Posted at 12.14.2018
Perception is important since it keeps us linked to the planet. Perception keeps us alive. We are able to sense danger with a constant key mediator between stimulus and response. The data gained from perception is simply as important as any of the other senses, if not more important. Perception we can see danger from a far, helps us discriminate and identify objects we face with everyday.
Perception is actually a pattern-recognition process in conjunction with some functional consequences for the system which performs such pattern-recognition. (Moreno, P. 67) Perception involves the attention and the visual cortex of the brain working together. Our eyes will be the organs offering visual sensory input to the brain. Light from the outside world reflects off objects and passes in to the eye through the pupil. It is focused by way of a lens then strikes the retina behind the attention. The retina is effectively a two dimensional selection of cells. These cells are photosensitive, and output different signals to the brain according to the type of light that stimulates them. The retina therefore offers a two dimensional image called a retinal image. It offers an instant assimilation of information from the surroundings to help guide our actions. (Schwartz, P. 30) At higher levels of processing, perception and cognition are closely interrelated, which is why we're able to see and understand the events, and objects around us. However, sometimes "no-one can perceive 100% of most things sometimes" (Brignall, P. 2) perception isn't always reliable as it pertains to illusions.
The perception process includes selection, organization, and then interpretation. Selection happens when we choose the stimuli through our visual sense. Next thing is organization, and one of the biggest contributors was Gestalt. The Gestalt's principle explains our visual system has its rules when organizing images. Therefore, we may easily see patterns presented using ways. Gestalt's principle listed the five different patterns we encountered. Similarity occurs when objects look similar one to the other. People often perceive them as an organization or pattern. Continuation occurs when the attention is compelled to go through one object and continue steadily to another object. The viewer's eye will naturally follow a line or a curve despite if there is a gap among. Closure occurs when the viewer automatically can tell what the object is even when there is an incomplete or an area missing in the picture. Our visual system can automatically perceive it all together even if there are missing information. Proximity occurs when single elements are put so close together that they have a tendency to be regarded as a group. When the unity of the elements comes together, it could be perceived as one huge object. Finally, figure and ground occurs when an object (figure) stands out from the background (ground) this will effectively make the image clearer. (Saw, P. 1)
Studying Gestalt's theory gives us a knowledge of how our visual system works when we perceive the world. Gestalt said, "The complete is greater than the sum of the parts, " which eventually led to the give attention to the relationship between the parts and the complete of the composition. Because the visual world is so complex, our mind is rolling out strategies for coping with the confusion. The mind tries to find the simplest treatment for a problem. One of the ways it can this is to form groups of items which may have certain characteristics in keeping.
The last step of the process is interpretation; we attach meanings to the stimuli. The meanings may differ depending on our beliefs, values, expectation, and other personal factors. Hence, the reason no one perceives an object the same way.
In addition, it is important to acknowledge the reason why our eyes are found in the front and not the side. The position of our own eyes gives us the power for depth perception. Some animals have eyes privately of the face and even though they lack depth perception, they can easily see a wide angle of the environment in which we can't see. Depth perception is the most essential tool in surviving. For a good example, depth perception we can tell if an automobile is coming closer and therefore we take precaution and re-locate of just how. However, a bird for instance has eyes privately of its head. When a car drives by the bird will lack the capability to tell what lengths the car is from it. Because of this, sometimes there are dead flattening birds on the streets.
Another important aspect of perception is the fact that it helps us to detect, discriminate, identify. Detect requires less effort, it is really as simple as locating a candle light at night. While discriminate is a little more difficult, we have to learn to determine whether two stimuli is the same or different. Identification will require more effort from our bodies; we must learn to identify an accurate object, a good example is deciding the stripes of snake to determine which is safe and which is poisonous. (Sekuler, P. 112-115) Every day we must discriminate and identify unknown objects we cross by and we succeed by using our visual system. Our visual system analyzes all the top features of an object, the shadings, the colors, the scale, the shape, to be able to recognize the known and unknown objects. By adopting and gaining knowledge from our visual sense, it allows us to live in harmony with the objects and deal with events all around us. It can help us complete life without bumping into too many things, to find and acquire the right food, use power tools, calculate how far an object is from us, how fast it is travelling, how fast our company is travelling and exactly how much if any to alter our course to avoid colliding with other objects.
Our eyes are very unique, only humans and certain animals may use their sight to its full capacity. We reach start to see the world as a 3d sphere with a higher degree of accuracy. The fact that every eye has a slightly different view of the same object helps us judge the length between us and the objects all around us. Depth perception is one of the main aspects of survival that will depend on our vision. Convergence is when both eyes concentrate on an object helping us determine the length between us and the object, which is obviously important inside our daily lives. We take this natural skill for granted while it's one the most fascinating advantages we have as humans. Inside the 19th century Ewald Hering developed something for convergence. "Hering proposed a mechanism to take into account eye conjugacy known as Hering's law of Equal Innervation. According to the law, both eyes move around in a conjugate manner because receive identical signals from the brain. "(Moschovakis, P. 1118) While we consider our sight as only vision, with disturbance in one of our eyes it might lead to serious psychological disorders.
Optometrist, are doctors specializing in eye care, dealing with anything from prescribing vision glasses to minor surgeries. Unfortunately in situations like lack of sight in one or both of the eyes due to a serious condition or a devastating accident doctors are usually helpless. "Sudden lack of sight in a single eye or the loss of an eye often necessitates immediate and comprehensive medical and psychological intervention. From this loss, patients will experience sudden lack of depth perception, decrease of visual field and, most regularly, depression. " (Ihrig, P. 593) Such serious problems with valuable organs can change our lives forever. People face these issues frequently because of this of conditions of the work and especially during war as soldiers. Acquired Monocular Vision Rehabilitation (AMVR) is a program designed to help people who have newly developed issues with one of the eyes. "The program organizes vision rehabilitation, eye care professionals, and social caseworkers to help patients cope with the obstacles they face when suddenly transitioning to monocular vision. " (Ihrig, P. 594) With help, patients with newly acquired monocular vision can learn skills to help them overcome depression and get the most out of the situation.
Monocular vision impairs movement of the body over all. "Monocular viewing brings about the increased loss of binocular visual cues and causes strategic changes in visuomotor processing using altered safety margins. " (Jackson, P. 237) people who have monocular vision have altered perception of objects. Instead of converging with both eyes to see information on depth, the image is come up with all together by one eye to be perceived for what it is. Objects appear different size they are actually which in return alters how a person would normally find out the distance between your person and the object. Therefore perception of the world around the person changes drastically. Obviously binocular vision is going to be more advanced than monocular in nearly every way, that's why naturally humans have two eyes.
Monocular vision comes with an advantage in persistence tasks predicated on seeing things as a whole by bringing everything together. A model of obvious persistence based linear systems supports that idea. "If we assume that the purpose of the visual system is to discover change, then the various counter - intuitive findings become less counter - intuitive. Factors that improve vision will enhance the likelihood of detecting change. Bright lights, long lights, and binocular viewing make it is easier to discover change. Because persistence is the failure to identify change, these same conditions lead to shorter persistence estimates. " (Wolford, P. 162) This idea makes sense, people that deal with sight through one eye would need to focus more on getting around, all the pressure about the same eye means a person would have to struggle to see everything in accordance with survival meaning concentrating on what they perceive at the time to sort things together to see the key picture. In this case binocular vision would certainly promote higher focus on the encompassing which in return would result in much better attention to details and seems like it would help the mind process more info. In that case every other visual task is obviously superior with binocular presentation.
"Beyond its relevance to perceptual theory, the analysis of monocular information about egocentric distance is important because a large proportion of the overall population is effectively monocular. An acceptable estimate of the proportion is 15-20%, including those with anisometropia, amblyopia, and strabismus as well as one-eyed individuals. "(Bingham, P. 145) Several experiments were performed to distinguish precise difference in depth perception. Research in perception of distance with monocular vision showed expected distortions within results. "The most common result has been that distances are systematically underestimated on the basis of monocular optical flow. When estimates are plotted against actual distances, the slope of the judgment curve is significantly less than 1. Different distortions have been found when estimates derive from static binocular information. In cases like this, near distances tend to be overestimated and far distances underestimated. (Bingham, P. 146) Results also showed that touching an object as feedback to strengthen perception of distance was not at all beneficial to monocular viewing. "In conditions representative of normal everyday reaching, reaches performed with monocular vision reflected compression of perceived distances and decreasing resolution of distances as distance increased. On the other hand, binocular reaches were accurate and relatively precise. "(Bingham, P. 165)
"To conclude, previous studies that have investigated the consequences on reach-to-grasp movements of removing binocular vision have yielded conflicting results. By one account, monocular vision ends in impairments to size-constancy mechanisms and produces, as a result, underestimates of target distance and object size. By a second account, removal of binocular visual cues brings about increased visuomotor uncertainty and produces strategic changes in visuomotor safety margins. In today's study, we demonstrate that evidence consistent with each one of these accounts can be observed within an individual study. "(Jackson p. 240)
Most of the time, the interpretation of the received energy is constant with it. Sometimes, however, our interpretation is incorrect and perception is not necessarily perfection. These misinterpretations are called illusions. An illusion is a sensory perception that causes a false or distorted impression, or a misrepresentation of a "real" sensory stimulus Whenever we observe an illusion, we perceive something that will not correspond to what actually exists in the real world. They convince us of things that are not true. In many visual illusions, the perceived top features of an object such as its size or orientation are influenced by local objects. On the other hand, the existence of nearby, fixed objects often enhance the perceived spatial location of another object. This "visual attractor illusion" was better when the attractor object was task-relevant rather than irrelevant and diminished as the experiment progressed, suggesting that it was modulated by attention. We claim that the brief appearance associated with an object (the attractor) distorts perceptual space and allures the perceived location of your neighboring object. Alternatively, localization of any masked target may be weighted toward the position of your concurrently presented visual transient. (Makovski, P. 5) We can perceive the continuity of an object or event by integrating spatially/temporally discrete sensory inputs. The mechanism underlying this perception of continuity has intrigued many researchers and has been well documented in both visual and hearing modalities. It is important that the illusory continuity of the vibration can't be distinguished from the physically continuous vibration. These results therefore claim that the continuity illusion is common to multiple sensory modalities and this it reflects a simple principle of perception. (Kitagawa, P. 2)
Many common perceptions involve illusions although people are not aware of it. Illusions are misperceptions that are perceived by most people, and derive from a specific stimulus received under certain conditions. The exemplory case of this vision illusion is that we often seem to take pleasure from being tricked in this manner! Magicians use illusions. In fact, magicians are sometimes referred to as illusionists. Famous magicians, like the fantastic Harry Houdini, admit that what they do is to make illusions. They don't do the impossible, they just seem to be to do it. Also, people have the illusion of depth in paintings, stereoscopes and holographs, even though they are presented to us on two-dimensional surfaces. Another good example of an illusion which we you need to for granted is the film. Actually there are two illusions involved whenever we go to see a movie. The foremost is that there is really nothing moving even as experience the film. That's not quite correct. What's moving is some still photographs on the reel of film. Each is exposed for only a very short time and our eyes and brain to not start to see the separate still shots but see figures on the screen moving quite naturally. The next part of the movie illusion is the sound. When an actor speaks we fully accept that what are coming from his or her mouth. The fact is that the sounds are in fact via speakers well off aside of the screen and possibly even in the rear of us. Yet as the actor walks across the scene we accept that what are via his or her mouth from some other spot on the screen-a misperception, and therefore an illusion.
Perception of color is achieved in mammals through color receptors containing pigments with different spectral sensitivities. The procedure of color perception generally is all in the mind, with the eye containing the equipment which responds to light so the brain can process it. Color perception is very important to many animals because it can be used to distinguish more of the natural environment, and because colors are often used as sign. For example, poisonous mushrooms are sometimes brightly colored as a warning. Color perception changes across the visual field. Sensitivity to red-green color variations declines more steeply toward the periphery than sensitivity to luminance or blue-yellow colors. It is thought that decline is due to the increasing size of receptive fields of parvocellular retinal ganglion cells and the unselective or random contribution of L- and M-cones to the receptive field surround. ( Hansen, P. 12) Besides, Newton suggested that colors be arranged in a circle with white at the center and the spectral colors/hues (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet) around the circumference, where in fact the more "desaturated" a color, the closer it is to the guts of the circle. Newton also had the thought of representing confirmed color's quantity by a little circle drawn about the position of the color on the top circle, and the region of the tiny circle was thought to be proportional to the amount of the color. According to Newton, the positioning of an assortment of colors could be dependant on calculating the center of gravity of the weighted individual components. Newton's color mixture law states that if two color mixtures yield the same sensation of hue, then your mixture of both of these mixtures will also yield the same hue sensation. Also, his synonymous law of equilibrium in color mixing refers to the mixture of two hues to yield an intermediate hue. (Grassman)
Furthermore, People perceive colors categorically. But what is the role of the surroundings (or nature)--specifically, language--in color perception? The consequences of language along the way people categorize and perceive colors have been regarded as minimal, but recent evidence suggests that language may indeed change color perception. Compared with colors from the same lexical category, discrimination of colors from different linguistic categories provoked more robust and faster responses in the left hemisphere language regions, particularly when the colors were presented in the RVF. ( Paul Kay).
According to the dictionary, Perception, in psychology, is described as the mental organization and interpretation of sensory information.