer use by eventstaff, including desktop, mobile, home PCs, and servers.

Password. A description of certain requirements for password protecting computer systems, the guidelines for choosing passwords, and how the password plan is enforced.

Email. This insurance plan covers the use of email dispatched from any email and received at any computer system.

Web. A specification of what browsers may be used, how they must be configured, and any restrictions which sites event staff can visit.

Mobile Computing and Portable Storage space. A explanation of who has the mobile computing and portable safe-keeping on the network, how they are supported, and what specific devices (if any) are approved for use on the network.

Remote Access. A policy stating who is able to access what information from which locations under what circumstances.

Internet. A information of your Internet-facing gateway settings, stating what is allowed in and out, and just why.

Wireless. A specs stating how cordless gain access to will be monitored on the network and how access tips will be plugged in, anchored, and maintained; who's allowed to use them; and under what circumstances.

Servers. A declaration of the expectations for machines, what services are empowered or disabled by default, and important distinctions between production, test, and development conditions.

Incident Response Plan. No insurance plan is complete until it also specifies how to proceed when defenses are unsuccessful: what's considered a security incident; who gets called; who is approved to shut things down if needed; who's responsible for enforcing applicable local laws and regulations; who talks for the business.


Workstations: Endorsement for workstation connection must be obtained as part of the standard workstation assembly process handled by IT Services, or certified departmental technical workers.

Other devices (including, however, not limited by, network components such as hubs, routers, switches, cellular access details, printers and other communication devices): Endorsement to connect devices apart from workstations must be expressly from Information Technology Services/Network Services.

Vendors/visitors can obtain a physical connection access to the University or college network through Information Technology Services on a per visit basis. This access will be awarded for a particular amount of time

Mail servers may not be run outside of Information Technology Services.



Definition and use of departmental accounts and distributed accounts should be constrained as

much as it can be. Only those functions needed by an individual should be made available through such accounts.


1. SSL should be implemented on Web machines if bank account log-in is required.

2. Run intrusion detection system where appropriate

3. Store backups offsite monthly.

4. Install firewall system where appropriate

5. Application posts must be performed every 30 days.

6. Run record integrity checker such as Tripwire daily.

7. Routinely test backups for integrity.


1. should not use any words within dictionary of any language

2. should not use any mixture of letters of a user's real name, username, initials or nickname

3. should not use any combo of an famous person's name

4. shouldn't use any combination of any spouse's, girlfriend's, boyfriend's, or child's name

5. shouldn't use any personalized numbers


1. Switch off workstations over night.

2. Work-related data should be stored on the Novell cluster in the personnel member's

home website directory or the department's work directory

3. Implement regular backups

4. Logging:

a. should be empowered to record:

i. successful and unsuccessful login makes an attempt.

ii. system and program errors.


We introduce the most notable level network security plan in the stadium to control the things taking place. So by this we can create the safe atmosphere to the audience in the stadium. We can prevent the things inside the stadium only but out part the stadium we can't, so the administration have to come frontward and present the exterior security to the stadium. Due to the terrorism episodes the government has to be very careful in providing the security to the stadium. For this each and every person who getting into the stadium is first checked out with bomb squad and also by the wireless detector. By this we provides the safety to the people and the players in the match.

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