Posted at 11.13.2018
Unsustainable of earth's resources and environmental problems are major current issues that happened by over use and inefficient way of using. Environment change, tool depletion, loss of biodiversity, and polluting of the environment has a significant effect on many people and the earth which require people change their current patterns. Local climate change and global warming are part of serious issues nowadays and are also part of the most important global environmental issues, with implications for food development, water supply, health, energy and so on. Addressing local climate change takes a good medical understanding as well as coordinated action at national and global level from.
PTT is the largest energy company in Thailand which the group's main activity is the procedure of petroleum business. The Group also engages in the exploration and production of petroleum, procedure of natural gas, international trading of crude olive oil, condensate, petroleum and petrochemical products and investment in local refining and petrochemical industries. Its eye-sight and mission should be the preeminent Thai energy firm, operating fully designed coal and oil business, and total energy services. PTT has a definite goal over Quality, Safety, Health insurance and Environment (QSHE). Regarded as the core component of ecological development, QSHE has been analyzed and assessed with the needs of the stakeholders at heart. In conducting energy businesses, it is inevitable for operators to face risks concerning Quality, Safe practices, Health, and Environment (QSHE). Involving this, PTT has constantly paid full attention to the control, protection, and minimization of these risks confronted by stakeholders; customers, suppliers, contractors, shareholders, communities, staff, and the surroundings as a whole. The business has applied output tools and QSHE management systems in all its units to boost its efficiency and the grade of life of staff and communities, and to steadily promote image in the company's cultural and environmental duties. These steps have successfully instilled greater self-assurance in buyers and preferred PTT's international business undertaking. However, lasting building of business also protects the merchandise which its property and production process is environmentally in charge and resource-efficient within a building's life-cycle. All of these elements have to concern of market, utility, strength, and comfort. Biomass briquette is an ideal biomass energy which can boost the PTT's environmental performance more effective and visible because this the merchandise including raw material, production process and new technologies are developed to generate greener activities to reduce the entire impact of the built environment on human health insurance and the environment by:
Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources
Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity
Recycling waste, lowering air pollution and environmental degradation.
Biomass briquettes are an affordable alternative fuel to coal and other sturdy combustible fuels which can be produced by switching low bulk thickness biomass into high density solid fuels (Werther et al. 2000). Biomass briquetting crops are consisted of various types of machines to support different recycleables (Krian et al. 2009). Biomass briquettes are non-conventional source of energy, green in nature, friendly to the environment, non-polluting and inexpensive (Wilaipon 2007). In addition, it's been claimed that. the procedure of changing biomass to sturdy energy is also non-polluting; which means process and product are 100 % natural. Briquette is an excellent Bio-fuel as a result of following reasons:
Eco friendly & alternative energy fuel.
Economical and cheaper than other stable fuels.
Thermal calorific value approximately 4000 Kcal/Kg.
Pollution free & non-hazardous.
Lower ash content 4% - 8%. There is absolutely no take flight ash when burnt.
Consistent high burning up efficiency.
Easy for transportation, feeding, and combustion.
Combustion is more consistent.
Biomass briquettes are an alternative solution renewable energy to coal, and are usually used to flame professional boilers that produce steam including business which requires melt away.
Production process 400
Every season Thailand has an incredible number of a great deal of agricultural wastes are produced. These agricultural wastes are treated a waste with no economical value and either none used or burnt inefficiently in their loose form causing polluting of the environment. However, this 'waste' can be turned into a completely environment-friendly source of energy through briquetting (Biomass briquettes Upgrading coal and LPG. article).
(Sugarcane throw away)
Other agro wastes
Table1. Sorts of raw material (predicated on Werther et al. 2000)
Biomass briquettes are produced by the process of recycling agricultural wastes and forestry wastes. The machinery used works with with multiple agricultural wastes. The agro waste is first pulverized, sieved and then dried out to required moisture content. This is then fed into the hopper of fuel briquette machine, which uses high compression between die and punch causing into cylindrical briquettes. Cylindrical briquettes are thus shaped scheduled to carbonization, achieved by heating system of surface.
Figure1. The Biomass briquette's creation process (based on Callejon Ferre and Lopez Martinez 2009)
Process of Briquetting:
Firstly, crushing machine prepares suited size raw materials for biomass briquetting herb by shredding the organic materials after it is given in to the machine. From then on a tiled steel display will vibrate shredded remains until it separates from land. Then, the remains flower materials were handed into a container of continuous cleansing involves a pivot drum made of screen. After cleaning the plant material, water is polluted and poor, it is taken to purify by water-purification system which is contained in the least expensive of the reservoir. This system allows reused normal water for briquetting process. Second of all, drying machine make suitable moisture natural material for biomass briquette press. For briquetting press, it is merely to control the wetness of raw materials at an acceptable range that can make good consequence of biomass briquettes. Or the briquettes will be cracked because of too loose or too dry. Finally, briquetting press machine makes the biomass materials into briquettes. After the well planning of raw metarial, briquetting is easy at right procedure of biomass briquette press. When machine surge to over 300 centigrade, the material can be nourishing constantly into briquetting press. First, the colour of briquettes may be considered a little dark even dark, but after a while, the color will be light to normal level appearing out of biomass briquette machine. Finally, packing is the previous procedure for briquetting process that your packing machine will load final biomass briquettes and then wrap with a thermal shrink cover by thermal shrink wrapping machine
Finished Product Briquettes
Briquettes are ready replacement of lignite, coal and solid wood in professional boiler and brick kiln for thermal program including homes' lifestyle. Biomass briquettes are non-conventional way to obtain energy, eco-friendly, renewable in character, non polluting and economical. It's made through binder less technique without use of any kind of chemical so it is 100% natural. Compared to fire real wood or loose biomass, briquettes give much higher boiler efficiency because of low moisture content and higher thickness.
Marketing 200 Explain how it could be marketed (academic resources)
According to (Suksumek 2007) air pollution problem by using lignite at Mae Moh Vitality flower in Thailand in 1992 and triggering bad effect to villagers, ability seed employees and crop of local areas, it creates negative image of using lignite and coal which Thai authorities solves the situation by transfer coal from oversea. Therefore, it is an excellent possibility to market biomass briquette product in Thailand. The developing, situated in Thailand, offers a geographical gain to Tesco since it is populated. . . In addition, demand usage of coal is high while low competition in clean petrol product as biomass briquette.
Table1. Forecast on Main Energy Demand (based on Suksumek 2007)
The multiple utilization of the end product enables us to exploit the opportunities in both
commercial and commercial markets. Our place will cater to the SA and UK commercial and domestic commercial market such as steel manufacturing plant life or electrical plants. There are many potential markets for gasoline briquettes in the places and in the rural areas.
The prospects for the briquettes:
Gasifies System App
Brick Making Units
Sponsorship: The plan suggests motivating customer's conception and also enhances customer interactions in term of green company and green product by integrating green initiatives into every aspect of the organization which links the association of the company and briquette product with an individual, event or firm to display in public responsibility.
Using eco-labels and eco-logos on products or marketing materials: The plan aims to point out in term of renewable product by putting eco-label and eco-logos on briquette's packaging to increase customer's recognition.
Engaging customers in renewable marketing: The marketing plan will stimulate consumers by motivating them to participate and take part in the marketing campaign or straight with the product through renewable clubcard.
E-marketing: In term of viral marketing, the plan will target online language resources like Tesco's website chatroom, article media, emails online situations and will sell the product through Tesco's own website.
Personal Selling: Because of briquette is low-value product and it is required to use within many establishments; therefore face-to-face contact provides better opportunity to sell briquette for variety to establishments.
45% of the product is exported to the united kingdom retaining 55% than it for the Thailand market.
Distribution in Thailand will be done right to clients upon placing an order or known as Just-In-Time because the briquette product's lead time is short. Moreover, it is available in every branches of Tesco store in Thailand although it comes in Tesco extra in UK. However, there may be some amount of product storaged in warehouse to support an emergency.
Due to property of product and distance of travel, the biomass briquette product would require strong and waterproof packaging. For this reasons, Thermal Shrink wrapping which is inexpensive and environmentally friendly is utilized as packaging of product. This elastic plastic wrap can also used to safeguard product when it's not in use. Moreover, it can be used for big and small items; so that it provides an gain to product and company for future development. In this technique, briquettes are given into the packing machine, heat is employed to condense the bed sheets of packing materials to mildew, or reduce to the proper execution of this content it will protect.
Briquettes have high specific density; therefore it can withstand the stocks and options of long distance travel, launching and unloading. Furthermore, travelling costs are significantly less and storage requirement is drastically reduced. For delivery both in case of shipment and transport, this course of action concerns about weather change and environment friendly, and purposes to improve carbon footprint. The merchandise will be provided with writing lorry by working in partnership with others and suppliers in home and international. For our very own transportation, we use increasingly more double-decker trailers, which carry 55 percent more products per journey (solo deck: 45, double deck: 75 cages per trip). In addition, battery-powered vans are making deliveries for our online store, Tesco. com that will save around 180 tonnes of CO2 each year. From these effective deliveries, Tesco can reduce CO2 emission, save cost and gain higher revenue.