Keywords: cold battle causes, cold conflict usa, ussr and us
When considering the issue of who was simply accountable for the cold battle, we must take a look at what the partnership between the USA and USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was like prior to the start of World War Two. By the end of the nineteenth century Marxism in European Europe was becoming more and more national. The imperial implications of both Marxist thought and Russian record provide the wide-ranging background and framework for understanding soviet participation in cold battle. "The soviet worldwide had been shaped by a history that was drastically different from that of the west ". Including the Bolshevik trend, the civil conflict, and the knowledge of World War two all contributed to a distinctive soviet point of view. Furthermore following the revolution of 1917, soviet Russia assumed the responsibility of growing the Marxist subject matter. "Stalin seen himself as the keeper of the Marxist trust, it could emancipate mankind". In addition historians such as Zubok and Constantine suggest that history offered the Russians the reason why to see themselves as saviours of the world. Due to the events that occurred before the Freezing War we can easily see this. Furthermore historians thought that "all of them would make his own intricate cold war voyage, guided by both deceptive suns of empire and revolution".
Many historians think that it was because, america and USSR ideologies were so different and believed that to be the actual cause because of their fear of each other. For instance Russia was communist which position the needs of the state of hawaii ahead of personal human rights and was ruled by way of a dictator. THE UNITED STATES was a capitalist democracy which valued freedom and assumed that communism was something to fear. Americans noticed themselves as champions of the free world, and tyrants such as Stalin displayed everything the United States opposed. At the same time, the Soviets, who believed that capitalism exploited the public, saw the United States as the oppressor. To emphasise the difference between the two countries we can see this by looking at their visions of the world. For example Stalin saw the entire world as divided into two camps: imperialist and capitalist regimes on the one side, and the Communist and intensifying world on the other. In 1947, President Harry Truman also spoke of two diametrically opposed systems: one free and the other bent on subjugating other countries. Although World Battle Two was designed to be the " War to get rid of all wars" it was not, the repercussions and the aftermath of what the war had triggered, it just lead to a more apprehensive atmosphere all over the world, and since we can easily see this was defiantly the case when considering the connection between your US and USSR. Although relations went on a downward spiral after World Conflict Two it had not been always this way, these were once allies during World Battle Two. However things modified after WW2, once the risk of Hitler was over, they became fearful of every other, Russia's hatred for capitalism deepened when they was not rewarded for their work during World Battle Two, instead they truly became focused back again on by the entire world that they was the hazard the "red scare" began to intensify. Furthermore historians have advised that because of the great sacrifice of the Russian people in the next World War, possessed resulted in the soviet market leaders to believe that the allies owed them a great deal. The "cold war surfaced from the ruins of world warfare two" Stalin likely to be rewarded for their contribution in the warfare especially when Russia lost 27 million people. His principal activity was to get back the territories lost to Russia through the war and trend from 1915 to 1921: the Baltic's, Finland, Poland, and Bessarabia. This goal was nearly fulfilled by the end of 1945.
The Cold Warfare was an interval of East-West competition, tension, and conflict lacking full-scale war. It had been characterized by mutual perceptions of hostile purpose between military-political alliances or blocs, both systems thought that they were doing the right thing. The situations that occurred before and after World Conflict two possessed an irreversible impact on how both these countries perceived one another.
Furthermore Stalin's foreign policies contributed a massive total the tensions of the Chilly War. His purpose, was to take benefit of the military services situation in post-war European countries to improve Russian influence, this is perceived to be a threat to the US and everything they stood for. Stalin was impressive in his goal to get territory, with victories for example in Poland and Romania. For the, the burkha, this success looked as though it were the start of some Russian aggressions. The extreme extension in Eastern European countries was one of the key reasons for the reason for the cold war. Therefore it can be questioned that if the Soviets hadn't followed the expansionist plan, then your Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan may not have been initiated to keep Stalin and his get spread around of communism at bay.
Furthermore Stalin's own persona could be seen as another cause for the wintry battle, for example when Ivan Maisky and Maxim Litvinov were appointed in 1943. Maisky wrote that the main soviet goal after the war would be to ensure a durable tranquility enough for the USSR "to become so powerful" that "no blend of power in European countries or in Asia could even think of intimidating her". This suggest that even though Russia hadn't received the rewards they was wanting from World Conflict two and the contribution of the west in the civil war in 1918 all contributed to Stalin's view on spreading Communism and being strong enough to not be threatened or have a concern with being invaded by any country. In addition Stalin's actions to wanting to spread communism throughout the world, lead to procedures like the china policy which historian Odd Arne Westad deducted that "Joseph Stalin china plan in nov 1945 was as aimless and incoherent as his Western european insurance plan. However much he hoped to avoid post battle confrontation with america, Stalin could. . . not make his head how to achieve this purpose. " This view offers important insight in to the impact of Stalin's persona on the roots of the cool war. In addition Historians have also thought about whether another cause for the cold battle was Stalin's poor diplomacy. For example the diplomatic pressure he placed on turkey brought on him great problems with the west and later in 1948 his strive his try to remove Tito in Yugoslavia through "communist democracy" backfired and only weakened their position. The errors Stalin made and the regulations he created confirmed him to be intense and attempting to expand USSR'S borders spreading they way of communism. This in the end created more of a hysteria and dread in US, therefore being truly a main contributor to the reason for the Cold War.
In addition when the Traditional western democracies and the Soviet Union achieved up to discuss World War II, and the type of the post-war settlement deal at meetings in Tehran 1943, Yalta Feb 1945, and Potsdam July-August 1945. At these meetings the Soviets decided to allow the countries of Eastern European countries to choose their own government authorities in free elections. Stalin agreed to the condition only because he thought that these newly liberated nations would see the Soviet Union as their savoir and create their own Communist governments. When they didn't accomplish that, Stalin violated the arrangement by wiping out all opposition to communism in these countries and setting up his own governments in Eastern Europe, causing the situation to intensify. To help make the situation worse, Stalin deepened the estrangement between your United States and the Soviet Union when he asserted in 1946 that World Warfare II was an inescapable and inevitable result of "capitalist imperialism" and implied that such a battle might reoccur. This resulted in a rise in world disperse fear of communism credited to Stain in essence going towards the idea of another World warfare, which could have lead to a nuclear warfare. In addition lots of the tensions that existed in the Cold Warfare can be attributed to Stalin's plan of Soviet growth. It is necessary to consider that the role of Stalin can be seen as a catalyst to the Cool War
Furthermore the situation including Poland was that Poland had always been the key state needed that to kick off an invasion against Russia. He also needed Poland to truly have a pro-Soviet government. Therefore over time, he set up a communist government in Poland. He said that his control of Eastern European countries was a protective solution against possible future episodes to the west it seemed to them that Russia's frame of mind went against all the pledges that Stalin acquired made at Yalta mainly that Stalin would allow free elections in the eastern Western expresses. Russia argued it had a need to maintain a sphere of influence in the region for security reasons. This brought on further anxiety over Stalin's policy of expansion. This then lead to the Western world to introduce the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, both of which searched for to arrest the spread of communism.
The initiation of the Marshall arrange for European recovery, however from Stalin's perspective the marshal plan was a huge scale make an effort by the United States to gain sustained influence in European countries. The marshell plan was a significant obstacle to Stalin perspective of another European countries as well concerning German- soviet relations. Thus he previously to safeguard his borders but in so doing it induced him to appear to be an ambitious bully towards countries that could not follow his business lead. For instance when authority of Czechoslovakia hesitated before concluding their contribution in the Marshall plan it outraged Stalin, he told Czechoslovakia immediately to cancel the strategies to receive help from the united states, Gottwald (innovator of Czechoslovakia) complied. This just shows the intimidation Stalin was eager to put other nations through to keep them communist and not wade to the side of the united states. The countries that complied with Stalin and agreed not to take part in the Marshall plan, their economies deteriorated, while those of the western European states began to recuperate and see improvement in their economies. To Stalin this is challenging of his authority in Eastern European countries, therefore his next actions was to give attention to Czechoslovakia, the communist group in Prague carried out a coup in February of 1948. Soon after the coup the Czech leader was replaced by the leader of the Czech communist get together, Gottwald. Furthermore it was situations like these that triggered outrage in the western world, the intimidation of a different country to not take a chance that could help their economy, to stop them countries from distracting from just how of communism rather than capitalism. Thus if Russia had not behaved and acted this way due to their expansion insurance policy, it might not have ever acquired out of control and there would have been you don't need to apply the Marshall plan which lead to the implementation of the Truman Doctrine.
To further America's fear of communism, because of their aggressive foreign insurance policy, between 1943-46 most european Communist people were at a top in the years immediately following World War Two. The People from france Communist Get together, for example, won almost 30% of the vote in 1946 elections. Greece was in crisis they were at the brink of civil war which finally occurred in 1946 following the Greek communists tried to seize electric power in 1944 anticipated to a rise in communist calf guerrillas. This led to an economic crisis which at that time was being reinforced by Britain however this was no longer possible. Therefore America stepped in because they feared that the people would look more towards communism through desperation. This then led to the advantages of the Truman Doctrine in March, 1947. The Truman doctrine released that was to get to Greece and Turkey in the explained context of a general conflict against communism. The US provides $400 million as help to help Greece in their economical crisis. However it can be said that in many ways, the Truman Doctrine proclaimed the formal declaration of the wintry war between your USA and the Soviet Union. In addition, it solidified the United Claims' position regarding containment. However, even though this shows that US started out the war, but if Russia had not been aggressively increasing their empire and distributing communism then it would not have brought on the united states to intervene and expose the Truman doctrine because of the concern with communism.
By 1946, america and Britain were making every work to unify all of Germany under european guideline. The Soviet Union responded by consolidating its hold on Europe by creating satellite television expresses in 1946 and 1947. One at a time, communist governments, devoted to Moscow, were setup in Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. Stalin used Soviet communism to dominate 50 % of European countries. This created more of a mistrust in the USSR and the united states relations leading to the build up to the Cool Conflict, and evidently showing that the roots of the situation was the Russia's growth policy.
In relation to the prior point made to show Russia's expansion during the time leading up to the Cold conflict, we have to take a look at Winston Churchill "Flat iron Curtain". Churchill said that "From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an flat iron drape has descended across the continent. Behind that brand lay all the capitals of the historic expresses of central and Eastern European countries -Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia. " Therefore displaying the level of how fast Russia was growing through Eastern Europe. In addition, it emphasis the split between Russia and the US creating more of an estranged marriage between the two super forces, because it is demonstrating the get spread around of communism and how quick it was happening. The United States feared the most was the " Red Scare "that was becoming much more serious with each invasion of the countries within Eastern European countries.
Stalin also setup the Berlin Blockade with the theory that he could force western electric power out of Eastern Berlin, which only escalated the problem. "The cold Warfare was the courageous and essential response of free men to Communist hostility. " Schlesinger believes that the soviets were wrong and that the USA was trying to avoid the USSR from heading any more. Another view is T. A. Bailey who also presumed that the Soviets were to blame; he feels that they always acquired one more arrange for world domination up their sleeves.
In addition further actions needed by Stalin which was contributing to the end cause being the chilly warfare, was the Berlin Blockade on the 24th June 1948. Stalin made a decision to blockade West Berlin by lowering off road and rail links. To break the blockade armed forces would have to smash the blockade, however this would be observed as an work of war which Stalin new US wouldn't do. He assumed they would forego their zones and leave the whole of Berlin in soviet hands. However Stalin didn't gain control of Berlin. Although he failed in this case, it still antagonised America creating them to retaliate. Therefore scheduled to Stalin wanting to gain a foot hold in Europe and keep aggressively expanding. This implies that each action Stalin made were all catalysts in creating the Cold War.
In addition the relationship between Russia and the united states escalated further to the extent were another proxy battle was occurring, which was the Korean Warfare (1950- 1953). The Korean Battle was a military services conflict between the Republic of Korea, recognized by the United Nations, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and People's Republic of China (PRC), with air support from the Soviet Union. The battle began on 25 June 1950 it was a result of the political section of Korea by contract of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific Conflict. In 1945, following the surrender of Japan, American administrators divided the peninsula across the 38th Parallel, with USA soldiers, occupying the southern part and Soviet troops occupying the northern part. It was soviets foreign insurance policy that lead to them being involved in the Korean War however it was China who in physical form participated in the warfare, while Russia was performing behind the displays to not actually cause a physical conflict between them and the united states. By being mixed up in war it just triggered the united states to become more cautious with Russia and demonstrated how much effect and electricity the USSR acquired gained to get that "control" over China and other countries which were also communist.
After considering the events leading up to the cold conflict, the short term and long term causes when focusing on the US point of view we see that their view was flawed because they feared what they didn't understand, they did not know how a country could be ran under a communist administration but still work, specially when the US system was capitalist. The US's response was predicated on their misunderstanding and concern with USSR which was more commonly known as the red scare. For example the US and Britain thought that just before WW2 they seen the USSR as more of a danger than Hitler at that time.
Overall some historians such as the Traditionalist thought that Russia was to blame for the Cold War. They assumed that the Soviet-led governments desired to overthrow existing capitalist governments, that can be reinforced by the fact that Russia's foreign policy was competitive expansion. Furthermore the US and its allies were just responding to the hazards of the Soviet Union, even as we can easily see by the Truman doctrine. I trust traditionalist's idea due to the fact that Stalin and his successors were persuaded that the legitimacy with their rule depended on validating Marxist-Leninist predictions of world trend. If they thought that they might only do well when these predictions were completed they were to be blamed for the cold battle. Russia actions of aggressive extension throughout Eastern Europe support this.