Posted at 11.04.2018
In this section, we will be discussing about the historical backdrop of impression management, accompanied by this is and scope of impression management. There are different metaphors which used to describe individuals who use impression management methods. Relating to Shakespeare's As YOU PREFER It : "All of the world is a level, and all the women and men merely players ", he compares the the globe to a level and life to a play, basically means that our life is just a crisis only. However, Shakespeare only interpreted it as a theatrical analogy however, not a sociology theory.
The term was initially modified into sociology from the theater by Erving Goffman, who developed almost all of the related terminology and ideas in his 1959 reserve, "The Display of Personal in Everyday Life". Thus, the theatrical analogy had been altered into dramaturgy, a way of analyzing cultural interaction as if the participants were performing on the stage. Dramaturgy is a sociological point of view starting from symbolic interactionism, and commonly found in microsociological accounts of sociable interaction in everyday living.
Erving Goffman (1922-1982), probably the most original American theorist of the second half of the 20th century, the metaphor of life as theater is abundant with meaning. He found all human conversation as, in some ways, like a grand play. He was not, however, as worried about sweeping generalizations about the human being condition as he's much more concerned with the particulars of daily life-the micro-level interactions between people that, when taken together, constitute the human experience. At this micro level, he argues, the world is much similar to a level than we commonly realize.
Goffman stated that it is impossible to discuss people's selves abstracted from other interpersonal situations. He writes,
"This self applied itself does not derive from its possessor, but from the complete picture of his action. . . this do it yourself is something of a world that comes off, and not a cause of it. The personal, then, as a performed personality, is not an organic thing that has specific location. . . [the specific and his body] just supply the peg which something of collaborative make will be hung for a time. And the opportinity for producing and maintaining selves do not are living inside the peg. (Goffman, 1959, pp. 252-253)"
Thus, the essential unit of sociable analysis is not the average person but instead as the "team", which is in charge of the creation of perceptions of simple fact in interpersonal set-tings. A people's action is definitely depending upon the problem and the folks, yet we're able to not really monitor or even find out the deeper heart and soul of a person.
While Goffman (1959) applied dramaturgy as an instrument for smooth relationships, the idea then changes into a far more applications. Some sociable psychologists like Edward Jones labeled dramaturgy as serving more specific purposes for impression management. Impression management is quite a applied sociology theory that focus on the strategic such as attaining vitality and influencing others. Through the 1970s, the impression management perspective became extremely popular among laboratory-oriented experimental interpersonal psychologists and in the mid 1980s, more organizational studies emerged to work with the impression management construction. Most empirical studies on impression management focus on the situational or individual factors that influence a certain impression management behavior or strategies that affect results like deals, performance appraisal rankings, and job success.
What is impression management ? Impression management is defined as the process by which people try to influence the images that others have of these (Rosenfeld, Giacalone & Riordan, 1995).
According to sociologist Erving Goffman, women and men are like stars, which perform before everyone (audience) to draw in their attentions. They use their experiences as a script, to deal with daily activities. Usually a script contains of basic information that people stored in their mind like the folks engaged, the situations and the meaning of a picture. Without a script, the problem might become chaos, and the actors' behavious might become chaotic as well. When people take part in public intereactions, it is known as performances. The performance includes a blend of verbal and non verbal behaviours, affected by actor's relationship motives. Within the next chapter, we will be discussing more about impression management patterns.
In this chapter, we will discuss about different types of impression management that exist, followed by Jones and Pittman's (1982) impression management taxonomy.
According to Leary and Kowalski( 1990) there are two types of impression management behaviours:verbal impression management behavior and non verbal impression management behavior. Non verbal behaviour contains expressions like teeth, yawns, and etc that can reflect the feeling of the stars without the use of words. Whereas for verbal impression management behaviour, it is thought as the contrary of non verbal behavior because it will involve the action of the stars to influence others.
Verbal impression management can divide into 2 categories, assertive impression management and defensive impression management. . Assertive impression management is a tactic that to show a favourable image on the other. In addition, it further separate into 2 sub-categories, that is other-focused (ensuring the target feel great about himself) and self-focused (try to himself to make it seems that he has a potential skill and posses a good qualities on others). For protective impression management, it is mostly used to correct or protect one's image.
E. E Jones was the first sociologist who investigate the social behaviour. He assumed that the Ingratiation gets the largest power to influence other folks in order to increase their elegance of themselves. Jones and Pittman later developed another 4 classes of self-presentation strategies that will mainly take part in our daily life in order to influence the others. You can find: Intimidation, Self-promotion, Exemplification and Supplication.
The most popular and most analyzed impression management strategy is ingratiation. Additionally it is known as " appeal management ". Regarding to Jones, ingratiation is a process where the ingratiator uncover what the audience locates attractive in an person and then provide it to them. It really is widely used by everyone inside our day to day activities. People engage in ingratiation to enhance their own real power in a romance. Ingratiation can be considered a successful way of influencing others if it can be used wisely.
People who take part in intimidation try to gain social vitality when you are feared. The intimidator make an effort to convince his aim for that he's dangerous. By doing so, he'll gain respect from his focuses on. Intimidation is most likely to take place in working field, family, college and etc.
Unlike ingratiation who wish to be liked, do it yourself promotion concentrate more on being experienced. The actor usually focus more on specific skills that they have, such as playing a drum to attract other folks. The self-promoter wishes to encourage others and portray an image of competence among everyone. Desire to when using this plan is usually an instantaneous one particular as getting accepted into college or university or getting a new job.
The ingratiator needs to be liked, the self promoter wishes to be seen as competent, the intimidator wishes to be feared, and the exemplifier wants to be admired and reputed. He needs to be seen as disciplined and honest Usually the exemplifier always come early at the job or calls for work home everyday. They want everyone understands that they work hard and take part in self sacrifice. By doing so, others will feel guilty because they're different then the exemplifier. The prospective will somehow support the exemplifier by doing the same thing eventually.
The last do it yourself demonstration strategy would be supplication. It is a strategy where someone exploits their weaknesses. The supplicator have a tendency to seek help or sympathy from others. Usually it is utilized by those handicapped people, who cant perform daily activities normally. Supplication is the opposite of self promotion.
As we described in earlier chapters, everyone take part in impression management in their daily lifes, especially the artistes. A couple of three types of strategies artistes use to control their impressions, they are really ingratiation, self campaign, and supplication.
Most of the artistes use ingratiation tactic to attract their fans. Artistes get it done through constitute, wearing provocative clothes, expensive jewelries to portray a healthy look. Thus giving a imitation image towards the public on the appeal of the celebrities. For example, Nicole Kidman won't step out from her house without the make up. Picture if the followers see their idol's real look without any make up, they could feel wonder and disappointed, and this may cause them to aid another artist rather than the initial one. That's why we always see the artistes in heavy constitute or beautiful clothes, but never see them in normal looks.
Besides ingratiation, artistes also use self promotion strategy when participating in impression management. Artistes do it by promoting themselves and portray an image of competence included in this. This can show the difference between the celebrities. They need the audience to recognize them for the abilities, not only their physical appearance. For instance, Tom Luxury cruise is one of the most well known men professional in Hollywood. He could not be as good looking as Brad Pitt, but his unique performing skills made him as the best male actor before a decade. This shows that appearance is not the only real tool to survive in the artistes' world, but also the initial skill that each artist owns.
In addition, artistes also use supplication technique to deal with their impression. As everybody knows, Michael Jackson was found addicted to drugs through the 1990s. He admitted taking Valium, Xanax and Ativan to cope with the stress of the kid sexual abuse allegations made against him, and painkillers actually were recommended to relieve excruciating pain that he was hurting after recent reconstructive surgery on his head. All the fans were shocked and upset when they heard bout that. They can't accept the actual fact that their idol has been on drugs for so long. Some enthusiasts were disappointed and refused to aid him any more. However, he accepted the blunders and acknowledge that needs to be punished. He pleaded the enthusiasts to forgive him for his silly mistakes. In the long run, the followers forgive him for drugs mistreatment and continue steadily to support him. If he didn't apologize to his fans, the problem might altered.
In this assignment, we have a clearer picture about the backdrop of impression management and this is than it. We also recognize that there will vary types of impression management strategies that we use inside our daily activities.
The main purpose for this project is to review about different ways to engage in impression management by different people with different assignments. Artistes, politicians, lectures, and parents are the targets because of this assignment. Through the use of Jones and Pittman Taxonomy, we can understand how the targets deal with their impressions in daily activities. Different people use different technique to deal with their impression, but their goal is the same: get attention.
To conclude, impression management is very important to all folks. We need it in our day to day activities. Everyone wants to produce a good impression whenever we are conversing with other folks. A good impression is very important because we won't get another chance to make a first impression.
Parents tend to be the one who having almost all of the time speak to their children. Hence, it isn't peculiar that parents usually use some type of impression management on their children. Children, on the other hands, will be influenced by their parents, in order to be disciplined or learning to be a well-mannered person in the future. Thus, displaying that impression management is the key part in this field for educating children.
Parents usually use 3 types of impression management about them, there are Ingratiation, Intimidation and Exemplification. In conditions of Ingratiation, parents usually respond friendly before their child. Even though they will work at outstation, leaving them by itself or sending them to the guardinator to have proper care of their child, they call them once weekly to be able to get in touch with them, building a good rapport with them, no matter how far is it. Some parents even buy some material stuff with their kids as their settlement of time. They showering their children with love and harmony, awarding them by taking them to fun-fair every time they done something correctly or scoring a good results. Besides, when the kids feel unhappy to a certain kind of things, like sense not happy using their teacher in daily college experiences, parents will become a good listener, listen to their report or experiences and find a solution for the kids. All in all, parents can "win" their children heart and soul, and in return, children will treat his/her parents again nicely. Ingratiation implies that parents use their positive area of themselves to effect the children conception in the front stage.
The next impression management is Intimidation. This kind of impression is simply regarded as the contrary action of the Ingratiation. Even as we known, Ingratiation is type of the impression to be able to get people attractiveness, whereas for Intimidation, it is kind of the impression that produce the encompassing feel intimidating and dangerous. Parents also using this impression towards their kids. Parents, usually father uses his air of power to teach their children in those times and nowadays as well. This example has made the encompassing very daunting and children will feel the sense of threat towards him. Subsequently, children dare not against to their parents in the future. Even though when children come to the rebellious stage, in addition they dare not build loudly against their parents. This seems much effective than Ingratiation in order to educate their children. Intimidation shows that parents utilizing their negative aspect of themselves to influence/fear the children in leading level but at the back stage, they are incredibly caring for their children.
The pursuing impression management is Exemplification. This is some sort of impression that a person sacrifices himself in order to influence the other people so that the focus on will feel guilty and will changing his/her bad behavior. This usually happen on parents in educating their children as well. For instance, when parents found their children chuck rubbish in the general public without intentionally, they will grab the rubbish and toss it into an effective thrash in front of their children, or whenever the parents noticed others doing so, also picking right up the rubbish and put it in a proper way, before children of course. This has made children guilty that littering is a poor behaviour plus they begin to change themselves, by not duplicating the same blunder again. This implies that parents setting a good example before their children to be able to instil a good morale ideals in it. In china, most parents are incredibly poor. They usually work as a farmer yet they need their children to have a further studies on abroad to obtain a proper level. Thus, in order to fund the training fees, they proved helpful very hard and even sell off their valuable things such as the land or their residence as well to let their children to study. That is also some sort of impression management in parents participating to their children, restricting themselves and making their children to feel guilty if indeed they do not study hard to get a proper degree.
Impression management refers to the average person intentionally or unintentionally effect and control others produced their own impression. Appropriate impression management helps individuals and more to establish good interpersonal romantic relationships, even attracting the attention of others, and then yank nearly the distance between. Therefore, if lecturer can understand of teaching impression management strategies, will attract the interest of students and learning centered, immediately or indirectly, to enhance the students' learning inspiration and success. Goffman said that "Everyone has their own performance to others; everyone is always trying to keep a proper impression in public contexts, to be able to get a positive rating. Everyone has a couple of face-saving or face - keeping strategy that "face work".
The impression management practices of lecturer use is ingratiation, intimidation and exemplification. Ingratiation is the strategy use to effect others, to be able to increase their own private attractiveness. How do we choose to show ourselves, by increase our personal appearance? By clothes, darker clothes to mention power and lighter clothes is produce a friendly image. Usually do not wear the increased jewellery and open-toed shoes. Besides, the majority of the lecturer uses shaping good teaching in order to improve teachers' social status and importance enhance communication between academic institutions and parents. Lecturer emphasis the affect of their record behavior, make an effort to understand university student subcultures, set up a positive self-identity, in order to reduce the spatial distance between teachers and students. Lecturer unauthorized use of ingratiation ways of enhance students' interest in learning, to create a sound and stable self-identity of students.
Intimidation, the utilization of coercion is to show the action itself is a dangerous man, and triggered a horrible impression to others, to simply accept one another for concern with control, in order to achieve their own ends. The majority of lecturer given quizzes and practice in the class to supervise students focus in course, understand students' learning. Students feel reluctant to take quizzes and practice regarding an unpredictable. This situation helps students to increase their awareness. For those their attendance rate is leaner than 80% in each subject matter, examination not allow as their consequence. Students will enroll in their class, nor absence randomly. For individuals who full attendance, bonus marks will give as their rewards.
Exemplification, model strategy use refers to patterns for individuals who show remarkable moral behavior, made to lure enthusiasts exemplary. The core of the strategy is to make others buy into the behavior, in order to get the value of others, and to increase its own impact to the lofty impression of integrity and behavior. If lecturer is reasonable and equitable, students were much more likely to trust the teachers, actively participate in programs. "Score is in your hands, however you make a decision, not for me to decide", let students know the report in their hands, and openness their result. Admiration is important, if professors value the students, the students also noticed seriously under common admiration with the teachers, the students learn the effect will be better. Do not quibble over or any contempt and crumbs attitude, if you give him a face embarrassment, may be next time he not come to category anymore or rest at there, what ever you talk, he not hear also. If students can have the passion and sense of responsibility of the tutor, students take the initiative go to school and take part of positively in category.
In summary, the tutor can directly or indirectly have an impact on the students, but also offers the responsibility to make good income to the future with a number of ways to improve students' learning desire and success. Therefore, as a tutor if the proper use of impression management can promote individual interaction of teachers and students to increase the students' attention and interest of lectures, with the love of learning contexts, and thus effectively improve learning final results.
Do you ever before consider why the politician is usually filled with cheers of support from the people in his or her political speech? Recently in 6 November 2012 of the United States President Election, Barack Obama managed to succeed the election and be able to provide for his country for four years more. It is partly due to the high support from the people of United States. However, we might notice that an election is usually full of political talks. Therefore, politician will need their opportunity to give their point of views in order to get their helps and build up their reputation.
Without doubt, the occurrence of dramaturgy and the use of impression management can be easily observed in politics. Lots of the politicians have their own family and of course they perform differently in several situations. For instance, a politician will perform as an ambitious and encouraged leader before the mass people. On the other hand, politicians will behave to be mean and aggressive to the member of the opposite party. Moreover, they might not act what they are in politic towards their family members and their favorite. It really is then apparent that the actions of politicians are reliant to the situations, and the use of impression management is immensely important to the politicians.
Most notably, what strategies should politicians choose in engaging impression management?
First, most of the politicians use ingratiation tactic as their strategic in politic. The Technique of "ingratiation" is to make one politician more liked and attractive by the others. So politician will sometime find out something that attract the people's attention and offer them something that people really want. They will be regarded as caring, accountable and considerate. The goal of this strategies is to give the nice impression to the people and thus the individuals will support him as a politician. Dato' Sri Haji Mohammad Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak (blessed 23 July 1953) is a Malaysian politician that has been the sixth Best Minister of Malaysia since 2009. Recent time, our Prime Minister Najib have establish many policies that profit all Malaysian. As Malaysia is a multicultural country, 1Malaysia Advertising campaign was set up by the Prime Minister on 16 September 2008. 1Malaysia Marketing campaign put emphasis on ethnic harmony, nationwide unity, and productive governance. Furthermore, Najib also unveiled the Government Change Program (GTP) to increase quality, skill and transparency in public areas service and the government. Specific measures include the use of Key Performance Indicators to gauge the performance of representatives and agencies and Country wide Key Result Areas to identify goals for specific areas of public insurance plan. Najib also create a New Economic Model that will rate Malaysia's move to a higher income country. The program will emphasise ways to improve the income and efficiency of employees by encouraging knowledge companies and increasing investment from overseas.
Moreover, politicians also employ intimidation strategy towards their political enemy like the representative of complete opposite member, terrorists while others. Sometimes the politician stands their point of view very much and they expect that thing can process corresponding to what he says. So they'll use this strategic to fear the people and thus achieving what he want. It may be different to see in a democratic country because the politician will do not want to reduce his helps, but this is widely observed in the some dictators of underdeveloped countries including the last dictator of Libya- Muammar Gaddafi. In a few how they want to scare the folks from preventing them to overthrow his idea and rule. One of these that can make clear this tactic is the famous Munich Agreement that occurred in 30 September 1938. Munich Contract, (September 30, 1938), negotiation come to by Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy that permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland in western Czechoslovakia. As Hitler continued to make inflammatory speeches demanding that Germans in Czechoslovakia be reunited with their homeland, war looked like imminent. Neither France nor Britain believed prepared to protect Czechoslovakia, however, and both were stressed to avoid a armed service confrontation with Germany at nearly every cost. With tons of effort, the Britain and France could actually persuade Hitler to have a getting together with. However, Two Czech associates were only permitted to sit in the room next door. Afterward, Czechoslovakia was prepared by Britain and France that it might either resist Germany only or post to the recommended annexations. Finally, the German army was able to conquer Czech without having a war. It is clear to show that Hitler applied tactic of intimidation and fierce impression towards his enemies made him in a position to achieve his goal.
Furthermore, self-promotion is essential for politician because they want to show the capability by doing this. From this, they will get support and then continue in making contribution to the modern culture. During the election, we can always see many politicians go to their election area to tremble hands with the voters and even offering a political speech. The main purpose of these goes is to promote oneself and gain vote from the people. Among the types of this impression management is the fireside chats of Former President Franklin Roosevelt. They were called fireside chats because fireside chats because when you talk by the hearth, you feel relaxed and relaxed, just like what the fireside chats were intended to end up like. People could be seated at home and pay attention to the president speak. Leader Roosevelt talked the country on the radio about various issues during his presidency. On that time, fireside chats were broadcast every Sunday night time. He spoke of programs such as creating jobs for the unemployed. He provided trust when people needed wish. As a result, he gained great support from the people of The United States that made him elected more than two times.
In self display, we are the actors and the others are the audience and vice versa on other people perception. Generally, all of us will try to show the positive side folks and hide the bad images of us. This can be mainly seen in our daily life experience. For example, we would decorate nicely whenever we dating with somebody else, laughing with other folks although it was a bad joke, and try to pretend a good listener although knowing that it was a boring storyline. So, just ask ourselves, will this scenario has destroy our true identification on pretending others although understanding that something is not heading well. The answer is NO because all of us are making use of the Goffman's theory of role distance, the parting of outward performance as well as inward performances. Therefore, we might outwardly perform a nice, smiling face but inwardly scolding and cursing them instead. Outward performance is comparable to the actor will onstage and the inward sense is related to what the professional does on the backstage. Goffman hence uses this levels to his theory in analysing the self-presentation, dividing into frontstage and backstage. In the front stage, people present their selves in ways expected for others, like audience. On the other hand (backstage), begins to disclose their true individuality, showing no matter for the audience. Frontstage performance is not necessary consider as dishonest or making fool on the others (audience), but it can be perform better if we apply the Jones and Pittman Taxonomy on leading level and conceal our true identification in the back stage inside our daily, it can seems much interesting in order can influence other folks conception as well.