Microorganisms, as the name implies, are extremely minute organisms that happen to be impossible to be viewed by the naked eyes. Because of the size, they are mostly interpreted as being single-celled organisms and include different types of organisms in their classification bacteria, infections, fungi, archaea and protists. Also, there are some animals which are so small that they have to be visualised under microscope for their structure to be determined, hence are termed as microscopic pets or animals. While the majority of the microorganisms, because of the capacity to interrupt with the standard cellular activities of other living microorganisms, are considered largely to be pathogenic, they are also advantageous in a huge number of ways and their role in characteristics makes them important for the total amount of the ecosystem.
When different sorts of organisms interact with one another for living, the process of symbiosis occurs. The symbiosis may appear through the fusion of 1 organism in to the other known as endosymbiosis or simply through the extracellular communication of the microorganisms known as ectosymbiosis. The connections among these organisms can occur in several varieties such as mutualism where both of the organisms associate to reap the benefits of one another, commensalism where one organism is in an advantageous stage as the other remains natural without gain or loss and parasitism where an organism needs the benefits because of its survival by harming the other organism it is attached with (Prescott, 1999).
The symbiotic behaviour of the microorganisms which helps them in creating different kind of connections such as mutualism and commensalism with different types of family pets has became very beneficial for them. One of the significant benefits has been the help provided by the microorganisms during the digestion of food in the digestive tract of the pets. Including the presence of the microbial ecology inside your body of ruminant animals has played a huge role in the food digestion process within their rumen. Ruminant pets or animals, which be dependent mainly on grasses and other fibre-rich crops, gain cellulose after food consumption to provide their high demand for energy. However, having less natural enzyme within their bodies can be counter effective during the cellular activities of the animals. This problem is conquer by different microorganisms found inside the rumen of the ruminants such as ciliated protozoa, anaerobic fungi and many bacterial kinds such as Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus which provide enzymes for breaking down cellulose to various carbon products such as glucose for energy. These organisms which create carbon routine within the body of ruminants are important in providing organic and natural compounds, proteins and natural vitamins to the family pets (Wallace, 2008). Also, there are other organisms such as leaf-cutting pests which heavily rely on different types of bacteria for their nutrition. These bacterias belonging to different families such as Enterobacteriacaea and various genera such as Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Klebsiella, etc. , which collectively form a fungal people, acquire the capacity for degrading the fibres that constitute the cell surfaces of the flower. These polymers are hydrolysed into smaller monomers due to the fungal activities and are incredibly helpful for these leaf-cutting insects such as ants to accomplish energy for survival. The relationship of the fungi and the leaf-cutting bugs is common as the bugs which cultivate the fungus help the microorganisms by sheltering them in a safe and facilitated environment within the leaves (Suen et. al. 2010).
Not only pets, but microorganisms, using their efficiency in creating symbiosis with different living animals, have been very useful for the expansion and maintenance of huge variety of plant life in many numbers of ways. The root base are the key pathways for the absorption of different nutritional components needed for the plant life to endure and grow. To take action, they are exposed to the land hence mending the plant life into fixed position. This section of the conversation of the flower roots and the earth is called the rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is made up of a number of microorganisms which form mutualistic relationship with the vegetation, therefore allowing both of the crops and the microorganisms to exist and function normally. Various kinds of microorganisms like the fungal strain, Trichoderma viride, are very important in safeguarding the garden soil against pathogens by producing antibiotics. That is critical for the plants as it helps them to avoid different diseases. Besides this, vegetation absorb different molecules synthesised by different microorganisms present in the region to support their development. A number of the molecules include plant hormones such as gibberellic acid made by the fungi, Gibberella fujikuro, cytokinins, auxins, etc. , along with various other components such as amino acids, sugars and natural vitamins that assist the plants to grow and keep maintaining their framework (Starkey, 1958). Along with different organic molecules, several inorganic factors are also needed for ensuring the growth of vegetation. Among these, nitrogen is considered to be always a essential aspect for the seed development. Nitrogen gases, which dominate the globes atmosphere, cannot be used straight by the place materials and so have to be converted into various nitrogen filled with compounds. During this procedure for nitrogen correcting, different microorganisms enter into play rendering it easy for the plants to absorb the materials.
Among different types of vegetation, leguminous crops use different bacteria such as Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium for the fixing of nitrogen. These bacterias enter the crops by piercing through the wall space and the skin of the root cells and eventually giving go up to the nodules. After the accessibility, the microorganisms become active for nitrogen fixation at the website called bacteroids present within the nodule. The nodules also contain leghemoglobin that have features similar to that of haemoglobin in human beings. The ability of these substances to provide air is vital for the bacteroids to keep their ATP level and also for the nodules to give their red colour. The darkness of the nodule assists with determining the degree of N2 fixation. Aside from the symbiotic relation of Rhizobium and leguminous vegetation, the interaction between your bacterias and other non-leguminous crops such as Parasponia andersonii also occurs to repair the nitrogen. Apart from Rhizobium, several other bacteria such as Frankia form symbiotic romantic relationship with various dicotyledonous plant life for the creation of the nodules. These nodules, in existence of sufficient oxygen, increase their nitrogenous activity and help in fixing nitrogen required for the development and development of plants (Burris et. al. 1992).
Likewise, different microorganisms also play huge role in the region of biotechnology. The use of the biotechnology which has great impact in several areas such as medicine, agriculture, anatomist, etc. utilize biological organisms and are involved in some kind of industrial functions. This also contains food technology which has been hugely influenced through microorganisms during the process. Among the important areas of the meals technology where microorganisms are utilised includes fermentation. Fermentation is the process of oxidising the glucose substances such as sugars for the forming of smaller substances such as liquor and carbon dioxide which are concurrently reduced in an air deprived environment. So, the fermentation process has been used for the development of different sorts of alcoholic beverages such as wine beverages where different strains of fungus such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces ellipsoideus are used to extract the alcoholic content from the sugars as well as ale which are made by the fermentation of starch from cereals using other strains of yeast such as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (Prescott, 1999).
Besides producing alcoholic beverages, milk can be fermented to produce lactic acid which is useful in dairy products such as yogurt, cream, cheese, butter, etc. To synthesise these products, different lactic acid bacteria owned by various genera such as Lactococcus, Lactobacilli, Enterococci, Streptococci, etc. are used through the fermentation process. Different strains of the bacteria are used in various ways to achieve the desired product like the bacteria Lactobacilli bulagricus and Streptococcus thermophilus provide the milk with good consistency and flavour presenting yogurt as the finish product. However, the inability of various other bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus to provide surface leaves the dairy only with appreciable acidity (Acidophilus dairy). This is one of the useful products of milk fermentation (Vuyst 2000). Also, the procedure of breads making is highly influenced by the bacterial tension Saccharomyces cerevisiae which ferment different saccharides such as sugar and fructose present by natural means in the dough, sucrose added by the baker and maltose produced through the breakdown of starch into acids. The fermentation turns the sugar into acids such as CO2, hence providing the bakery with the needed surface, taste and odour (Attfield et. al. 2001). Furthermore to these, fermentation industry has been proved to be very beneficial to meet the popular of antibiotics whilst retaining the economy during their development. These antibiotics are generated from the expansion of microorganisms such as different strains of fungus Penicillium and are known as supplementary metabolites. This swift development of antibiotics is useful in different areas which range from human physiques to dirt to overcome different pathogens and other hazardous microbes (Wilkinson, 1975).
Along with the use of the microorganisms in different fields of biotechnology, quick development has been observed in the genetic engineering where in fact the DNA of organism is revised using several means such as enzymes and vectors and recombinant DNA is obtained that is employed to for benefits. Microorganisms have been improved for different medical purposes. The proteins which may have the potential of treating certain diseases or disorder have been extracted through the genetically changed microorganisms. The alternation of genes within an organism to treat diseases known as gene remedy makes great use of different strains of bacterias such as Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria as well as Escherichia coli and certain types of candida (Vassaux et. al. 2005). Among these, there has been significant accomplishment in the cancer treatment through the use of altered microorganisms. Various microorganisms such owned by the strains of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, Salmonella, Mycobacterium, Bacillus and Listeria, which are either obligate anaerobic or facultative anaerobic, have the ability of supressing the tumour progress by performing as anticancer agents and hence focusing on the overgrowing cells (Bernades et. al. 2010). Likewise, the utilization of vaccines has been very important to treat different diseases such as small pox, measles, mumps, polio, etc. These vaccines which can be inserted into organisms bodies take several antigens therefore induce the immune response within the body systems. The production of these useful antigens is possible through the various microbial strains of bacteria and infections such as Staphylococcus carnosus, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, etc. which can be weakened and are used as companies for the antigens. This causes the antibodies against certain pathogens to be produced inside the living body of the microorganisms (Schoen et al. 2007).
The technique of genetically modifying microorganisms has been of great use in the field of agriculture. Different bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens are being used to produce recombinant DNA with desired gene and are moved into the crops in order to produce different plant growth hormones and therefore increase crop efficiency. Also, the genes from other bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis have been transformed using recombinant DNA technology and put into the vegetable cells of different kinds such as tomato and tobacco permitting them to withstand against diseases triggered by the pests. Besides different pests, fungi and insects, the frost creation can also disturb the normal functioning of skin cells in many agricultural vegetation. There are several biological agents that can generate in the nucleation of snow coating in the leaf floors. To reduce the effects of these brokers, several microorganisms such as ice-minus strain of Pseudomonas syringae bacterias, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia herbicola, etc. are used to safeguard the plant life against ice creation (Atlas, 1998).
With so benefits and many more such as with treatment of sewages and wastes, energy recovery through large development of biomass that are brought by using microorganisms, they can barely be looked at as disease causing agents. All the advantages are extremely necessary to maintain the equilibrium of the surroundings and to gain human beings during daily survivals. As the pathogenic microorganisms that carry diseases have to be controlled from progress, look at of eradicating the microorganisms completely from the ecosystem must be prevented as this can counter balance the results transported by them and can induce a serious hazard to the success of some other organisms in the living system.