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What are events?

2. 1 WHAT EXACTLY ARE EVENTS?

Events play a essential role in human society. Minimal excuse could be found once and for all forms of festivities. Events are designed acts and performances, which hails from ancient history. Events and celebrations are well recorded in the historical period before the fall of the European Roman Empire (A. D 476). They provide important function for the modern culture, providing members with the opportunity to assert their identities and to discuss rituals and activities with one another. Happenings have its stem from ethnic and historical worth. In the middle ages, events and ceremonies performed a major role in making certain a lifeless daily living was enlivened and that people was amused. Since at that time there is no Tv set or Net for entertainment. People have traditionally celebrated religious festivals, Xmas, Easter, Cavadee, Maha Shivratree. They also have participated in other major occasions staged by rulers of ancient time. Within the seventeen and eighteen hundred years, Kings have planned events in ways to obtain control on the public.

In modern societies, traditional religious and national festivals are no more a key focus for festivities and gatherings. They give attention to creative situations like wedding ceremonies, anniversaries, award ceremonies, etc. ( Shone and Parry, 2004)

An event is any gathering that occurs at a given time in confirmed place. It is an occurrence, a substantial gathering that takes place in a interpersonal setting. However, there are no standardized definitions of what's an event. A meeting is "a unique moment in time celebrated with wedding ceremony and ritual to meet specific needs. ( Goldblatt 1997 p. 2)

The Accepted Routines Exchange (APEX) industry glossary of conditions (CIC, 2003) defines an event as, an sorted out occasion like a appointment, convention, exhibition, special event, gala meal, etc. a meeting comprises of numerous yet related functions. Getz (2005, p. 16) argues that a principle deciding on events is they are temporary and this ˜ Every such event is unique loading from the blend of management, program, establishing and folks. '

Modern events change in terms of their scale, difficulty and volume of stakeholders involved.

Small Event Massive Event

Few stakeholders Many stakeholders

Clear objectives Complex objectives

There will vary types of situations which may have been developed around the world to match the needs of everyone. It ranges from individual to business occasions that gather people around the world.

2. 1. 1The importance of events

It is crucial for event organizers to address the needs of the stakeholders, the direct and indirect members. Event organizers have to bear in mind his clientele. If for the coffee lover it is the nth event they can be organizing, they need to keep in brain that this same event might be the first one, the dream and opportunity of a lifetime for its individuals and spectators. Bearing this at heart, event organizers must coordinate each event with the same zeal, drive and thrill as they planned the first one. Organizers have to address the precise aspect of their jobs as each event has different characteristics and requirements. In addition all happenings and their customers are important. They deserve the best treatment whenever a meeting occurs. It's important for event managers to own best treatment possible as an unhealthy service will cause customer dissatisfaction and lack of business in the long run. ( Watt, 1998)

Events have a number of jobs in a vacation spot (Yeoman, Robertson, et al, 2004). Getz, 1997, identifies these as ˜destinations, image designers, animators of static visitors attractions and catalyst for further development. They have the potential to reduce negative impacts of mass visitation and foster better host-guest relationships. Events can increase tourists season, extend top season or even bring in new season in to the life of a community'. The city development perspective on event travel and leisure acknowledges the elements of community nature and pride, firm, leadership, improvement of community traditions, capacity to control development, improvement to interpersonal and health services and environmental quality.

2. 1. 2 Characteristics of the best events

The elements that make best occasions are:

  1. A eye-sight and an explicit reason behind everyone's work.
  2. SMART targets to which many people are committed.
  3. A satisfactory, flexible organizational structure competent to accomplish precise duties, but retaining a huge unity of purpose.
  4. Staffs that is devoted and ready to ˜go the step beyond'.
  5. Strong leadership to have the ability to manage the function.
  6. Exact complete planning carried out and documented within an ideal timescale.
  7. A coordinated team effort that works within financial ideas, attracting on all accessible resources.
  8. Well-organized lines of marketing communications.
  9. A fantastic general population image.
  10. Successful advertising and demonstration, and built in contingency practices.
  11. Full dedication towards customers.
  12. Efficient ongoing control and monitoring systems.
  13. An ambiance of harmony, focus and hard work, laughter and interest.
  14. Good post event evaluation. (Designed from Watt, 1998)

2. 2Event Concept

All events start with an idea. The theory describes the function in its simplest forms. Concepts are clear statements that give meaning and parameters to a meeting idea. Defining a meeting concept is an innovative process. The 5 W's: WHO, WHAT, WHY, WHEN and WHERE, are tools used for changing an idea into a concept. The W's really helps to know if an event idea is possible, viable and lasting. Those questions are crucial as they condition the function design and reveal the event goal (Goldblatt. 2001).

WHO: events bring together people who deliver the event experience. Those individuals include suppliers, stakeholders, audience, planers and so forth. For events to be successful it is important to determine who is responsible for what. Also communication should stream smoothly among all people involved as events have effects on wider neighborhoods.

WHAT: Events experience includes organizational clubs that designs the contents of the event. This process is time consuming. By developing a mission assertion specific goals and needs are set up. The mission affirmation defines the target and aids in establishing the function in the wider external context.

WHY: It's important to consider why an event is going on. Consider the purpose of the function. All situations have a purpose, whether it's an inaugural service, cultural festival or a politics meeting.

WHEN: Timing of events is a critical factor for its success. In the design and development stage, planning process, including research, funding, marketing and design has to be considered. In the case delivery process place availability, creation timelines, performers, customers, fighting events and company availability needs to be taken into consideration.

WHERE: the location of the event needs to be considered. The decision of venues depends on type of occasions, organizations budget and accessibility to the general public.

(Source: Robinson, Wale and Dickson, 2010)

2. 3Event classification

Events are generally classified according to their size and type. Firstly we will look at the event classification by size; which is mainly of three categories:

  1. Mega events
  2. Hallmark events
  3. Major events

2. 3. 1Mega Events

Mega Events are very large situations with congested audience and a good management team behind its firm. Allen et al. (2005) defines mega events as ˜those that are so large they have an impact on complete economies and reverberate in the global media. They include Olympic Games and World Fairs. ' Mega happenings require a long time of business and it targets travelers as well as the web host population organizing the event. Mega Events look into every aspect of life at the vacation spot through the event; carry, medical services in case there is injuries, shops. (Getz 1997) suggests that mega events should have several million guests and capital cost amounting to at least 500 million. It should have a trustworthiness of essential see event. Additionally he argues, ˜Mega happenings, by way of their size or significance, are the ones that produce extraordinarily high degrees of tourism, mass media coverage, prestige or monetary impact for a host destination'.

Till now, in Mauritius has not yet planned such mega events.

2. 3. 2Hallmark Events

Hallmark Events aren't on such huge level. Such events take place consistently in the same destination. The word hallmark event refers to' a continuing event that possesses such significance, in conditions of tradition, appeal, image, or publicity, that the function provide the number place, a community, or destination with a competitive advantage'. (Getz, 1997)

˜Those happenings that become so discovered with the heart or ethos of your town, city or region, that they become synonymous with the name of the place, and gain common recognition, and awareness'. (Allen et al. , 2005).

The advantages of such hallmark incidents are the creation of new facilities, advancements to the infrastructure, an increase in tourism revenues.

In Mauritius, the spiritual festivals, namely, Maha Shivratree and cavadee which are celebrated by the Hindus, draw in many vacationers and there is also advertising coverage.

2. 3. 3Major Events

Major Situations can involve more folks than a hallmark event. Such occasions have great pulling power in conditions of visitors, media and performers/opponents. They also generate significant economical impact in the variety destination. Major events include temporary occupation for some people (for example, to focus on food stalls, cleaning services, etc. ). It also attracts lots of volunteers and press coverage.

Many top international sporting championships works with into this category, and are increasingly being popular, and bid for by national sporting organizations and governments in the competitive world of international major situations. (Allen et al. 2002)

It can be said that, in Mauritius there's been major events. One of these being les Jeux des Iles de l'Ocean Indien organised in 2003 in which a games village was made at ebene for the accommodation of the runners. Now the federal government has sold those rentals. There has been international media coverage of the event and medical facilities, retail outlets, transportation of runners, etc were provided.

2. 4Special Eventsand Festivals

In recent years special events have grown to be one of the fastest growing areas of the tourism industry. As mentioned by G. Bowdin, I. McDonnell et al, 2001, the word special occurrences enclose specific rituals, presentations, shows and get-togethers. Special events are staged to make or celebrate a special occasion. The defining characteristic of a particular event is its transience; ( Gilbert and Lizotte, 1998: 73). This suggest it might be impossible to tempt and keep maintaining the same sense of thrill if a specific special event were to be placed more often ( Yeoman, Robertson, et al, 2004). Special events include nationwide day celebration, sporting events, and important civic events. A good example could be, the Maha Shivratree celebration celebrated by the Hindus in Mauritius.

Getz (2005, p. 16) Defines special occurrences from two perspectives. One from the idea of view of the event organizer and the next from the eye of the visitor.

  1. ˜A special event is a one time or frequently occurring event outside normal programs or activities of the sponsoring or arranging body'
  2. For the guest the ˜event can be an chance for a leisure, sociable or social experience outside the normal range of options or beyond everyday experience'.

Getz added that the characteristics of special incidents are specialness, it generates a mood of festivity one of the guests, they can be unique and traditional. They have got specific styles.

The word event comes from feast and signifies a unique time for party. Festivals connect landscape to lifestyle and complicated ways by introducing the human sizing. Those events entertain locals and offer recreational activity in and out season for visitors. Media coverage produced by occurrences helps areas build confidence and a positive image in the travel and leisure market place.

Festivals are striking to communities seeking to handle issues of civic design, local pride and identity, traditions, urban renewal, employment opportunities and economic progress. The more a meeting sometimes appears by its variety community as emerging from within alternatively than imposing to them, the higher that community's approval of the function will be. Celebrations and occasions generally stand for the host community's sense of itself and sense of place.

Among the attributes that Getz is convinced makes an event special and unique are its festive soul, uniqueness, quality, authenticity, custom, hospitality, theming and symbolism.

Conferences fall under the common umbrella of the term event. Therefore, it's important to consider the MICE industry when talking about events.

2. 5 The MICE Industry

The Meetings, Bonuses, Conventions and Exhibitions (MICE) Industry is known as a service industry that combines trade, vehicles, travel and financing. Additionally it is known as business tourism whereby people come to attend meetings, for example. MICE Travel and leisure attracts priceless business to an area and in return brings high earnings to local economies in the sense that business travellers spend more, not only on hotels and restaurants but even on leisure activities such as goes to to retails and local sights such as museums and theaters' (Clark, 2004). Guests of MICE activities are known as ˜high spend' travelers that meet the needs of yield driven tourism strategies (Braun, 1992). The MICE industry is characterized by the 3 Highs - High expansion potential, high added worth and highly beneficial enhancements. ; The "three larges - large outcome, Large opportunities for occupation and large industry organizations ; and the " three advantages - advantages over business in human resources, technological knowhow and the useful usage of resources.

It has been cited that within tourism, conferences and conventions are one of the fastest growing segments (Weber & Ladkin, 2003; Oppermann, 1996; Oppermann & Conn, 1997). The MICE sector is considered to be the blue chip of the tourism industry. The stakeholders in Mauritius are placing special interest and investing highly in this lucrative business of meetings to get MICE businesses from particularly high profile spots.

Meetings are organized events which bring people collectively to argue a subject of common interest, may be commercial or non commercial, may be went to by 6 or even more people and could last a few hours or a week. What makes a gathering qualify as part of the tourism business is that it engages some of the service of the travel and leisure industry, and is normally held from the location of the company operating it ( Davidson, 1994). There are many types of reaching that occurs in different options and many goals or aims for conducting a meeting (Boehme, 1999).

Incentive travel is a common management device that uses a superb travel experience to encourage and/or recognise members for improved levels of performance to get the organizational goals. (SITE, 1998)

Conferences are participatory meetings that are designed mainly for the intended purpose of discussions, to find in regards to a particular subject, to resolve problems and consultation. Conferences are usually on the smaller level and the move of information is less sophisticated. Conferences are usually limited in time and also have specific objectives. The Meetings Industry Connection (1996) defines a convention as ˜ A meeting involving 10 or even more people for a minimum of four time during 1 day or more, frequently held outside the company's own premises'.

Exhibitions'. ˜Exhibitions bring suppliers of goods and services together with customers, usually in a specific industry sector'. (Allen et al. 2002:15)

Recently there has been an initiative never to use the "MICE Market label but instead "The Conferences Industry as it includes every part of the MICE label.

2. 6 Marketing of incidents and conferences

Marketing is seen as a built-in procedure for producing, distributing and reselling goods and services. Lyndsey Taylor sums up the key characteristics and emails that genuine marketing consists of:

  • Meeting customer needs
  • Attracting new customers
  • Reacting to market trends
  • Keeping up with competitors
  • Encouraging customer loyalty
  • Targeting specific customers
  • Identifying market opportunities
  • Noting customer feedback
  • Getting it right every time

The event industry sometimes appears as a service industry. Events have the same characteristics as services (Watt, 1998). They are:

  • Intangible - customers enjoy the benefits and excitement of the event, nevertheless they can't touch the event
  • Perishable- the benefits and enjoyment can't be stored and carried forward to a future time. It must be enjoyed at that moment.
  • Inseparable- it takes event organizers and customers to make a meeting happen
  • Consistent- it's important to offer constant products an services as today's customers are looking for persistence
  • Lack of possession- happenings do not participate in any one. These are temporarily relished by many.

Since events will be the identical to services it becomes important to advertise them. Marketing is a persuasive tool to appeal to people to an event. Event marketing is defined by:

1. "The marketing concept holds that the main element to obtaining organizational goals contains deciding the needs and needs of target markets (thought as the group of actual and potential buyers of products) and providing the desired satisfactions better and efficiently than competitors. (Kotler, 2000)

2. "The functions of event management that will keep in touch the event's members and tourists (consumers), read their needs and motivation, develop products that meet those needs, and build a communication program which expresses the event's goal and goals. (Hall, 2000)

2. 6. 1 Factors in marketing

Marketing can be afflicted by a variety of factors, some controllable plus some not (Watt, 1998). He further mentioned companies must be aware of them:

  • Location; attractiveness and convenience of the area as well as environmental factors like traffic and landscapes.
  • Social factors; the attitudes of those involved in making an event or conference to happen affects people's attitudes to what is appropriate.
  • Cultural affects; different categories in society; cultural groups, social groups, will view occurrences from different sides.
  • Fashion; at certain period certain situations will maintain craze and can attract large attendees.
  • Political factors; government will be in favor of those events that meets their beliefs.
  • Economic factors; how much cash is available to hold a meeting or conference. Is there a dependence on sponsorship?
  • Philosophy; the beliefs and attitudes of people will affect the number of occasions provided.

2. 6. 2 Marketing Concept; theMarketing Mix

The marketing combination is a blend of marketing tools that are being used to meet customers. It is the guidelines that are within the control of marketing managers. The marketing combination is dependent after environmental scanning, market research, understanding users and offering quality products and services. The marketing mixture can be changed on a consistent basis to meet up with the changing needs of focus on populace and other dynamics of the marketing environment. In the events industry, event managers consider the changing needs of its customers to build up their marketing mixture. Jerome McCarthy (1960), a famous internet marketer state governments that marketing decisions are categorized as four categories:

2. 6. 2. 1 Product

This is the outcome - the event; exhibition, show or meeting. It also involves all ancillary contributions like programmes, presentations, quality creation and customer care.

2. 6. 2. 2 Price

Can the function be provided at an affordable price? Can price packages be assembled to support group attendance or traveler rates?

2. 6. 2. 3 Place

Place has several aspects. These include:

Venue, move, accommodation, emergency gain access to, car parking, geographic location, sponsor town, providing location, environmental conditions, signposting, country, maps, region.

2. 6. 2. 4 Promotion

Promotion also offers several aspects, including:

Advertising, brand, pamphlets, displays, promotion, posters, merchandising. Appendix K elaborates on the role of advertising in the marketing mix

An excellent event manager will balance these aspects to produce a fine marketing mixture. The best thought must be for individuals and their quality concern; all operations at each period with any level need to acknowledge the components of the marketing blend.

For some services, including situations, another 4Ps needs to be considered. These include;

People; they are the essential picture in delivering events and conferences, especially proper customer care and effective teamwork.

Packaging; can be involved with the way events and meetings are being provided; whether within a getaway/ business package deal. Any marketing would depend upon the presentation, e. g, a family group package.

Partnership; the help of others and their marketing occurrence is very good for make the function or seminar successful.

Programming; when an event or conference is scheduled will be a main tool in its marketing. It will arouse curiosity and create interest by using extra tasks around it.

(Adapted from: Watt, 1998)

2. 7Impacts of special situations and conventions

Impacts of incidents encompass a big amount of positive benefits and negative influences which occurs because of a meeting taking place. Impacts can maintain positivity as well as negative. It's the task of the event manager to identify and predict these influences and manage them in order to achieve the best balance. Those influences may be visible before the situations actually take place, during the event and after the event and have an effect on the stakeholders and the sponsor population. Thus, it could be argued that there surely is inequity in the distribution of the influences and advantages of occasions. (Hall. 1989) typically effects from events are categorized as four categories, particularly:

  1. Economic Impacts
  2. Physical and Environmental Impacts
  3. Socio ethnical Impacts
  4. Political Impacts

2. 7. 1 Economic Impacts

Researchers and industry pros agree that special occurrences and conventions contribute to regional and national economies (Rutherford & Kreck, 1994). Regarding to Crompton et al. (2001), monetary impacts of happenings supplements the traditional financial balance bed sheets that not address the issue of the actual host populace gets in exchange of those situations.

The financial benefits that incidents bring to coordinator vacation spot are diverse. They bring a rise in work and high income among the city, increased taxes receipts and infrastructure. Hosting occurrences demand work force, therefore, the host country's population benefit from non permanent as well as everlasting jobs. It can be said that it's more beneficial to employ people residing in the region the event is held since there is no move cost incurred. But even if labor is unavailable in the region the event has been held this isn't such a significant concern. As Mauritius is a tiny island, one can reach the farthest distance from one spot to another in one hour. Vacationers and locals come to occasions to invest; they purchase the tickets to wait to entertainments shows, they spend on food and drink and so forth. Investment property is injected in the local economy. Hence, incidents enhance the quality of life of people since the positive changes brought to the locality will stay even after the event has been kept.

The costs from the economic influences of events are the exploitation of resources, inflated prices and opportunity costs. Vendors choose to augment their prices, making more profit to the detriment of the variety populace Customers of incidents make inefficient use of the resources. For example, in a sporting event, in an instant of thrills, they can damage the lightings. After the infrastructure is damaged, people won't be attracted to the event. There will be negative person to person and they may choose to stop approaching there. For an area economy that is dependent entirely on web host events, its economy suffers. Also, travelers have high spending power.

2. 7. 2 Physical and Environmental impacts

Events are great way to showcase the unique features of hosts' surroundings. In the interest of sustainability, reasonable proper management, cost efficiency and increasing sponsorship/funding, it becomes progressively more important to consider environmental effects of occasions. Today's customers want for friendly to the environment products. Events market the surroundings where it is placed. Hall (1989) states that offering the image of a meeting comprises of the marketing of intrinsic properties of the vacation spot. The effects will be pretty visible for happenings that are organised in suitable goal built locations, e. g, stadium, activities ground or meeting and exhibition centres. Influences will be much greater if the event is usually to be held in public areas areas not typical reserved for event purposes. An event requires an environmental impact examination before authorization is given by government authorities to proceed

Events have positive effects on the natural and physical environments. The infrastructure at the destination is re arranged, proper street network, light and scavenging facilities are create to accommodate incidents. There is an improved transport and communication center in your community. Many of London's landmark venues have been the legacy of major incidents, including Crystal Palace (1851 Freat Exhibition)

Negative environmental and physical impacts of events appear when the amount of visitor use is higher than the holding capacity of the region. Aspects such as group motion and control, noise levels, access and parking are crucial elements. Other important issues include wear and tear of the physical and natural environment, heritage safety and disruption of the neighborhood community. Situations cause potential risks to natural and built areas. This put tremendous strain on the area and contributes to effects such as land degradation (erosion), increased pollution, discharges into the soil, loss of natural habitat. It often put a tension on drinking water resources and in the long run can force locals to be competitive for the utilization of critical resources. The various types of travel utilized by the delegates, participants' performers and organizers of occasions impacts on traffic congestion.

Good communication and consultation with local regulators can help take care of of the issues. Furthermore, careful management planning must modify impacts.

2. 7. 3 Socio cultural impacts

Hall and Getz (1997) highlights that all events have direct socio cultural influences on members as well as sponsor community.

Events increase pleasure of its residents, which results from some community situations, national day's festivities, and the validation of specific teams in the areas. Some events leave a legacy of greater awareness and engagement in wearing and ethnic activities. Other's widens people ethnical horizons and discover them to new and challenging people, practices and values. For instance, the melas presented in Leeds every summertime have caused the powerful spiritual Asian customs and cultural associations before wider people. Events possess the art to task the creativeness and explore new strategies. For example the installing the ICE outdoor ice-skating rink at millennium square in Leeds. In addition, events have the power to form the cornerstone of ethnical strategies. Newham Council have developed its local social strategy, ˜Reasons being Cheerful' at the centre which is the eyesight that individuals choosing to stay in Newham by 2010. Essentially, events can become an chance to improve social romantic relationships, for strengthening peoples abilities to comprehend one another and then for individuals wellbeing ( Kurtzman and Zauhar, 1997).

The bigger and much more high profile a meeting is, greater alternatives exists for what to fail, hence creating negative influences. Major events can provide climb to unintended public consequences like, substance abuse, unaccepted crowd tendencies and a rise in legal activity (Getz, 1997). If not been able well, these unintended implications can hijack the plan and determine the general public perception of the function. English football clubs have successfully executed strategies to offer with liquor related bad group behavior to be able to protect their reputation. Badly been able events can likewise have broader influences on cultural life and community buildings. These range from lack of amenity because of sound or crowds, resentment of inequitable circulation of costs and benefits as explained by (Getz 1997). Furthermore, commodification, staged authenticity and standardization are grouped as negative impacts.

2. 7. 4 Politics Impacts

Politics as well as politicians play an important part in the equation that is contemporary event management. Politicians believe that events could keep its people in good health and themselves in ability. It is because politicians use occurrences as an indirect means to build their personal profile and gain political gain. Arnold et al. (1989, pp 191-2) argued that ˜Government authorities in electricity will continue to use events to punctuate the ends of their intervals in office, to arouse nationalism, excitement and lastly, votes. Governments know about the power of events to improve the profiles of politicians and the areas that they lead.

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