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What is research and why do we are in need of it

What is research?

Research is a organized search for information in order to secure a clear picture concerning the underlying problem. Technically speaking, research is an activity of determining problem thoroughly, creating a target, collecting and analyzing the relevant data in order to look for the possible factors triggering the condition. Thus, research activities are consistent search for information with the objective to obtain a clearer picture involving the problem and also to propose specific recommendation for the perfect solution is.

Why we have to do research?

Research provides valuable information that courses administrator, employees and other personnel of an organization in their daily benefit the organization. The info from research courses them to make an effective decision making which will benefit the business over time.

Provide the data and skills.

Research assists with decision-making because the examination of data supplies the clear picture to the administrator regarding to the main problem, the associated factors, and will be offering the possible solution.

Interprets results

The researcher interprets the results from the analyzed data and makes a through evaluation on the benefits and consequences for every possible solution.

Proposed recommendations

The researcher also proposes certain suggestions for the next course of action to be taken by the supervisor. Thus, the manager can make a better decision with the aid of research.

For example, a study must identify the factors that cause the demand for Malaysian made cars (Proton and Perodua) to decrease drastically in the past few years. The research undertaken because of this specific case would be able to determine the factors that contribute to the lessening demand for the car. From the result, the management could take certain corrective action to enhance the demand. For instance, the results of a study suggested the company to introduce new models, enhance the quality of cars, improve the service quality provided by its service centers, reduce the selling price, and improve design of the automobile to suit young generation. The specific recommendation made to the company predicated on research conclusions would help the Proton management to consider proper action so that it could survive in to the future.

1. 3 The necessity for business research

In managing the business, the manager would run into many managerial issues that are interrelated in various areas such as management, accounting, marketing, development, financing, etc.

Help director solve the management problems

The researcher would specify the issue, determine the study targets, identify the relevant factors that may relate to the problem, collect data on all important parameters, and analyze them to finalize the main of the problem. Finally, the researcher will write a complete report based on the data analysis to be shown to the director concerning the problem and the possible plan of action to be able to tackle the problem.

Effective and useful to make the decision

Research helps managers to generate the viable substitute among several alternatives designed for effective decision-making. Knowledge on research would also help managers to utilize the available information in a far more sophisticated and clinical methods in understanding the issue. The administrator also can interact better with every staff in planning for the study and development task (R&D) for the business.

Look at the condition critically and objectively.

Good supervisor posses an arithmetic reasoning to sense a potential menace only by looking at certain reports from the news report. On the list of statistical information available are the development of demand and supply of certain product, the pace of development in GNP, the rate of interest, the pace of inflation, and the government policies about the overall economy. Sometimes, the assertions and comments made by the expert in the related field are also important since they deliver certain note regarding the specific industry that may affect the business.

Conclusion, a good manager would ask for a research statement before making an important decision. A good decision is the one made after taking into consideration all data evaluation, the interpreted results, and recommendations. On the other hand, a negative decision is the main one made without considering the information available, the threat to the organization, and without listening to the expert view concerning the actual problem.

1. 4 The role of research in business

Making the right decision is an excellent practice in virtually any business whenever the business encounters an issue. A good organization mostly conducts research to solve the critical problems encircling their business such as competition, customer satisfaction, product innovation, customer grievances, and new government policies impacting on the industry.

Decision making process requires organized and organized efforts to investigate a particular problem in a business setting. The first step in understanding the situation is to identify specifically the main issue that will require further investigation. Another steps are to identify factors associated with the problem, gather the relevant information, analyze data, interpret productivity and offer the suggestion to the director for his decision-making. It simply means that the decision making process includes some steps designed and carried out with the purpose of getting the best solution to the fundamental problem experienced by the business.

Actually, the complete process in which the managers attempt to solve their problem is the steps in executing a research task. The research explanation in the last section shows that research involved the process of inquiry, exploration, examination, and experimentation that need to be conducted systematically, diligently, critically, objectively and in a logical order. Thus, the results of research will be the findings, which would help the managers to deal with the real situation. Therefore, we can define business research as an structured, systematic inquiry concerning the problem, and carried out with the goal of finding the best solution to a difficulty. In addition, the study findings can clarify all ambiguities adjoining the situation. In research the ambiguities adjoining the situation are tackled in term of research questions.

1. 5 The things to consider in research

Sometimes the administrator has many alternatives to choose from in his decision-making for the business. In this case, the manager requires more info concerning each option to make a good choice. In other words, the manager must carry-out a research. However, the dedication of the need for research centers on the next factors:

i. Time constraints

A organized research does take time to perform. However, in most cases, the manager must make decision immediately and hence it is made without enough information and an intensive understanding of the issues. If the time allows, the supervisor should do the study first before making a decision. Making the decision blindly without sufficient information might land an organization into trouble.

ii. The availability of data

Adequate information is very important for a manager to make decision. The role of research is to provide the required information to the supervisor to make his decision. However, in certain cases, a supervisor has enough information to assist him and the study is not needed. However, a good director knows that the study is still required to clarify some ambiguities surrounding the industry in which the business is working. Furthermore, if a potential way to obtain information exists, managers wish to know how much it costs to obtain the data.

For example, Era Timur, a company advertising stationery items and providing internet caf designs to open a new branch in Kota Bharu. The manager of Era Timur wishes to research the market potential for the business in the region. The relevant information that could help the manager to make decision will be the characteristic of the population in the region, the number of prospects in the area, the number of schools, authorities departments as well as private organizations in the area who are using the internet. Rather than to forget, the number of existing competition already operating in the area is also important. Since this kind of data is not often easily available, the manager has to carry out a specific research to collect and analyze the required information.

iii. Characteristics of decisions

The value of research depends upon the type of the managerial decision to be made. A decision that will not require a large investment might not exactly require the massive amount expenditure for research study. For example, Pandu Yakin Sdn. Bhd. , a car rental company wishes to update the advertisements regarding some changes in their services. The existing advertisement is pretty good in attaining their target consumers. The costs required to research and up grade the existing advertising campaign may be higher than the huge benefits obtained. Therefore, in this specific case, the company doesn't have to invest in research. However, some organizations are willing to spend an incredible number of ringgit to do a small adjustment in their product because they're confident of long-term benefits. For instances, the Telekom Malaysia (TM) and Radio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM) re-branding exercises have incurred an incredible number of ringgit to the business.

iv. The value of research

We have talked about the various benefits of research. However, a substantial expenditure is required for conducting good research. Thus, both cost and profit are important to justify a study project. A manager should identify and think about the potential beliefs or benefits from the study and equate to the expenditure they have to incur. Three questions would help professionals make the right decision in cases like this. First, is the pace of return well worth the investment? Second, will the information obtained from the study improves the grade of a choice? Third, is the proposed research the best solution for the available account?

Figure 1. 1 illustrates the easy checklist to look for the requirement of a research.

Availability of Data

Is the data available for examination?

The Value

Does the value of research exceed the price of doing research?

The Importance

Is your choice very crucial for the organization?

SHOULD NOT Carry out RESEARCH

Yes

No

Time Constraints

Is sufficient time open to do research?

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

CONDUCT RESEARCH

Figure 1. 1: YOUR CHOICE to Carry out or Not to Conduct Research

1. 6 The types of research

In research, a differentiation is needed not no more than the sort of research but also about the most general category into that your implications of research might fall. What is the distinction? This distinction is a convenient way to clarify the study activity to shed light on the reason and need for the study. The most basic differentiation of research activities are grouped into applied research (sometimes called action research) and basic research (sometimes called 100 % pure research or fundamental research).

Applied Research

Applied or action research is completed for the purpose of solving a preexisting problem. The researcher conducts an applied research when he would like to review about the specific problem. For example, the demand for PROTON is lowering. The decrease in demand is shown in the regular sales of PROTON vehicles across the country. The management is trying to identify the factors that donate to the decreasing demand to be able to take an appropriate step before the challenge gets worse.

In this circumstance, the study helps the management to obtain a clearer picture of that which was happening in the motor vehicle industry, the key factors behind it and the relationship of each factor with the existing economic factors such as interest, rate of inflation, and Gross Home Product (GDP). After acquiring the data, the researcher would perform the data analysis and turn out with certain recommendation predicated on the output. The management may use the info from the research report to help them in creating a fresh marketing program, determine the costs policy, and choose certain promotional strategy so that the downward trend popular will change with an upward craze.

Every business organization requires ongoing research and development program (R&D) to ensure its expansion and survival in the industry. The research will quickly realize the talents and weaknesses of an organization, its product and service in adition to that of its competitors. Since the socio-economic parameters change as time passes, the management of business group should embark on continuous research and development to keep pace with its competitors.

Examples of applied research

i) The analysis to determine the level of consciousness towards the danger posed by counterfeit medicines in the market among the Malaysian consumers

ii) The study to identify the main factors considered by the clients when buying health products in the market

iii) The analysis to assess the damage triggered by the recent flood on government institutions in the country

Pure Research

One of the purposes for performing research is to build up and measure the concepts and ideas. The researcher conducts basic research to expand your body of knowledge in the particular area by deciding the theoretical reason to the main problem. This sort of research is not for dealing with the problem accessible. Rather, the essential research is carried out to build up the theoretical basis regarding certain phenomena which happen and to expand the boundaries of knowledge predicated on the conclusions.

One carries out preliminary research to confirm that certain phenomena conform to a certain theory produced by the previous research workers. If the occurrence does not conform to the prior theory, then the researcher would propose a fresh theory to make clear what was taking place. Although basic research does not provide the solution to a specific problem, it can provide a complete understanding concerning the condition generally. Hence, the organizations could apply the idea obtained from preliminary research to take care of their own problems.

For example, a university or college professor is interested to research how the degree of service quality provided by a healthcare facility plays a part in patient satisfaction for his academic interest. After doing literature search from the publicized journals and gathering information from patients at several hospitals, the professor found that factors like the grade of communication by the frontline staff, the reputation of doctors, and the environment in the hospital to be the most crucial criteria that contribute to the patient satisfaction towards a healthcare facility. Hence, whenever the management desires to boost their client satisfaction, they need to specifically increase the quality of these factors.

Examples of natural research are:

a) The affect of environmental understanding on consumer buying habit towards environmental friendly products or green products in the market

b) The partnership between staff job satisfaction and the quality of service they provide with their customers in service organizations

c) The impact of client satisfaction towards certain products and their determination to provide positive words of mouth area and advice for that particular product with their friends and families

d) Modeling customer devotion towards the service provided by certain company predicated on their experience with the grade of service provided and their belief on the corporate image of that company

The general flowchart of the research

Define and refine the research problem

State the study objectives

Determine relevant research questions

Collect data and perform analysis

Formulate relevant research hypotheses

Interpret the results and write report

Figure 1. 2: The process in Historical Research

1. 7 Developing a research design

The research design functions as a grasp plan of the methods and strategies for the researcher to gather and analyze the info required by the research. Determining the best option research design is a function of research aims and the specific requirements of the research. In this expert plan, the researcher must consider the kind of data required, the look technique (study, observation, test, and research study), the sampling methodology and procedures, the program and the budget.

Non experimental research design

Non-experimental research carries a variety of different methods that identify relationships between factors. For example, the review on television-watching tendencies of teens and parents, the researcher wish to know very well what programs the young adults watch on television. Non-experimental research has two types; that are exploratory and descriptive.

The exploratory research design

Exploratory research is conducted to clarify the nature of ambiguous problems. Ambiguous means that the nature of the challenge is unclear, where the objectives are vague and decision alternatives are difficult to comprehend. The purpose of exploratory research is to explore the condition or situation to get better understanding about the measurements of the condition.

Exploratory research is not intended to provide conclusive evidence from which to determine a particular course of action. Usually, exploratory research is conducted with the expectation that succeeding research will be asked to provide such conclusive proof. Therefore, exploratory research is conducted for three interrelated purposes:

diagnosing a predicament:

help diagnosing the sizing of problems so that successive research project will be on focus on eg: primary interview with employees may utilize to learn current " hot' issues as well as concern about bakery and butter issues such as income, working conditions etc

screening alternatives

used to look for the best alternatives. (Because several opportunities)

discovering new ideas

Eg; workers have suggestion for increasing products or enhancing basic safety. Therefore, consumer may suggest new product ideas or unthought-of problem might be diagnosed.

Exploratory research focuses on collecting either supplementary or most important data, and using unstructured formal or casual types of procedures to interpret them. This research design contains the fewest characteristics or guidelines of the medical method. It is often used only to classify the issues or opportunities. Hence, it is not designed to provide conclusive information from which a particular plan of action can be established. Among the types of exploratory research techniques are; focus-group interviews, experience studies, and pilot studies. Exploratory research could also use some kinds of supplementary data (e. g. online data source). Exploratory research can be somewhat intuitive and is employed by many professionals to monitor the demand pattern for their products set alongside the challengers' products in the market.

Example:

A Thai restaurant is considering growing its operating time and products with a breakfast time menu. Exploratory research must provide some understanding about the problem. However, an exploratory analysis with a little amount of customers found a negative a reaction to a spicy breakfast time menu that is one of the selections offered by the business enterprise. The studies from the study point out that the restaurant should not offer this menu for breakfast.

The descriptive research design

The major purpose of descriptive research, as the name signifies is to spell it out the characteristics of an population or a preexisting trend. Descriptive research is not really a stand-alone research; it will serve as a basis for other styles of research.

Descriptive research uses a set of technological methods and steps to gather data and create data set ups that express the characteristics (e. g. gender, job, income, academic qualification, age categories, political opinions, personal preferences towards PROTON, and buy intentions) of the target population. Descriptive research designs work when the study objectives include determination of the amount to which marketing factors are related to the genuine market phenomena. The researcher looks for answers to the "how", "who", "what", "when", and "where" questions concerning the components of a market

Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is dependant on some previous knowledge of the nature of the study problem. Although the researcher may have general understanding about the situation, he may need conclusive evidence from the study to determine the course of action. Many circumstances require descriptive research to clarify the type of things. Frequently, the basic understandings from exploratory research and the conclusive evidences of descriptive research are used to look for the extent of differences and association in certain variables among subgroups in a society. The study might also be enthusiastic about estimating the proportion of a inhabitants that has certain characteristics.

Example:

Mr. Fairuzsham, a manager of D'Cinta Business in Machang, wants to concentrate on aesthetic product by offering some additional items with the particular brands. He presumed that 12 to 15 time old young ladies cared a great deal about fragrances, lipstick, and mascara, but he lacked quantitative information. He conducts a descriptive research to identify the characteristics of his customers.

This research discovered that 40% of the girls use facial cream, 30% use fragrance and 20% use lip-gloss and another 10% use several product category. The study also found that 60% of customers who use makeup products are loyal to certain brands, and another 40% do not service much about brand. Furthermore, 70% of the clients who are brand loyal choose the brand promoted by a common female artist.

2 The experimental research design

In the experimental research is where members are assigned to groups based on some selected criterion categorised as the treatment variable. Quite simply, experimental research is the best way to check the presence of cause-and-effect marriage.

Causal research design

Often, you can find distress on the interpretation of causal research design process regarding to the word "relationship". The basis of the term "relationship" switches into two distinctions, the "cause and impact romantic relationship" and "associational relationship" between variables. Although both distinctions pointed out are about the partnership between factors, the difference between both of these distinctions is "cause and benefit relationship" provides better understanding regarding the relationship between variables. However, with respect to the design of the analysis, if the analysis wants to look for the cause of a number of variables, it is called a causal review. However, if the study is considering determining the key variable from the problem, this study is named co-relational review.

For example,

does smoking cause cancer tumor? - identifies the question for causal study.

Rather, are smoking and cancer related? - refers to the co-relational study.

Causal research was created to collect natural data structures and information that allows the decision machine or researcher to model the cause-and-effect human relationships between several variables.

Causal research is best suited when the research objective includes the necessity to understand the reasons why the market responses change when certain financial variables change. It can be used to understand the functional romance between your causal factors and the effect predicted on the marketplace performance variable under investigation. This sort of research design allows decision producers to gain the very best level of understanding in the study process. Furthermore, understanding the cause-effect associations among market factors allow the manager to make if-then assertions about the variables.

Causal research designs offer opportunity for identifying, identifying, and describing causality among critical market factors, they have a tendency to be complicated, expensive, and frustrating. Among different data collection techniques available, experimental designs hold the greatest potential for establishing cause-effect romance because they allow experts to research changes in one variable while manipulating a couple of other variables under managed conditions.

Quasi-experimental research

In the quasi-experimental research, the respondents are pre-assigned to groupings predicated on some quality or quality these people bring to the study. For example, distinctions in gender, degree of education, generation, program of analysis, economic position, and political desire are among the list of characteristics.

The quasi-experimental method is the most suitable whenever a researcher cannot assign visitors to organizations and test the consequences of group regular membership on various other result. Quasi-experimental research also called post hoc research or after-the-fact research because the actual research takes place after the project of organizations such as employed versus unemployed, malnourished versus non-malnourished, male versus girl. Because assignment has recently taken place, the researcher has a amount of control over the reason for whatever effects are being evaluated.

The assessment among research designs

Exploratory

Descriptive

Causal

Objective:

Discover the insights and new ideas about the situation at hand. To confirm a problem

Describe the condition at hand and relate with the characteristics of the population under study

Determine cause and result between the impartial and reliant variables

Characteristics:

Flexible, versatile, will not basic on proper research design.

Based on specific targets, research questions, and research hypotheses of the study

Manipulation of 1 or more independent variables, and the

control of other variables

Methods:

Expert interviews, pilot research, analyze secondary data, and qualitative research.

Structured data collection method, proper statistical data analysis procedure

Laboratory tests,

changes in the interest by Standard bank Negara, changes in federal government policy on import tax, etc

Example of possible findings:

The level of sales is declining. However, the exact factor is still unclear at this stage

The level of car sales is significantly related to specific factors such as higher rate of interest, rising cost of petrol, etc

The interest on car finance, the import responsibility, and certain federal policies affect the sales of automobiles in the country

The major classifications of research design are exploratory, descriptive, and causal research design. However, the distinctions among these classifications aren't absolute. For instance, a research project may involve several kind of research design and serve for several purposes. In other words, a combo of research design may be employed with regards to the nature of the trouble. For example, problem definition commences with an exploratory research when little is known. Exploratory research is the initial step in the overall research design construction accompanied by descriptive or causal research.

Nevertheless, it isn't necessary to get started every research design with exploratory research. The decisions rely upon the precision with which the situation has been defined and the researcher's degree of certainty about the method of the issue. Exploratory research could also follow descriptive or causal research. Quite simply, exploratory research is conducted to comprehend the research conclusions of descriptive or causal research. This situation happens when the results are difficult to interpret into the real situation.

Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is based on some previous understanding of the nature of the study problem. However the researcher may have basic understanding about the problem, they want conclusive proof the answer necessary to determine the course of action. Many circumstances require descriptive research to clarify the nature of things. Frequently, the basic understandings from exploratory research and the conclusive evidences of descriptive research are being used to look for the extent of variations and association using factors among subgroups in a populace. Besides, the study is also interested in estimating the percentage of a populace that has certain characteristics.

1. 8 Characteristics of your good research

High-quality research is seen as a many characteristics and certain characteristics have a tendency to be related. Among the list of characteristics are:

It is based on the work of previous researchers in the region. This does not indicate that the new researcher duplicates their work, however the new researcher refers the task of others and carries on from where they ended. Quite simply, a fresh researcher persists from where in fact the earlier researcher completed their work to be able to boost what has already been achieved. When the new researcher does not continue from where they conclude, he might be repeating the same work yet again or he's re-inventing the same wheel!

It can be replicated in another set of population. If a research examines the relationship between problem-solving potential and arithmetic reasoning of key institution students, the same study also needs to be replicable to the extra school students for two reasons.

First, one of the hallmarks of any credible clinical finding is that it is appropriate. Second, if the results of your test can be replicated, they serve as a basis for further research in the same area.

It is generalizable to other human population having similar characteristics. Quite simply, the conclusion from the analysis may also be put on other people if their characteristics are almost similar.

A good research is based on certain rationale and it pertains to certain theoretical foundation. Research will not stand alone as just interesting questions without the logical theory. Major regions of research have to be destroyed into smaller elements, and each one of these elements have to be tied collectively in a construction with a theory.

Research can make new questions and it is cyclical in nature.

Research is incremental, that could it be expands from small to much larger scope.

Research is an activity undertaken for the betterment of society. Research and development can be an work to find means and ways to increase the present quality of products and services, and also the approach to doing various other part of life.

Technically, a good research must have the next characteristics:

The research goal is clearly identified. No ambiguity arises by any means.

The outline of research process is explained in detail

Research design is completely planned and clearly understood

High ethical expectations of research are applied on a regular basis.

Limitations are exposed and the scope of research is properly described.

The method of data evaluation and statistical tests to be employed is adequately explained and justified.

Research findings are presented clearly and unambiguously

Conclusions and suggestions regarding the problem under study are clearly stated and discussed.

1. 9 Basic ethics in research

Researchers should watch and follow the research ethics whatsoever time during their research. The ethics in research make reference to a code of carry out or expected societal norm of behavior of analysts while doing research. Ethical carry out pertains to the researchers themselves, the business involved in the research project, the business sponsoring the study, and the respondents who participate in the research.

The basic principles of ethical research are:

Protection from harm - Analysts, respondents and people involved in the research must be safeguarded. If there is any doubt that there is certain risk engaged, then your research project shouldn't be undertaken to begin with.

Maintenance of privacy - The work of research workers is private. The researchers should not reveal the id of their respondents involved in the study. The data accumulated from respondents should be held confidential in any way time and really should only be utilized for the study accessible.

Coercion - The respondents are taking part in the study at their own will. Their respond to during data collection should get rid any effect. Even, the respondents are absolve to get involved or not participate in the analysis.

Informed consent - the respondents should be produced to understand the explanation for the study plus they should consent to waive their right to privateness when they participate in the study activities.

Confidentiality - the researcher must give confidence to respondents that their personality would not be disclosed, and the info given is cared for as private and confidential.

Sharing the studies - following the review has been completed, the record should be presented to the audience. The statement should also be produced available to be looked at by the respondents who participated in the analysis.

1. 10 Introduction of basic steps in research process

The dependence on a research planning and its processes:

To identify research problem and write its problem statement

To formulate the challenge statement into research targets, research questions, and research hypothesis to be examined.

To gather data and perform the required data analysis.

To write a written report and present to the management.

Figure 1. 1: Stages of the Research Process

Sources: William zikmund: pg: 59

1. 11 Periods in the research process

Each of the six levels in the study process referred to below;

Identifying the situation for research

The research job is to clarify problems, to evaluate a program or to explain a chance. Problem classification is the indication of specific business decision area which will be clarified by responding to some research questions (William Zikmund, 2003).

Problem definition allows a researcher to create the correct research objectives. If the purpose of the research is clear, the probability of collecting the required and relevant information. Exploratory research is usually conducted through the initial level of the research process (more will be said about exploratory, descriptive and causal in section 4). The purpose of the exploratory research process is to progressively narrow the opportunity of the study topic and also to transform found out problems into described ones, incorporating specific research goals.

There are 4 basic categories of approaches for obtaining information and gaining a clearer idea of a problem:

Secondary data;

The data have been previously collected by other party for their goal which can not be like the one accessible.

Pilot studies;

Researcher gathers data from the similar research society to provide as a guide for a proper study.

Case studies

The exploratory research that intensively investigates the situations similar to the researcher's problem situation accessible.

Experience survey;

Exploratory research techniques where people who are knowledgeable about a specific research problem are surveyed.

Planning the study design

A research design is a professional plan specifying the techniques and methods for collecting and examining the needed information. It is a framework or blueprint that programs the action for the research projects. The targets of the research methods, the available data options, the urgency of your choice, and the expense of acquiring the data will determined which method is chosen. (William zikmund, 2003).

Sampling

Sampling will involve any methods that use a little number of items or some of a population to make summary regarding the complete population. In other words, an example is a subset from a more substantial population (Zikmund, 2003).

The sampling question that must be asked:

Who is usually to be the sampled?

How big should the sample be?

How the sampling units are to be selected?

There are two types of sampling techniques can be utilized likelihood sampling or non possibility sampling (more will be section 9).

Collecting data

There a wide range of methods of data collections. When the review methods is used, some type of direct involvement by the respondent is necessary during the process. The respondents may take part by filling out a questionnaire or by getting together with an interviewer.

Often there are two stages to the procedure of collecting data;

pretesting

A pre-testing phase, using a small subsample, may determine if the data collection arrange for the study can be an appropriate process.

The main study

The process of collecting data from the selected respondents in the actual population for the analysis.

Processing and examining data

Data processing generally commences with the editing and coding of the data. Editing involves looking at the info collection forms for omissions, legibility, and persistence in classification. The editing process corrects problems such as interviewer problem prior to the data transferred to some type of computer or ready for tabulation.

Analysis is the use of reasoning to comprehend and interpret the info which may have been gathered. Statistical evaluation may range between portraying a straightforward frequency distribution to highly complex multivariate evaluation, such as multiple regressions.

Conclusion and setting up a report

The final level in the study process is to interpret the info and bring conclusions highly relevant to managerial decisions. The study report should talk the research findings effectively. The written record serves several purpose such as it is a historical report, a record which may be described later if the study is to be repeated or it further research is to be based on what has come before.

EXERCISES

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. _____ is the application of the medical method in looking for the truth about business phenomena.

a.

Induction

b.

Application research

c.

Business research

d.

Science

2. Every one of the following are essential aspects of the business enterprise research process EXCEPT:

a.

searching for and collecting information

b.

idea and theory development

c.

analyzing data

d.

making results publicly available

3. Which of listed below are the two types of research predicated on the specificity of its purpose?

a.

basic and applied

b.

scientific and non-scientific

c.

cross-sectional and qualitative

d.

quantitative and secondary

4. _____ is conducted to address a specific business decision for a specific firm or organization.

a.

Basic business research

b.

Qualitative business research

c.

Quantitative business research

d.

Applied business research

5. Which kind of research attempts to check a theory or to find out more on a concept and is not designed to solve a specific business problem?

a.

performance-monitoring research

b.

basic research

c.

total quality management

d.

the medical method

6. Which of the following refers to the way researchers start using knowledge and data to reach objective conclusions about the real world?

a.

qualitative method

b.

quantitative method

c.

scientific method

d.

primary method

7. When a manager decides never to do research just because a decision must be made prior to the results of the analysis can be examined, this is an example of which aspect in the dedication of the need for marketing research?

a.

nature of the decision

b.

time constraints

c.

availability of the data

d.

cost considerations

For each situation above, condition whether it's a basic or an applied research and give known reasons for your answer.

a) Define exploratory research. Explain three (3) interrelated purposes for exploratory research. (7m)

b) List and briefly describe four (4) major factors that must be considered if you wish to conduct Business Research. (8m)

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