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Wireless sites: Security

WIRELESS networks, as a consequence to ease of unit installation, cost benefits and the ability of connectivity, hence communication anywhere, has made it the most popular way of network setup in this 21st century. With increase in the necessity of mobile systems, the current electronic market in addition has been flooding with laptops, pdas, RFID devices, health care devices and cordless VOIP (Speech over IP) that are WIFI (Wireless Fidelity) enabled. With the 3G (Third Generation) and 4G (Fourth Generation) cellular wireless standards, mobiles mobile phones are also WIFI enabled with high acceleration being provided for data upload and download. Nowadays a malls and open public areas not talk about even metropolitan areas are WIFI suitable, permitting a person to gain access to the internet or even contact a remote control server in his office from anywhere in that city or even from his mobile phone while just strolling down the road.

But as every good technology has its own drawbacks so will the wireless networks. Just as regarding wired networks also, they are prone to intruder attacks or more often called Wireless hacking thus reducing the sites, security, integrity and personal privacy. The basic reason behind this is when the cordless network was initially presented, it was thought to have security and personal privacy built into the machine while transmitting data. This misunderstanding had fundamentally arisen because cordless system transmitters and receivers used pass on spectrum systems that have indicators in the huge transmission band. Because the RF(Radio Consistency ) receivers which at that time could only intercept signal in the slim transmission strap these wireless signs were possibly considered in the safe zone. But it didn't take long to invent devices that may intercept these cordless impulses as well. Hence the integrity of data send over cellular networks could be easily jeopardized. With all the development of technology so has the methods and ways that a network can be attacked are more vicious.

Fig-1: WLAN (Cellular Local Area Network)

Security of cordless networks against such vicious problems is hence the become the top priority for the network industry. It is because not all systems are similarly secure. The security depends on where this network can be used. For example, if the requirement of the cellular is to give a cordless hotspot in a shopping mall then then your security of this is never worried about but if it's for a corporate and business they may have their own security authentication and user access control applied in the network.

II. WHY Wireless network networks are inclined to attacks?

There are number of reasons why cellular networks are inclined to malicious attacks. They are the most challenging aspects to eb considered whenever a secure cordless network should be established.

a) Cordless network are available networks: The explanation for this is that there is no physical mass media protecting these networks. Any packet transmitted and received can be intercepted if the recipient gets the same occurrence as the transmitter receiver employed by h cordless network. Gleam common misunderstanding that if the authentication and encryption are properly used the network will not be compromised. But how about the emails send back and forth prior to the authentication and encryption is necessary ?

b) Distance and Location: The attacker can attack from any distance and location and is merely limited by the energy of the transmitter. Special devices have been designed which can attack even short distance sites such the Bluetooth

c) Identity of the Attacker: Attacker can always remain unidentified because he runs on the group of antennas or other compromised systems before reaching the actual aim for. This makes cellular network attackers very hard to monitor.

Some of why such episodes are so common is due to easy option of information from the one and only the Internet, user friendly cheap technology and of course the desire to hack.

III. wireless hacking - step by step

To understand the security protocols for cellular networks currently used, first it's important to understand the techniques through which a fragile network is attacked with a hacker. These are also called wireless intrusion methods.

A. Enumeration:

Also know as network Enumeration, the above all step to hacking which is locating the cellular network. The cellular network could be any specific target or perhaps a random vulnerable network that can be compromised and used to attack other end systems or sites. This feat is achieved by utilizing a network discovery software which are actually a day's available online in a lot, to mention a few are Kismet and Network stumbler.

In order to have more information about the network, the packets that are send and received by the network can sniffed using network analyzers also called sniffers. A lot of information can be acquired by using this including Ip, SSID figures even very sensitive information such as Apple pc address, kind of information as well as the other networks that this compromised end system.

Yet another problem confronted is the utilization of network mappers which can be used to find he servers that run these compromised systems hence also attacking these servers which could then influence proper functioning and information transfer between these servers and also to other networks linked to it.

B. Vulnerability Assesment:

This is mainly done by the hacker y by using a vulnerability scanner. After the hacker has found the network he want to strike he uses this program to be able to detect the weakness of the computer, personal computers networks or even applications. Following this the intruder decided on the most possible method of entry into the network.

C. Means of Entry:

A. Eaves Dropping and Traffic Examination:

This is the form of attack which makes use of the weak encryption of the network. This always compromises the integrity and security of the network. All attacks such as war driving, conflict chalking, packet sniffing traffic analysis all fall under this category

B. Subject matter Modification:

These attacks are mainly used to modify the info that is send across a network. The adjustment might be supplying wrong information or also adding destructive content to the data packet send form one train station to another. This compromises the integrity and privateness of the Data.

C. Rogue Devices:

Theses could be devices such as APS, request software programs which has been compromised by the intruder and made to function relating to him/her. Such devices can compromise the integrity of the network as well as the data send across it. These devices can also establish reply episodes and also make the network associated to malicious content websites or information.

D. Treatment Hijacking:

This harm occurs following a valid time has been founded between two nodes to through the AP. Within the attacker poses as a valid AP to the node hoping to establish connection and a valid node to the AP. The attacker can then send destructive or false information to the node that the bond has already been proven with. The reliable node believe the AP has terminated he reference to it. The hacker may then use this connection to get hypersensitive information from the network or the node.

E. Man In the Middle Attacks:

This is similar to that of a time hijacking attack however in this case this can be a rogue AP that works as valid consumer to the genuine AP and valid AP to the respectable client. Once this has been established the rogue AP can gain access to all information from the, intercept communication, send malicious information to other clients through this.

These are just few of the security hazards and episodes in wireless conditions. Together with the advancing solutions there a lot more possible security hazards that can be experienced by these systems in the foreseeable future.


With the vulnerability of wireless networks, security and countering o such malicious attacks have grown to be one of the top priorities addressed by companies, corporate as well as research fields in IT. There are many pints to be considered when the security of any network can be involved the main f that happen to be : authentication, accountability and encryption.

A. Authentication:

This is very familiar to anyone by using a network in his / her workplace or even accessing he email on the internet and the very first part of promoting a secure cellular network. . There many different ways of authentication and many different tools and methods have been used over time in order. . make the principal process, more reliable and fool prof. A few of the most widely used methods are :

a) Individual name and Password combinations generally thought as something a person has learned.

b) Smart Greeting card, RFIDs and Token technologies also called something a person has

c) Biometric Solutions such as finger printing, retina scanning which may be generally defined as something that a person is or are.

Now the consistency of every one of these methods may differ depending on the level on which it's been implemented. In the case very low level authentication s only one kind of method I used to secure the network. One of the weakest types of authentication can be considered as the utilization of only ID credit card or token technology as if a person looses this, he is able to bargain the security of the network. Even in the case of account the effectiveness of the authentication is merely as effective as the complexness of the info used as username or even security password. People generally want to use passwords that are easy to keep in mind but also recognized to many other people in that corporation or even outside Among the much better ways of protecting a network through authentication is by using biometric solutions such as fingerprinting or retina scanning. But of course technology has advanced to the extend that even fingerprints or even retinas can be forged. Nowadays a number of ways of combinational methods are being used as authentication with high security premises or sites guarded by more than two or three types of authentications.

B. Accountability

After a user has been authenticated to make use of the network it is important to own t able to track the computer usage of each person using the network so that incase of any foul play the person sensible can be held accountable. When the systems were really small it was super easy f a network administrator to track the usage of every person on the network. But with huge systems, remote access facilities and undoubtedly the wireless sites it has become quite a difficult task. As stated earlier, there are numerous ways that a hacker can make himself difficult to locate. Many software's and firmware's have been created which is employed in conjecture with the authentication protocols inoder to make the wireless network more secure and strong.

C. Encryption:

This is the most crucial part of building and obtaining a strong cordless network infrastructure. he steps generally used for this are :

a) Methods predicated on general population key infrastructure (PKI)

b) Using high little bit encryption scheme

c) Algorithm used for encryption must be popular and shown to be very unbreakable.

Current cordless network security alternatives can be categorized into three broad categories:

a) unencrypted solutions

b)encrypted solutions

c) combo.

In this newspaper with emphasis as discussed in the abstract will eb on encrypted alternatives for cellular security. A short discourse on the unencrypted methods has still been given for basic understanding.

I n the situation of encryption founded security protocols, a details description is given about the ones that are commonly used in wireless LANS in this newspaper. After which the latest and growing technology will be discussed. The three major years of security as existing today and also cited in many papers, journals and newspapers are the following :

1) WEP (Wired Equal Privacy)

2) WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Gain access to)

3) WPA2

The image below shows the part where the cordless network security protocols enter into play which is of course the link level:

Fig-1: 802. 11 AND OSI MODEL


A. MAC Enrollment:

This is one of the weakest methods network security. . MAC sign up was essentially used to secure college or university residential sites as college rentals or dorm rooms. The essential way to do this is to configure DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) to lease Ip to only a know set of MAC address that can be obtained manually by running automated scripts on the network server so essentially any person with a valid registration can enter into the network. Time logs also can't be generated because which accounting of the logs become impossible. Previous but not minimal since this technique of securing was in essence used for turned and wired systems encryption was never included.

B. Firewalls:

In this technique, network authentication is one through either HTTP( Hyper words Transfer Protocol), HTTPS or telnet. When an authentication requirement is received by the network it is directed to the authentication server. On validating the authentication the firewalls add guidelines to the IP address provided to that user, This Ip also offers timer attached to it to be able to point the rule periods of this IP address. When carried out through HTTPS it is basically a session centered and a secure process. But any other process which is modified from a turned wired network firewalls does not provided encryption.

C. Cellular Firewall Gateways :

One of the most latest as well as significantly fool proof method in unencrypted alternatives in Cellular Firewall Gateways or WFGs. This is a single wireless gateway is included with firewall, router, web server and DHCP server and it's really because of most these being in one system which makes WFGS an extremely secure wireless security solution. When a user connects to the WFG, he/she receives a Ip form the DHCP serve. Then the web server ( HTTPS) asks for a customer name and password which is performed by the PHP ( Hypertext Preprocessor). Address spoofing and unauthorized systems are avoided by PHP as the DHCP logs are constantly compare with the current modified ARP(Address Resolution Protocol). This verifies that the computer that is connect to the network is using he the Ip that has been leased to it by the DHCP server. Then this information is passed on to the authentication server which in turn adds rules to the Ip. Up ne the expiration of the DHCP rent the trainings are terminated. The WFGS hence make the authentication and accountably pat f the network more reliable, But as this is also an unencrypted method it lacks the main accept of security.


This protocol was written in accordance with the security requirements necessary for IEE 802. 11 cellular LAN protocol. IT is designed from the wired LAN system and hence the security and privacy provided by it is also equal to the security and level of privacy provided a wired LAN. Through it's an optional part of wireless network security, it'll give a substantially secure networking environment.

The algorithm found in WEP is known as the RC4(Rivest Cipher 4). In this method a pseudo arbitrary number is made using encryption tips of random measures. That is then bound with the info bits using a OR(XOR) functionality in order t make an encrypted data that is then send. Too look at in more at length :

A. Sender Aspect:

The pseudo arbitrary number is produced using the 24 tad IV(initialization Vector ) given by the administrator network and also a 40 r 104 little bit hidden knowledge key or WEP key distributed by the cellular device itself. Which is then added together and offered to theWEP PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator). At the same time the plain words along with an integrity algorithms merged together to create ICV (integrity check value). The pseudo number and the ICV are then mixed together to form a cipher wording by mailing them through an RC4. This cipher words is on the other hand combined with IV to form the ultimate encrypted concept which is then send.


B. Receiver Side:

In the receiver side the meaning is decrypted in five steps. Firs the preshared key and the encrypted concept are added along. The result is then exceeded through just one more PRNG. The producing number is transferred through an CR4 algorithm and this resulting in retrieving the simple text message. This again combines with another integrity algorithm to create a new ICV which is then compared with the previous ICV t check for integrity.


C. Brief Descriptions:

a) Initialization Vector : are basically random bit the size f which is normally 24 bits but it addittionally will depend on the encryption algorithm. This IV is also send to the recipient area as it is necessary for decrypting the data send.

b) Preshared Key: is more or less like a security password. This is in essence provided by the network administrator and is also shared between the access point and everything network users

c) Pseudo Random Amount Generator: This in essence creating a unique secret key for every single packet directs through the network. This is done by using some 5 to at most 13 individuals in preshared key and also by using arbitrarily taken personas from IV.

d) ICV and Integrated Algorithm: This is utilized to encrypt the plain content material or data and to produce a check value which may be then likened y the recipient side when it generates its own ICV. That is done using CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Code) technique to build a checksum. For WEP, the CRC-32 of the CRC family is used.

D. RC4 Algorithm:

RC$ algorithm isn't just proprietary to WEP. IT can also be called a random generator, stream cipher etc. Developed in RSA laboratories in 1987, this algorithm uses rational functions to be specific XOR to add the main element to the data.

Figure 5: RC4 Algorithm

E. Drawbacks of WEP:

There a wide range of drawbacks from the WEP encryptions. There's also programs now available on the market which can easily hack through these encryption giving the network using WEP vulnerable to malicious problems:

Some of the issues experienced by WEP:

  • WEP will not prevent forgery of packets.
  • WEP does not prevent replay disorders. An attacker cans simply record and replay packets as desired and they will be accepted as legitimate
  • WEP uses RC4 improperly. The keys used are extremely vulnerable, and can be brute-forced on standard personal computers in hours to minutes, using widely available software.
  • WEP reuses initialization vectors. A variety of available

Cryptanalytic methods can decrypt data without knowing the encryption key

  • WEP allows an attacker to undetectably change a note without knowing the encryption key.
  • Key management is lack and updating is poor
  • Problem in the RC-4 algorithm.
  • Easy forging of authentication text messages.


WPA was developed by the WI-FI alliance to defeat most of the drawbacks of WEP. The benefit for the use is that they do not have t change the hardware when coming up with the differ from WEP to WPA.

WPA process gives a more complex encryption in comparison with TKIP and also with the MC in this it also really helps to counter against bit flipping which are used by hackers in WEP by using a method known as hashing. The amount below shows the technique WPA encryption.

Figure 6: WAP Encryption Algorithm (TKIP)

As seen it is nearly as identical to the WEP strategy which has been increased by using TKIP but a hash is also added before using the RC4 algorithm to generate the PRNG. This duplicates the IV and a duplicate this is send to the next step. Also the duplicate is added with the bottom type in order to generate another special key. This combined with the hashed IV is used to generate the sequential key by the RC4. Then this also added to the info or plan text utilizing the XOR functionality. Then the final meaning is send which is decrypted by using the inverse of this process.

A. TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol):

The confidentiality and integrity of the network is looked after in WPA by using better data encryption using TKIP. This is achieved by using a hashing function algorithm and also yet another integrity feature to be sure that the concept is not tampered with

The TKIP has about four new algorithms that do various security functions:

a) MIC or Micheal: That is a coding system which enhances the integrity of the data transfer via WPA. MIC integrity code is basically 64bits long but is divided into 32 items of little Endean words or least significant bits for example let it be (K0, K1). This technique is actually used to make that the data does not get forged.

b) Countering Replay: You can find a definite kind of forgery that cannot me recognized by MIC which is named a replayed packet. Hackers do this by forging a particular packet and then mailing it back again at another occasion of their time. In this method each packet send by the network or system will have a series number attached to it. This is attained by reusing the IV field. In the event the packet received at the recipient comes with an out of order or an inferior sequencing quantity as the packet received before this, it is considered as a reply and the packet is hence discarded by the machine.

c) Key mixing up: In WEP a secure key is made by linking end to end the base layer which is a 40 bit or 104 bit sequence obtained for the wireless device with the 24 little IV number from the administrator or the network. In the case of TKIP, the 24 little bit basic key is changed by a momentary key that includes a limited life time. It changes from one destination to another. That is can be explained in Phase one of the two phases in key mixing.

In Stage I, the MAC address of the finish system or the cordless router is mixed with the temporary bottom key. The temporary key hence keeps changing as the packet moves from one destination to some other as MAC address for any router gateway or vacation spot will be unique.

In Stage II, the per packet collection key is also encrypted by adding a little cipher using RC4 to it. This maintains the hacker from deciphering the IV or the per packet sequence number.

d) Countering Key Collision Attacks or Rekeying : This is essentially providing fresh collection of keys which may then be employed by the TKIP algorithm. Temporal keys have already been mentioned that includes a limited life time. The other two types f secrets provided are the encryption keys and the get better at tips. The temporal keys will be the ones which are being used by the TKIP privateness and authentication algorithms.

B. Advantages of WPA:

The advantage of WPA over WEP can be clearly grasped from the above information. Summarising a few:

a) Forgeries to the info are prevented by using MIC

b) WPA can actively avoid packet replay by the hacker by providing unique sequence amount to each packets.

c) Key mixing up which produces temporal secrets that change at every train station and also per packet series key encryption.

d) Rekeying which provides unique keys for that consumed by the various TKIP algorithms.

IX. WPA2-WIFI PROTECTED Gain access to 2

WPA 2 is the as the name suggests is a modified version of WPA in which Micheal has be changed with AES centered algorithm known as CCMP rather than TKIP. WPA" can operate in two modes: some may be the home mode and he enterprise setting. In the home setting all he users are requires to employ a 64 bit go away phrase when accessing the network. This is actually the sort encryption found in cellular routers used at home or even in very small offices. The house version gets the same problems which can be experienced by users of WEP and the initial WPA security protocol.

The organization version is of course for employed by larger company where security of the network is too valuable to be compromised. This is predicated on 802. 1X cellular architecture, authentication construction know as RADIUS and the another authentication protocol from the EAP ( Extensible Authentication Standard protocol ) Family which is EAP-TLS and also a secure key.

A. 802. 1X:

Figure 7: 802. 1X Authentication Protocol

In order to comprehend the security protocols used in WPA2 it is important know a bit about the 802. 1X architecture for authentication. This is developed to be able to defeat many security issues in 802. 11b protocol. It provides much better security for transmitting of data and its key power is of course authentication You will discover three important entities in 802. 1x process which is your client, authenticator and authentication.

a) Client : is the STA(station) in a radio area network which is wanting to access the network, This station could be set, lightweight or even mobile. It of course requires customer software which helps it hook up to the network.

b) Authenticator: This is another name given to an AP (Gain access to Point). This AP receives the signal from your client and send it to the network that your client requires connection after that are two parts to the AP i. e. the non control interface and the control dock which is more of the rational partitioning than an actual partition. . The non control dock receives the signal and check its authentication to see if this client is permitted to connect to the network. When the authentication is approved the control dock of the AP is opened for your client to hook up with the network.

c) Authentication: RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial in Consumer Service) server. It has its own customer database table gives an individual that has usage of the he network, this makes it easier for the APs as customer information database do not need to be stored in the AP. The authentication in RADIUS is more user structured than device based. RADIUS makes the security system more scalable and workable.

Figure 8: EAP/RADIUS Message Exchange

B. EAP (Expanded Authentication Protocol):

The key management standard protocol found in WAP2 is the EAP (Prolonged Authentication Process). It may also be called as EAPOW (EAP over wireless). Since there are numerous versions of this protocols in the EAP family it'll advisable to find the EAP process which is absolute best suited for that one network. The diagram and the steps following it will identify how a ideal EAP can be selected for your network :

a) Step1: By checking out the prior communication documents of the node by using a network analyser program, it could be easily diagnosed if any malicious or considerably compromising packets has been send to other nodes or received from to her nodes to this node.

b) Step two 2: By examining the prior logs for the authentication protocols used, the most commonly used authentication protocol used and the most successful authentication protocol can be realized.

Figure 9: EAP Authentication with Method Selection Mechanism

c) Step 3 3: The features of the node itself need to be understood like the operating system used the hardware software even the certificate availability of the node.

After all this has been analyzed the following steps can be run to be able to ascertain and execute the best option EAP authentication standard protocol:

1. Start

2. if (communication_record available) then

read communication_record;

if(any_dubious_packets_from_the_other_node) then

abort authentication;

go to 5;


if (authentication record available) then

read authentication record;

if (successful authentication available) then

read current_node_resources;

if (current_node_resources comply with

last_successful_method) then

method = previous_successful_method;

go to 4;


if (current_node_resources comply with

most_successful_method) then

method = most_successful_method;

go to 4;


go to 3;


go to 3;


go to 3;


go to 3;

3. read current_node_resources;

execute method_selection(current_node_resources);

4. execute authentication_process;

5. End


RSN was developed with reference to IEEE 802. 11i cordless protocol. This interconnection can offer security from very average level to advanced encryption schemes. The primary entities of a 802. 11i is same as that of 802. 1x protocol which is the STA (Customer), AP and the AS (authentication server). RSN uses TKIP or CCMP is used for confidentiality and integrity security of the data while EAP can be used as the authentication standard protocol.

RSN is a link covering security i. e it offers encryption in one wireless station to its AP to from one wireless station to another. . It does not provided end to end security IT can only be utilized for wireless systems and in the case of hybrid networks only the wireless area of the network.

The pursuing are the features of secure network that are backed by RSN ( WRITE Guide Quantity HERE) :

a) Enhanced customer authentication mechanisms

b) Cryptographic key management

c) Data Confidentiality

d) Data Origin and Authentication Integrity

e) Replay Coverage.

A. Stages of RSN:

RSN protocol operating can be divided in the five different phases. The shape as well as the steps will illustrate the phases in short:

a) Finding Phase: This can also be called as Network and Security Capability breakthrough of the AP. In this phase the AP advertises which it uses IEE 802. 11i security plan. An STA which wants to communicate to a WLAN by using protocol will up n getting this advertisement communicate with the AP. The AP provides a choice to the STA on the cipher suite and authentication device it wishes to utilize during the communication with the wireless network.

Figure 9: Security State governments of RSN

b) Authentication Phase: Also called Authentication and Relationship Phase. Inside the authentication stage, the AP uses its non control part to check on the authentication proved by the STA with the AS. Some other data other than the authentication data is blocked by the AP before AS return with the meaning that the authentication provided by the STA is valid. During this phase the client has no immediate reference to the RADIUS server.

c) Key Technology and Syndication: In this phase cryptographic keys are produced by both the AP and the STA. Communication only occurs between the AP and STA in this phase.

d) Protected Data Transfer Stage: This phase as the name suggest is where data is moved through and from the STA that initiated. the bond through the AP to the STA on the other end of the network.

e) Interconnection Termination Phase: Again as the name suggests the info exchanged is solely between the AP and the STA to tear down the bond founded been them.

Figure 9: RSN Association

The Supplicant, the authenticator and the authentication server will be the three entities that be a part of an RSN authentication process by the end which the authenticator and the supplicant would have successfully verified each others individuality. That is done with the aid of a 4 Way Handshaking process.

B. Initial Authentications:

The preliminary authentications require quantity handshake between the STA and the AP, the AP and the AS and last but not the least STA and the AS. In the end these handshakes a MSK (Get good at Time Key) is generates which is magic formula key distributed by the three celebrations. MSK can be used by STA to derive the PMK (Pairwise Master key ) almost all of the time using the EAP process. In the server aspect the AAA(Authentication, Accounting and Authorization Key ) is used to derive the same PMK by the AS. Sometimes the AS and the STA may use a Pre distributed key as PMK. . After all this a 4 Way handshaking is done to successfully setting up the RSN.

C. 4-Way Handshaking:

The 4 Way handshaking process only commences after a common PMK has been selected by the STA and the AS. This PMK is utilized to derive a PTK ( Pairwise transient key). A new PTK is generated for each program between the STA and the AS thus making sure very successful secure communication at almost all times.

D. CCMP Protocol:

CCMP (Counter Setting with Cipher Block Chaining MAC Protocol) is one of the types of confidentiality and integrity protocols utilized by RSN. The other one as mentioned before is the TKIP protocol. CCMP uses AES as its cipher method just like WEP and WPA uses RC4. The method of operation used by CCMP is known as the CCM method which in turn uses CTR for confidentiality and CBC-MAC (Cipher Block Chaining Macintosh personal computer) for authentication and integrity.


The use of wireless devices at residences are a noiseless a standard practice. With an increase of and more instruments becoming WI-FI prepared its possible to connect almost all electric equipments to a radio AP which is often purchased at calm acceptable prices from the market today. All a person must installation WHN (Wireless Home Network) is a radio Access point such as a cordless router or a gateway and of course cordless network adaptor in each device.

But with such ease of setup and efficiency the security of the networks are occasionally affected with the homes becoming the victim of a bad malicious strike by an intruder. There many ways that the security of the home network can be compromised such as eavesdropping on private files owned by the family, communication disruption, using the wireless network by handling it to execute Denial of Service (DOS) attacks on some other network or server.

Security for WHN is a lot more complex activity due to variety of devices that are or could be connected to the network Because of this inconsistency the level of securities required by each of this devices could be form very low level requirements t high level requirements. So rather than using a sole Standard a construction is more important for WHN which includes various algorithms which is provided to these devices depending n its storage space, power requirements and of course computational capacity.

A. Types of Attacks on WHN:

a) This is attack is the easiest form of any WHN in which a person seated very near the broadcast diameter of the wireless AP can pick up signals by using passive APs that cannot be detected. If these details is not encrypted then it compromises the confidentiality of the systems also the personal privacy of the house. This form of invasion is recognized as Eavesdropping

b) The information received thought eavesdropping can be improved by the hacker and send back to the receiving people hence compromising the integrity of the data. That is called Tampering.

c) The information received while eavesdropping can be stored by the hacker and at another time resend to any f the receiving celebrations or even the sender called Replaying

d) A hacker can buy total control over the cellular network which will enable him grab or even kill important info on that network. They can also send incorrect or even dangerous information to receivers which can be connected to other sites which then compromise the confidentially, integrity and privateness of the sites also. This episode imposes high security risks and is known as Impersonating or Masquerade Attacks

e) The hacker floods the cellular network with packets or even interconnection demand at such an easy rate that the network cannot process this. For this reason who owns the network also ill not have the ability to access any information or v=even communicate with other people using the network.

B. Steps to follow to Ensure WHN Security:

a) Step 1 1: Obtaining Trust and Giving Authorization: Whenever a new devise is bought by the own, its important to determine a trustworthy romantic relationship with these devices. This functionality is does indeed by the AS. Regarding devices which low security level authorization the Mac pc address of the machine will suffice as each device has its own unique Apple pc address. But in the case of high security requirement devices such a laptop, Personal computer etc. it important t have a much a more robust authorization system.

The Resurrecting Duckling is a type of trust relation establishment where the new device will only answer to the owner that firs to provided it with is secure key. This is known as imprinting the devices. Now before device is snooze to its stock settings the device will only response to this particular owner.

The trust marriage can be established between the recently purchased device and the AS by by hand injecting the secure key in to the device. After this marriage has been establish, the gain access to control is provided to this device by giving he gain access to control list on AS.

b) Step2: Providing Authentication and Key Management: As the house network is split into low level and high level security devices there will vary methods for each one of these to achieve authentication from the server.

In the situation of a minimal security need device, the AS simply looks up id the MAC address of the devices requesting connection r service could it be the MAC ACL in case found the device is authenticated.

But for high security need devices this isn't the case. First of all a the AS provides to each high security device connected to the network with a top secret key more commonly known as a security password that can be changed routinely to ensure more better security. So when a device wants to contact a network or get service from a server it provides the AS through the AP with it s secret key. The AS on approving this key gives authentication to these devices and provide the communicating gatherings with a procedure key that can be use for secure data copy by the two devices.

c) Step3: Avoiding DOS by secure Routing: DOS problems are not quite common in WHN because they are in other more vital sites such a s commercial health care or battlefield systems. But in the event, DOS can be avoided by making sure that all the devices or node in the house network transferring information through one another has an organization key which may be used to identify each other, encrypt the outgoing information and also check the integrity of the incoming information. .

d) Step 4 4: Confidentiality, Integrity and Freshness for Communication Safeguard: Following the two devices have been authenticated and linked securely a secret treatment key provided by the AS may be used to go through secure communication between the communicating parties.

C. SDS (Security Delegation service ):

In a WHN, thre are peaceful lots od devices that would not have very high computational capabitlities. In cases like this it wile b problematic for these deivces to establishs end to end secure cable connections using IPSEC or TLS protocols. The SDS protocols thus helps these devices to determine secre interconnection by delegating the handshaking protocol work to devices that high computational capacities.

The cellular device requiring to make a connection first contacts the SDS server using LLS SA ( Website link Covering Security Security Relationship ) Thisis form packet encrypton provided at the hyperlink level of the wireless home network. The for amt f the hyperlink layer packet is really as shown below :

Figure 10: Hyperlink Layer Security Relationship Format

After this interconnection has been establishe the SA inturn makes connection with the distant server using IPSEC/TLS handshaking protocols thus building reference to the distant server. The SDS server then informs the cellular device that the connection ahs been establish. Upone receiving these details, the cellular devices exchanges information through the SDS server to the remote server.

Figure 11: Secure Communication Route with SDS Server

The SDS hence allows interoperability between devices, option of devices, reduces of utilizing comples security techniques hence reducing he cost noticeably.


Bluetooth was mainly developed for the purpose f short range wireless marketing communications and also because of he exponentital increase in may mobile an d portable cordless devices. It works at afrquence of 2. 4Ghz ISM(Industrial Scientific and Medical Band). Bluthooht is very popular communication meehtod because eof its low per ingestion, good rate of data transfer at aclose promities and alsofree data transfer beween devices.

A. Security Features Applied By BLuetooth:

Blutooth tehcnoloy originated with facet of security at heart. There are various feature put into practice in bluetoht which makes it an almost secure program for communication and information copy :

a) Stealth: That is the main feature of Blutooht Systems. Its a simple mechanism, in which a device can agree to or refuse connection when in dicoerable and in connectable function. In the Diecverale method, the deve is seen by other bluetoth devices but other devices can only just cnnect to it if it authenticates the demand form the othe blutooth device. In Non Discoverable mode, the bluetooht device will nto even bradcast its presnence in the network. In Connectible mde, the bluetoth device is currently specifically tuning in for interconnection from other devices while in Non Connectible setting it refuses every sort of connection that is requested to it. This four strategies are now a adyas a part of evry mobile phone or portable hand held device.

b) Freqeuncy Hopping : Bluetht broadcasts beween the range of RF ( radio frequencies ) which are 2. 4000 and 2. 4835 GHz. 79 differnet route are hence available for frequency hpping which is performed about 1600 times in another based on a timing collection. This helps to prevent signal jamming alos screen of traffic by third parties

c) Security Methods :You will find four different security settings whhch ae utilized by Bluetooth. Three of which are being used by legacy devices. IT will be explained in detail further int eh newspaper.

B. Bluetooth Variables :

a) BD_ADDR( Bluetooth Device Address ) is a distinctive 48 bit address

b) The device name is user-friendly and can be up to248 bytes long. This can be set by an individual.

c) PIN(Go key ) is the key used t authenticate tw Bluetooth devices. This can hae diffenet beliefs at different levels.

d) Blass of blue teeth devices ( little field ) can be used to identify the sort of device and the assistance it provides

C. Security Structures :

The Security Manger is the mst important enitiy in the security structures ofa blue teeth device. The architecture layout is really as shown below :

Figure 12: Blue Tooth Security Architecture

Security manager performs the following operation :

a) Storing of secutiy related information of all services (Service repository) and the devices in the range (Device Data source )

b) Accpets or denies acces requests to the Bluetooth device.

c) Makes sure that aitehntication /encruption of data has been completed befre the connection has been founded.

d) Setups respected romantic relationship between ESCE(ExternalSecurity cOntrol Entity) by prcessing the inputs of the user

e) Pin querying and pairing of twhich the PN access can be produced by ESCE or a credit card applicatoin.

D. Key Paring And Authentication :

When two bleutooth devices come in range with one another and I th are required to connect to one another the Bluetooth key paring procees is intiated. n tshi process each devices selects a randonw numer and comnines it using its MAC address. After using the XOR features of the numer the the initialization key it, the randm quantity is sendo of the toeh the other device. Not the two unit comn both random number mutually using modulo 2 adtion to create acombinationkey wchih is know now to botht devies, There is a mutual authentication process done by the communication devices to check on if nbt the tips ae he same.


For authentication of BLye Tooth devices unders ommuncaitin an effort response schemi used. Within this shceme both devices connecting with each other ae the claimant and the verifier. Claimant I the deice which is reqeustng interconnection and hence wanting to prove its identity while the verifier is the device checking he identification of these devices tryyin to produce a interconnection, In cahlenge response system, the claimant transmits a authentication question shape to the verifier inorder to establish connection. The verifier then directs ca challenge shape back again to the claimant. Both of them then performa predefined algorithm and the claimant sends its results back again to the verifier which inturn acceps or enies he connection.

E. Device Trust Levels:

There are three different trust level whicha re constantly managed by Bluetooth devices. A tool which is cnnecte t bluetooht wll land in these categories :

a) Trusted Devices: That is a device which has previously established reference to the blutooth devie a. The link key ahs beeb stored and also has been already been provided to the device and it's been marked as a reliable device.

b) Untrusted Device :This deice has also been given the link keu as well as the link has been stored but it includes noe been marked as a trusted device.

c) Unknown Device:This could be a deive which includes neve proven any reference to the blue tooth device previously. Needless to sya theereis little or nothing known concerning this device and it si regarded as an untrusted device.

F. Service Security Settings:

The legacy service security settings:

a) Security Mode1: No authentication is necessary by the user no security methods are performed

b) Security Setting 2:Security technique are processed only following the route esablisment authentication has been received. That is basically application centered security in which case different application may use different levels of security. That is also called service level security

c) Security Method 3: I this function the security prcdures are completed before the route ahs been founded for communication. That is known as website link level security.

The legacy devices use PIN (Personal Identificatin Numebr Pairing ) for suthentication. This is 16 bti string which is arranged through to byt eh devices which is als used for encryption during communication between the unit.

d) Security Method 4: This methos uses SSP (Secure Simple Plannin) which is similar to service leel security used in sEcurit Method 2. Within this methos however instrad of using ht ePIN quantity a go away key access pin must be typed in by an individual before establishing interconnection. This pi number is provided by the Slave device itself. This isn't used for encryption of communication data.


A. WIMAX Security:

IEEE 802. 16 or WIMAX (Worldwide interopearabilty for microwave gain access to ) is ne of the latest cellular procols n the wireless networks scenario. This provides high bandwidth plus more wider area coverage as compared to ath ealready exiting cellular networks. When Wimax has been deployed you will see hot areas in the location when compared with the hot areas available in metropolis which is litmited to an extremely small area.

Figure 12: WIMAX Security

Wimax security structures and security mechanisms are tranquil varied from that of WEP, WPA and other exiting security protocols. Below provides brief explanation of Wimax security structures :

a) A secure communication is established between your BS( foundation sation) and SS ( subscriber station) utilizing the secure information provided by the SA.

b) The info between your BS and SS is encrypted by using Encapsualtion process which first determisn the cryptogrhic suites which are supported by the SS.

c) Previous but not the least the privateness key managemtn protocol which turned out secure key to nly those services he SS is suthorised to own from the base place.

Security Mechanisms found in Wimax :

a) The first step offers authotrisa to the communicating SS. This is done in fosu steps. First the SS demands connection with the BS by snd its submission along with its authentication information. Upon obtaining the informations, the BS transmits back an authorization submission messee requesting he BS for th Authorisation Key which is secrest key shred bewenn SS and BS. The SS is then autrized using the certificate which is provided by the BS. After Authorisation of he SS, BS activates the Authorisation key and then autorisaion reply messge which contains a few encrypted messes for the SS to estimate its other temporal tips which can be requird during data copy.

b) Int eh second step TEKs are exchanged between SS and BS that are required for encryption of data.

c) The past step is to encrypt the info passing between your SS and BS by using he TEK key that happen to be kwnon to both the SS and BS.

B. Zigbee Technology:

Zigbee is the latest wirless network technology predicated on wireless mesh networks. This can be used for short range marketing communications. The wirless mesh networks known for its high relaibilty and even more wider area coverage comes into good utilization in Zigbee Technolgy. In addition, it is very popular as a result of low cost of installation as well as low electricity requirements. Some fo he impeortan areas where Zigbee has been placed into use are :

1) Telecommunications Applications

2) Building and Home Automation

3) Personal Home and office care

The Zigbee Security structures contains a security protocol at each level of its protocol which is Apple pc Layer, Network covering and Request Layer

a) Macintosh Covering Security :

The security as of this layer is performed through AES encryption. A message integrity code is determined t the Mac pc layer using the payload and data header which could be 4, 8 or 16 bytes long. There is also a frame quantity provided for every frame to comprehend the sequence of the shape. This can help in knowing when the body is absent and or even when the frame is replayed in the case of foul play. The main element establishment and he selection of safety t be used is done by a higher covering.

b) Network Part Security:

Network part in Zigbee uses its own secure network key while transmitting frames and also offers keys to gain access to incoming deals. The incoming plans are scanned in order to check the authenticity of the packets.

c) Program Level Security:

The main operation of program level security s to prvde key establishment, travelling of keys an deen device management. TI takes care of the outging casings that require protection incoming frames that need to be checked as well as steps that necessary to deal with and compute a key safely.


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