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Wireless Sensor Networks For Greenhouse Farming Information Technology Essay

This research specializes in the introduction of Wireless Sensor Network for greenhouses in Pakistan, whether it is favorable or not; and can implement on different levels. Within this paper, the answer (wireless sensor network) is reviewed.

Our research report will describe the implementation and design of wireless sensor network for greenhouse farming in order to monitor the surroundings.

Pakistan has the largest sector of agriculture. Our economy's greatest part depends after the agriculture sector and it is the largest way to obtain production, but sometimes it also faces some essential problems like unavailability of water, soil, pests and rapidly increase of population. Increase in population causes a major problem i. e. the resources persists to be the same and land for agriculture remain limited thus it generates difficulty to provide sufficient food production and it is unable to fulfill the necessities of folks in Pakistan by using the same amount of resources.

In order to overcome land and resources problem agriculturist tried to control it by introducing hydroponic framing and greenhouse farming as a means of growing plants using mineral solutions. By using this the production of food increases and it can overcome the meals deficiency and price hike.

"Pakistan can enhance vegetable and fruit crops yield with hydroponic farming technology to overcome the meals shortages and price hike, Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Minfa) said. " [1]

In the shift of traditional framing to greenhouse framing can help in a manner that greenhouse framing require less water, lesser area for cultivation and it solves our land and water problem. An Important main factor is that people will be benefiting in a way that greenhouse farming provides manipulated environment farming so the plants can have an environment favoring for their growth. But again there are some limitations in greenhouse/hydroponic farming is that it's about to grow plants under handled environment and it is difficult to examine humidity and atmospheric temperature by installing wires in water based farming or under handled environment.

This report assists with identifying the solution of these limitations and problems by introducing wireless sensor network that can replace wired sensor network and overcome the greenhouse monitoring problem as it is a low cost solution for environmental monitoring.

Greenhouse Farming In Pakistan

In Pakistan as population keeps growing rapidly and then for the increasing population the cultivable regions are decreasing gradually, therefore the production of cultivable region is stable and we needed a technology that can actually help in this problem and provide a solution that can in fact give more production under the same area to be used for cultivation.

Green house can offer, "controlled and favorable environment for the crops to grow and yield saturated in all the times of year. " [2]

Greenhouse is similar to a residence that can allow sunlight to be entered and it has managed environment that can control various things such as air humidity, fogging, heating, ventilation, radiation, soil surface temperature, crop temperature, external and internal temperature, wind direction etc. these all variables can be controlled in greenhouse that can grow offseason food for better production.

The advantages that people can get from garden greenhouse is the fact it can provide off season food products, higher production in limited area used to create fruit and veggies, wastage of water and fertilizers got reduced, and so for the pests and diseases that are also reduced by making use of greenhouse farming.

"Fertirrigation variables can be handled to allow an optimal growth and development of the crop. " [3]

In Pakistan there are various kinds of food products that may be grow in greenhouse vegetables like tomato, capsicum, spinach, brinjal and chillies etc. , other flowers like rose, orchid etc. and many nursery vegetables and crops can be grown. There are several projects going on in Pakistan for the better production of vegetables and crop by using greenhouse technology and they are saving billions of rupees, projects like Agribusiness Support Fund (ASF), Farmer Enterprise Groups (FEGs) and Fruit & Vegetable Development Project (FDVP) are all projects that will work and spent some time working on the agribusiness sector of Pakistan.

II(A). Environmental challegnes in Greenhouse Pakistan

Pakistan is facing a lot of environmental challenges, with the cost, land and resources problems we should not forget the issues in our climate and environmental conditions that are not the same and continue to keep on varying. Pakistan environment is exactly what we can say is unpredictable. In environmental challenges things that are highlighted are air pollution, lesser implantation, noise pollution, garbage issue, cultivated area is lesser to the growth of population, and area is useless as water level goes down.

In Pakistan due to the climatic conditions, greenhouse should be structured it remains cool, it is opposite to the western greenhouse that are typically made in a way they are heating inside greenhouse for crop production, but we have to maintain cool temperature to ensure that crop produces are provided with the sufficient temperature.

There are extensive problems related to the environmental challenges that Pakistan faces enjoy it is difficult to maintain proper managed environment.

Food crops and vegetables are grown under protected environment in greenhouse that controls on larger degree of handled environment.

Climatic changes has arises many challenges for global community and it is a threat for Pakistan as well. So we need to overcome this issue to be able to increase our productivity.

II (B) Environmental Monitoring In Greenhouse Farming

Environmental monitoring in greenhouse farming is an important factor that needs to be making certain it is monitoring the temperature, humidity etc. time to time. The environmental factors as discussed above can cause harmful effects in greenhouse farming and greenhouse needs to keep in high monitoring environment so that the challenge that may arise can reduce.

For these challenges, to be solve; we have to control the environment also to control; as I have mentioned above that we need to maintain cool environment inside the greenhouse for controlling inside and outside temperature. For greenhouse we need to be sure that inside everything within manipulated like air humidity, fogging, heating, ventilation, radiation, soil surface temperature, crop temperature, external and internal temperature, wind direction etc. and we need to give immediate reaction to the monitoring of greenhouse.

In comparison to normal farming greenhouse is a success since it maintains the temperature and it does not allow ultra violet rays to be entered in greenhouse and thus it protects crops from UV. And the internal temperature has to be controlled because of greenhouse. D:\D drive thingi\sabahat\uni\4th Year\8th Semester\Research Report\RR poster\images\18 Sensor Network. JPG

Presently, the techniques of greenhouse farming in Pakistan aren't done significantly and are monitored by traditional way of monitoring i. e. wired sensors due to the unavailability of modern tools and approaches for using automated sensors that are specified as wireless sensors. Utilizing wireless sensors will let it enable that it'll make it greenhouse farming scalable. Whereas wired sensors requires large amount of wires to be deployed which is not practicable because of high maintenance cost and poor working.

Sensor Networks And Applications

A sensor network is your personal computer network Composed of a large number of sensor nodes. [4].

There are sensors that may be wired and can be wireless. These sensors are made in order to monitor physical and environmental conditions. These sensors communicate with one another and pass the info through network and also to the main server. Now the wireless sensors be capable of move in bi directions where as in wired sensors they won't move around in bi directions.

The key application regions of sensors are area "monitoring, environmental monitoring, water monitoring, agriculture" [5]

Wired Sensor vs. wireless Sensor Network

Wireless sensor networks are used in order to maintain the temperature and humidity levels inside the greenhouse.

"Wireless sensor networks are quickly gathering popularity due to the fact that they are potentially low priced solutions to a variety of real-world challenges. "[8]

There are several sensors in wireless sensor network that are attached to microcontroller and a radio module, these sensor nodes communicate collectively and "perform sensing over a big area or in inaccessible terrains. "[9]

When there is some changes in the temperature and humidity level to the marked level then alerts generated and greenhouse will be notified when the temperature and humidity drops below specific levels, the greenhouse manager must be notified by alert.

"Some wireless sensor networks are easy

to install, also, they are easy to go as the needs of the application form change. "[5]

The tiny sensor nodes, which contain sensing, data processing, and communicating components, leverage the idea of sensor networks. [4]

The major difference between both wired and wireless sensors are that the wired system is costly and the measurement system is vulnerable. The wired measurement is difficult to reallocate and it is difficult to eliminate from isntallement whereas wireless sensors are cost effective, they involves small size, they could be best answer for temporary installement.

Wireless sensors are "is an attractive and cost-efficient option to construct the required measurement system. "[10]

Problem definition

"Can Wireless sensor networks replace wired sensor networks in Pakistan?"

Sub Problems

"To concentrate on the barriers sounding the widely use of WSN in Pakistan agriculture. "

"To understand the necessity of WSN in Hydroponic Farming & GARDEN GREENHOUSE Farming; this can not only process the sensed data but also take actions. "

Wireless sensor network is a wide range of applications having various features. Our research is focusing on the challenges faced by hydroponic farming and then we will review the technology of environmental monitoring in this situation.

The Adoption of WSN in Pakistan is lesser. As it seems that in Pakistan WSN is not used widely even as we are unaware of the advantages WSN provide. And there is no such training of this new technology to get benefit from WSN.

Hypothesis / Proposition / Research Question 1:

"To recognize that WSN application is Hydroponic Farming (Bio-Blitz) as a necessity to overcome some major flaws. "

Hypothesis / Proposition / Research Question 2:

"To focus on the barriers coming across the widely use of WSN in Pakistan agriculture. "

Materials And Methods

There was a survey conducted for wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring and it has covered areas like greenhouse data safety, awareness of wireless sensor network, what they use for environmental monitoring, what exactly are the reason of switching or not switching to wireless sensor network, future of wireless sensors and their degree of understanding WSN and its configuration. These survey questionnaire were delivered to the respective groups which conducts greenhouse farming, there have been 3 groups, 8 greenhouses and storage houses and 4 were extracted from technical staff of wireless sensors that are being used in household stuff. By filling those questionnaire from folks of different background gives us a idea how people in Pakistan takes wireless sensor networks for their use.

The questionnaire is divided into 3 parts; the first one is about the non-public information of respondent i. e. kept optional, the second part is greenhouse monitoring and wireless sensors on the whole and third part comprise of questions that are related to technical and configuration of Wireless sensor network. Along with the questionnaire we've provided brief information about WSN and their application in greenhouse farming.

We have used quantitative and qualitative methodology both for the implementation of our own research. We are using questionnaire and research papers i. e. literature review, for doing our research in agriculture sector in Hydroponic farming.

We will be using almost 2 to 3 3 designs for our research as it is a practical research so we need to do research on the structure of WSN and its application in Green House farming. For that people are require to study case studies, surveys for understanding the environment related information in order to advance the farming strategies. Literature surveys which can make us to know our problem from each and every aspect, modeling of WSN in Bio-Blitz i. e. how sensors will work in the dummy so that people will propose for bio-blitz. And we'll be looking up for the results that could bring improvement in the hydroponic framing in Pakistan.

We have used


-Secondary Data (internet, Research Papers).


The results of this report are based upon the questionnaire and we justify those results on the basis of our literature review.

VII (A). Demographic of Respondents

In this survey of different group of individuals the result shows that the 49% of individuals is one of the age group of 40 to 50 years. There were 69% of individuals who didn't participate in agriculture background but still dealing with the group that works for greenhouse framing.

VII (B). WSN Awareness

Wireless sensor networks are the new technology that are novel within develop countries like Pakistan, rarely folks have use it in greenhouses, there may be vast adoption in household things like sensor based doors and alarm system etc. survey implies that only 59% people have understanding of it and 7% have used it and know the configuration whereas; 29% people after reading the attached information have said that they appreciate it and can recommend the implementation of this to their greenhouse and storage house for monitoring the surroundings.

VII(C). Environmental monitoring methods

In our survey questionnaire we've asked that the type out method they are employing for the environment monitoring so disappointedly there were 89% of folks who uses traditional method of monitoring, whereas 7% who actually know and implement in their greenhouse/ storage houses and 4% people who never monitor their environment because their greenhouse were low cost greenhouse and they can't afford any system to be implemented for environment monitoring.


Our report demonstrates for greenhouse farming in Pakistan we should improve our method of monitoring the humidity, temperature and soil temperature etc. under such a handled environment. It is our necessity to boost in this field as we have mentioned earlier that Pakistan's major economy originates from agriculture sector and it needs a lot of improvement in conditions of use of technology, a technology that can increase the productivity and makes life easier. In our country people are reluctant to look at new technology, our statistics demonstrates there are number of people who are not using wireless sensor because they're unaware of it, just what exactly our government needs is just to bring awareness in people and conduct their training so that they can handle working with Wireless sensors and leave that traditional way of monitoring environment.

This research showed that greenhouses in Pakistan are not using wireless sensors because of the insufficient awareness, the adoptability of new technology is lesser and there is no training to allow them to instruct and manufacture sensors in Pakistan. The barriers coming across the widely use of this cost effective technology is just having less knowledge upon this technology and sensors domain.


The wireless sensor network will be the sensors that allow component sensors to communicate and send data with no disturbance whereas wired system make the monitoring difficult as there are wires that are installed making monitoring a bit difficult, secondly it is costly and it requires installment, whereas if we talk about wireless they can be easy to install, and they are ideal for momentary network setup and WSN are affordable, there have been many people who thought that wireless sensors would be costly as compared to wired nevertheless they were wrong and on providing information concerning this domain they came to learn and said that they can recommend it with their management for monitoring environment inside the greenhouse. "wires would disturb the standard operation of the surroundings to monitor. "[7]

Wireless sensor network are incredibly easy to install plus they install on temporary basis. One can take it off anytime.

"Rapid progress in our ability to accurately monitor and control irrigation scheduling in nursery and greenhouse environments. " [6]

Our research is just a little contribution towards betterment and contributed to make a technology to be use in our agriculture sector to increase productivity. The reason of choosing this topic was to make sure that through this research we donate to obtain something useful at minimal cost for greenhouse in Pakistan by using wireless sensors. by applying this technology inside our agriculture sector we'd improve it and make it next generation agriculture because our 80% of production originates from this sector and we have to make it stronger.

Wireless sensor network with the greenhouse technology would make an improved option to choose for agriculture and also to use WSN for sensing the data which was not possible before.




[1]https://groups. google. com/group/pakfruitexport/browse_thread/thread/ad940b53c41604d7?hl=en

[2]http://www. phdeb. org. pk/TechnologiesTechniques/greenhouse_technology. php

[3] Andrzej Pawlowski, Jose Luis Guzman, Francisco Rodrguez, Manuel Berenguel, Jos Snchez and Sebastin Dormido, "Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control", Sensors 2009 www. mdpi. com/journal/sensors

[4]http://www7. informatik. uni-erlangen. de/~dressler/lectures/seminar-sensornetze-ss05/paper-ying-miao. pdf

[5]http://www. rimtengg. com/iscet/proceedings/pdfs/misc/176. pdf

[6] John D. Lea-Cox1, Andrew G. Ristvey2, David S. Ross3 and George F. Kantor4, "Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks for Irrigation and Nutrient Management in Nursery and Greenhouse Operations", SNA Research Conference Vol. 54 2009


[8] I. John Paul Walters, Zhengqiang Liang, Weisong Shi, and Vipin Chaudhary"Wireless Sensor Network Security: A Survey", Security in Distributed, Grid, and Pervasive Computing Yang Xiao, (2006 Auerbach Publications, CRC Press.

[9] Leong Boon Tik, Chan ToongKhuan, SellappanPalaniappan, "Monitoring of the Aeroponic Greenhouse with a Sensor Network", IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL. 9 No. 3, March 2009.

[10] TeemuAhonen, ReinoVirrankoski and Mohammed Elmusrati, "Greenhouse Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network", University of Vaasa, Finland

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