Modularization is currently in target as a meaning for increasing competitiveness of commercial companies. This is attained by bridging the advantages of standardization and rationalization with customization and versatility. You will find three definitions of the terms which needs to be clarified: module, modularity, and modularization.
The definition of the word module has improved as time passes from being defined by the physical presence into being described by composition and functionality.
Modularity is a combo of systems capabilities and functionality of the component itself. A couple of seven mayor modularity concepts: aspect writing modularity, component swapping modularity, bus modularity, sectional modularity, fabricate to match modularity, blend modularity and stack modularity.
Modularization has developed in an professional context. You will find three basic individuals behind the desire to have modularity: modularization in product, modularization in production and modularization in inter-firm system. Modularization in design represents creation of variety, modularization in creation represents the use of similarities and modularization in inter-firm system presents a reduction of complexities (Andrea Prencipe, 2003)
Modularization will not mean that you can find less assemblage work required for manufacturing a
truck. It simply means that there is reorganization in regards to who's doing what in the value
and supply chain, with more sub-assembly work done by the suppliers. There is certainly trend from
complete set up done by OEM to important sub-assemblies to be outsourced. This might
not be irreversible, as assembly firms try to find the very best approach for them that
will be accepted by suppliers. A big part of the added value originates from the assembly
operations. (Zima, 2005)
There are three types of concepts in modularization. These principles are:
Modularization in products (architecture)
Modularization in production
Modularization in inter-firm system
Modularization in Products centers upon product architecture and the mandatory interrelationship between product function and structure. Reaching this 'one to 1 correspondence between the products subsystems and their functions' allows modules to be designed with a high degree of autonomy and reduces the interdependence with other modules in essence, this identifies introducing and obtaining modularity in product design. Others agree with the issue of interdependence, as they illustrate modularity in design as something 'intentionally creates a higher degree of self-reliance or 'loose coupling' between component designs. Number 1. 1.
(Robert Trimble, 2008)
The remaining diagram is a schematic representation of the so-called "integral" product. Since the elements making up the merchandise function (the still left triangle) are interrelated with those making up the product structure (the right triangle) in a complex manner, the designer of Subsystem [S1] must take the next factors into account:
functional interdependence with the other subsystems (such as s1 f1 s2, and s1 f2 s2)
structural interdependence with the other subsystems (physical interference, for example, s1 s2)
Interdependence with the design of the entire system (regularity with the look of the complete system, s1 S1 S) 4) interdependence between your sub-functions (such as f1_f2, and F1_F2).
Figure 1 1.
"Modularization in product" diminishes such interdependence between the concerned elements. It allows one-to-one correspondence between your subsystems and their functions, and allows, for example, the creator of Subsystem [S1] to focus solely on Sub-function [F1] and [S] (the composition of the product all together). The subsystem becomes a "module with a self-contained function, " which can be designed more autonomously. Left over interdependence after modularization can further be reduced if the interfaces between your elements are simplified and standardized all the as
possible. (Takeishi, 2001)
Modularization in production describes the manufacturing system framework where, consequently of a
modular product design, the product is produced from a series of modules each built on a sub-line before copy to the merchandise assembly collection. A non-modular manufacturing system would be as a result of the product structure not comprising any 'structurally cohesive large modules'. (Robert Trimble, 2008).
Modularization can be illustrated with a similar diagram shown in number It is made up of the "Product Framework Hierarchy" (right triangle) and the "Product Process Hierarchy" (left). In order to simplify the reason, among the whole manufacturing operations, the focus here only on set up work in the "Product Process Hierarchy. "
The previous hierarchy is made up in pursuit of "functional freedom" of every subsystem (i. e. , the degree to which a function of the merchandise is achieved by an individual subsystem), as the latter is made up for "structural cohesiveness" (i. e. , the amount to which a collection of parts can be physically handled as one device). The latter hierarchy is intended to contribute to "structurally cohesive modules" that happen to be easy to control materials handling and quality control.
Figure 1 1.
The still left diagram represents non-modular development processes. Without the "structurally cohesive large modules, " the product is to be built from eight small modules (s1 to s8) at the same hierarchical level on one long main assembly line. On the contrary, in the right diagram, there are two structurally-cohesive modules "S1 and S2" on the right, and two subassembly lines to develop them and one short main line for completed products on the left (remember the famous watchmaker account in Simon 1969). It can be said that the "Product Framework Hierarchy" with cohesive modules is translated in to the "Product Process Hierarchy" with one main line and two subassembly lines. (Takeishi, 2001)
'Modularization in Inter-firm Systems'- identifies the problem where 'large modules are set up by suppliers on their own assembly lines and are sent and built into completed products on the key line of the automaker' This facet of modularity is essentially the outsourcing of the assemblage of the module to the supply bottom part. (Robert Trimble, 2008)
"Modularization in inter-firm system, " which has attracted increasing attention in the Western auto industry, requires outsourcing subsystems in large devices (cohesive modules) to suppliers. The still left diagram is a schematic representation of creation with an increased in-house ratio, where small modules (s1 - s8) are provided by outside suppliers. On the contrary, the right represents development based on a highly modular dealer system, where large modules are put together by outdoors suppliers on the subassembly lines, and are shipped and built into finished products on the primary line of the manufacturer.
Figure 1 1.
Overall, the three facets of modularization and their interrelations can be illustrated within the same construction of multiple hierarchies as shown in the three pairs of diagrams. Product designers, process engineers, and purchasing managers must make decisions about the merchandise and process hierarchies and the inter-firm limitations, while obtaining close coordination between them. It really is obvious that these three facets of modularization should not be mixed up. At the same time, it is also clear that these decisions are interrelated with each other. They will be the processes of making decisions about interrelated hierarchies of product functions, product composition, and production functions. There's always a probability of some inconsistency or turmoil between the decisions. In a sense, the most critical problem in modularization is how to avoid or get over such inconsistency and turmoil through coordination. (Takeishi, 2001)
There are different types of modularity found in industry. An overview of the most typical types are available in Physique 1. 1 (Erikstad, 2009).
Figure 1. 1 A far more detailed section into different modularity types
Component-sharing modularity there are solitary modules used in various products. Exactly the same module can be used in a completely different product family.
Component-swapping modularity occurs whenever there are more different basic components can be combined with the same modular components creating different product variations participate in the same product family.
Bus modularity is used when a component with several interfaces can be matched with many of the components preferred from a list of basic components. The interfaces allow any mixture of the basic components. Bus modularity allows versions in the amount and the locations of the basic components in a product. Component-swapping and component-sharing
modularity allows only variation in the types of basic components.
Sectional modularity is employed when there may be any number and blend possible by the configuration. Each module can have one, several interfaces. There are just a few limitations.
One or even more standard components are used with a number of infinitely variable additional components. Variation is usually associated with physical measurements that may be modified. A good example for this kind of modularity is a cable television assembly. The connectors of the cable tv are standard and the distance of the cable connection is adjustable.
Stack modularity is the technique where a collection of modules can be linked to make a device with a value in some dimension that is the sum of the average person modules. The modules must be of the same type but it can be either a blend of equivalent modules or a mixture of different sizes of any module.
Mix modularity combines different components into something new, for example coloring or concrete.
Introducing modularization makes the assembly faster and less complicated, by setting up complete preassembled modules the development is more efficient with the result of minimizing time and labor.
Because the dealer orders and assembles the parts into a module this time around is kept at the one production. Also ordering a component is less labor-intensive compared to construction standards purchasing.
One Ramifications of modularization is including the decreasing amounts of parts with the result that JIT is more manageable
By increasing the amount of module suppliers the chance of stationary production lowers. If one supplier struggles to deliver on time he gets displaced by the next one.
Once modularization is put in place, one module can be upgraded easy. In this manner the machine can be always current.
Dividing a product into components and interfaces allows changes without affecting the entire design.
By meaning of modularity, the idea allows designers to break the problem into smaller and simpler parts
Designee groups can promote or use again components from other designs, development time can be reduced.
Another benefit for modularity is the fact it enables designers to target more directly on their own module, often resulting in a more effective design solution.
Designing for modularity is more challenging and calls for more effort than planning a development standard system. Deciding how to separate something into modules and how these modules will interconnect is the root of the trouble.
Once the design is complete, product development is simplified by modularity The probability exists that designers will not think to check out an other methods or alternatives. Such tunnel eyesight may minimize the entire quality of the design.
Almost always performance can be improved upon over the modular design, because the elimination of interfaces reduces weight and size. furthermore, it may also be difficult to integrate modules, created by different teams, and to make sure they are work alongside one another optimally.
communication between clubs is the potential for redundancy
Often when one part of any module needs to be replaced the only way is to displace the hole component. Additionally it is command that it's not possible to order just one particular part only the gap module.
The benefits of modular supply for the assembler are cost lowering, increase of the low-scale
assembly efficiency, and minimization of investment requirements in new vegetation (Humphrey
and Salerno, 2001), as outsourcing allows the motor vehicle producer to allocate part of the
investment to the suppliers who will be located close to the assembly seed (Lung, 2001, Lewis
and Wight, 2000). From other aspect, the suppliers can decrease the financial participation in the
new production location of the client by associating themselves with local lovers. In this
case they need to ensure that the international specifications of competitiveness (productivity,
quality, logistics etc) will be come to (Lung, 2001). VOLVO. pdf
Figure 1 1.
Around 1990's up till now the establishments are suffering from from making and growing one-of-a-kind products units, towards more standardized and modular products. With these standardized methods a big quantity different product can be product to gratify the clients (Erikstad, 2009).
Throughout the companies, many companies in differed industries have adopted some kind of modularisation in their organisation. Each sector or company that adopted modularization is unique in their solutions how to put into practice this strategy. The industries on the frontiers of modularisation are the automotive, Mechanical executive, Special equipment/Plant engineering, these areas modularisation is trusted. There are many more sectors where modularisation is practise (Berger, 2012). In the diverse industries there are numerous cases how modularisation is put into action to the great things about companies.
The in automotive basic platforms are used in many the latest models of or brands. This is the same in gadgets were components are extensive reuse both across different brands and across different product types. Software companies split up their intricate software systems to able to work parallel and decrease the complexity of the program (Jacobsen, 2003). For building ocean going cargo ship it is nearly impossible to build a ship without modularisation due to size and difficulty (Gockowski, 2005)The huge benefits reported are lower cost, shorter development cycles and the ability to maintain a broad product range while standardizing and reducing the amount of different components and configuration elements. (Erikstad, 2009)
In this chapter the most successful companies which apply modularization will be explained.
The companies are divided in various kinds of areas ( see Amount 1 1. )(Berger, 2012):
- Mechanical engineering
- Special equipment/ seed engineering
- Medical engineering
- Heating / climate
- Power tools
Scania is an extremely popular company which use the modularization strategy since 1930s. Scania's unique modular product range is one of its most important success factors. Since each product of Scania is manufactured entirely based on the customer's business and the real-world situation, it ensures the perfect performance and quality. In the mean time, the modular product system decreases Scania's costs, since by by using a limited volume of components the company can give each customer an optimised product. This business model is one important reason why Scania has been profitable yearly for six decades and often represents its marriage with customers as a "win-win" situation. (Fagrenius, 2012 )
A great deal of car manufacturers produce by way of a modularisation strategy. With this modularization different parts are produced and can be fit along on different kinds of cars. Some examples of car brands which change the same parts on different types are Volkswagen, Couch and Audi. (MILTENBURG, 2003)
The Norwegian Marine Technology Research Institute (MARINTEK) executes research and development for companies in the field of marine technology. This companies evolves ships on the modularization strategy. The whole ship is divided in modules which are separately fabricated. (Erikstad, 2009)
Damen shipyards is the biggest company in holland which designs and make on bottom of modularisation. (Damen, 2013)
The equipment on the ship and in the engine motor room was created and produces in modules. These modules are produced and put together in the workshop, and are fit collectively on a ship ( as a "block"). That is a successful way to produce because of several technical, services and economical aspects. Some companies which are manufacturing on this way are 'Sea service Noord' and Impas, and Alfa laval. (Noord, 2013) (Laval, 2013)
There are a lot of production companies which use the modularization strategy. They have got their focus on reducing delivery time and creation costs. Some popular development companies in the Netherlands are Phillips, VDL, Burgers trailers, Hytrans fire systems and Vanderlande. (TNO, 2008)
Based on our intensive experience in building power plants, Siemens has developed innovative combined circuit reference power plants, known as Siemens Combined Cycle (SCC) turnkey plants. Suited for applications from 100 MW to over 850 MW per device, these plants enable you to meet the troubles of a vibrant market and are designed to optimize planning, implementation times and lower life-cycle costs. (AG, 2008)
For currently functioning U. S. nuclear crops, the average construction period was 9, 3 years; the longest was 23, 5 years. In Japan, close focus on modularization and building sequencing has reduced development times for the ABWR reactor design. (Lee Presley, 2009)
Fluor has pioneered the financial advantages and commercialization of modular structure. Fluor's proven performance showcases large-scale modular development across a number of Client companies. From brutal arctic winters working the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline, or offshore oil and gas systems in Trinidad & Tobago, or state-of-the-art biotechnology facilities, to the new SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Oakland Bay Bridge, Fluor has efficiently utilized modular engineering to address Client problems. (Fluor, 2013)
Hitachi has been producing and perfecting modularization technology to facilitate domestic nuclear vitality plant construction because the early on 1980s, and it has made great strides in rationalization. Modularization is the perfect plant construction way of reduced costs, top quality, improved security and shorter building times. We believe modularization technology is among the finest solutions for the existing plant development environment. (Maru, 2002)
Linde BOC Process Plants LLC
Modularized building has many strengths to consider. The modules support the equipment, piping, temperature tracing, electric powered instrumentation systems, specialised coatings, fire safeguard, ladders, and systems. Modules can be horizontal, vertical, single level, or multi-level depending on the story space, equipment, and required piping configuration. The optimum
split of modular & field engineering efforts is set for each individual project based upon such factors as local labour costs, travelling limitations and timetable. (Laar, 2008)
Philips is one of the most significant television manufacturers in the world. Fierce competition in the tv market is leading to smaller income, price erosion, shorter time to market, and a challenge for shelf space. To stay competitive, we must minimize the invoice of materials and the price of system development. Minimizing the expenses of material puts constraint on the sources of a tv set, such as storage area, bandwidth, CPU cycles, and footprint. We reduce the expense of system development by modularization.
The Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) notion, which replaces numerous split processors and range replaceable systems (LRU) with fewer, more centralized processing units, is guaranteeing significant weight reduction and maintenance personal savings in the new generation of commercial planes (Ramsey, 2007).
Already in the first times of CAN, Philips Medical Systems discovered the benefits of CAN and decided to use this network standard protocol as communication network for interconnecting various components such as collimators, generators, and patient tables in their X-ray systems. To achieve a modular and available approach, a group within Philips Medical Systems, handled by Tom Suters, developed the first higher coating standard protocol for CAN, the CAN Subject matter Specification (CMS), which was presented to the public in 1992.
The included modular cooling alternatives incorporate multiple components made to fit your unique requirements and features. This involved solution not only reduces the full total number of suppliers, but it also drives down your current costs (laval, 2013)
The patented MATRIX modular tool system offers performance and value in a straightforward and practical method for power tool users to increase their toolbox at their own tempo. With this technique, users can gain access to some of the industry's most popular types of tools that have been traditionally limited to professionals and will be offering personal savings up to 42% versus purchasing bare tools individually. (Decker, 2013)
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