TOPIC: Drinking water QUALITY REPORT
Question one: Potential resources of air pollution and their potential effect on human health insurance and environment.
The Bevern River in Wales has for many years been clean and clear of pollution. However in the modern times it have confronted different threats of pollution that contain posed risk to water environment and the living of the several fish species living in it. The major potential way to obtain air pollution to the Bevern stream is the sewage system that runs across the Bevern stream the inspection chambers between the Barcombe and the Barcombe sewage treatment work overflow sometimes and the waste products are aimed to the stream. The overflow has made the degrees of the E. coli to go up above the normal required amount in such a stream. The feaces also include a great deal of ammonia and has therefore increased the amount of the dissolved Nitrogen and phosphates.
The surrounding that is also polluted with the sewage wastes has also raised a problem over air pollution in the stream. The waste material is cleaned down the stream during rainfall season and the condition of pollution therefore persists. In September 2007, the situation of serious pollution was came across in the Bevern stream when the natural sewage burst in to the stream.
The uncooked sewage has more health and environmental results than the treated sewage and through the drip of the fresh wastes in to the river; the water quality was adversely afflicted. (Lorna, and Jamie, 2001)
The problems that are associated with the situation of air pollution are serious. The pollutant cause the surge of the E. coli and amount of the dissolved phosphates and Nitrates that also decrease the amount of Dissolved Air in the that can affect the life span of the kinds moving into the waters that cannot cope with low oxygen.
The issue of overflow of the Inspection chamber was fixed but the hazard still remains as the as the surfaces of the river nearby the chamber are vulnerable and with the slightest rainwater, they can still burst and overflow.
Bevern stream drains its drinking water to Sussex River Ouse whose tributaries are at risk from the pollution of the several sewage treatment plant life that drain the sewage throw away to these channels. Because of this, the Sussex river remain threatened to pollution from these treatment plants that have very low standards according to the river Sussex Conservation Population and other societies.
The often breakdown of the infrastructure across the Bevern stream is also a potential source of water air pollution in the stream.
The existence of high degrees of E. coli and low dissolved oxygen can result in the fatality of the fish species in the water. The pollution of this with Nitrates and Phosphates is also dangerous as it can lead to the expansion of harmful drinking water plants that can cause result to the vertebrates in the river and can also reduce the rate of floe of the river that can also affect the amount of Dissolved Oxygen.
The solid wastes from Wales community neighboring the stream also impede the flow of water in the Bevern stream, the stable wastes also increase sediments in the river that impact the activity of the vertebrates hence lack food and pass away. They also demolish the mating sites which includes adversely reduced the amount of species in the water.
The consumption of this polluted water can be dangerous to real human health as they cause Typhoid from the E. Coli bacterias present in water from the sewage wastes.
Question Two: The limits to obtaining data on drinking water quality that effectively displays the changing conditions in the stream.
The assortment of data on the grade of water in Bevern stream is not reliable and reliable. The problem of collecting data is from the changing in the fauna and flora in the stream, at the mouth of the where in fact the tributary Bevern joins River Sussex, there are several types of vertebrates which can be because of this of low degree of pollution at the site while in the lower mainstream of the river, there are less species as they pass away from the immediate sewage pollution from the Barcombe sewage treatment section. If examples of this inflatable water are taken from these two factors of the stream, there will be a great difference in the results that cannot be relied for the real drinking water quality changes currently experienced in the river. Several snail kinds that are not capable of surviving in low dissolved Air die sooner or later of the stream as well as nymph. (Duncan, and Horan, 2003) That is from the increase in the level of the phosphates and ammonia level in the water.
There is a larger difference in the grade of drinking water at different points of the river, the data collected therefore shouldn't be limited to few samples and really should include several samples from different factors. The analysis completed on the normal water should be utilized to consider an average so that the water quality results can be set alongside the Western european Community Fresh Drinking water Fish Directive.
The other limitation that can also emerge from the info is from the capability of different vertebrates and other types to survive in different normal water quality. Some can survive in low dissolved Oxygen while some like fish cannot. The PH of the may also not be fit for a few animal species but can favour some. It is therefore very unreliable to gather data at the stream predicated on some factors. The stream should be upgraded to the salmonid normal water quality standards which are thorough than the EC benchmarks. The Bevern water quality deteriorates downstream because of this of the cared for sewage discharge in to the stream Dichling which is closer to the sewage release. The result on the grade of water also is determined by the season, for example through the dry summer periods; the stream water quality is very poor as compare to the winter.
The benchmarks are compared for just two fish kinds, the Salmonid and the Cyprinid in which the former is sensitive and need extremely high quality water. (Lorna, and Jamie, 2001)
Question Three: Put together what the results for nutrient levels (e. g. , ammonia, nitrate and phosphates) tell you about the trophic status of the stream.
Trophic status of any water person is defined with regards to the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition present in this as well as the algae. These two nutrients will be the key determinants of the trophic status which is the biological fertility or productivity of the water body. The levels of the three nutrition in the Bevern stream are significantly higher than the standard EC Fisheries directives for both Salmonid and Cyprinid kinds. (Crompton, 2002) This indicates that the stream is relatively fruitful which is why the stream has a whole lot of plants growing in it as well as algae in this particular. These vegetation provide food for different vertebrates in this particular that result to breeding and increase in the number of kinds in the stream. The nymph in the stream eats the algae. The seafood prey on these small invertebrates and from other misuse they add the quantity of Ammonia and phosphates in this. The balance between levels of these nutrition is managed through the several trophic levels.
Treated sewage release from Barcombe treatment section in to the stream help increase the levels of these nutrients. The high level of Dissolved Oxygen is also favorable for the increment of the fertility of the stream that raises production. The DO in the stream is very high when compared with the set EC benchmarks for dissolved air as seen from the stand above. Oxygen favors the introduction of algae and other normal water plants. The availability of these plant life is a ready source of food to some species. This lead to the upsurge in number of this species which form food for the fish and other vertebrates. The trophic position of the Bevern stream is fairly high and the future increase in the amount of species is possible as long as pollution is handled.
Bavern stream fresh normal water aquatic environment studies confirmed that at the mouth area of river Sussex, there are several types of fish that exist because of this of the trophic position in the stream. The issue of air pollution in the stream has been desired by environmentally friendly Agency and this has assisted in the improvement and maintenance of good trophic status in the stream.
Question Four: What do the bacteriological data tell you about levels and sources of faecal air pollution in the Bevern stream?
The level of the Escherichia coli is 64000 per 100ml and the Entercoli is 32000 per 100ml. These prices are very high in the stream which shows that there surely is faecal air pollution in the stream. The faecal pollution is from the sewage discharge from the treatment works across the stream. The are also likelihood of untreated sewage release into the stream that has brought on in the advanced of the Enterococci which is a colony of the intestinal coli in normal water. The levels are induced by the leakage of the September incident where in fact the sewage over flew in to the river.
The adjoining area can also be producing faecal pollution in to the stream. The animal faeces in the local forest is accountable for the intestinal coli in the stream which are very high.
Generally this particular quality in Bevern stream is good and advantageous for aquatic biodiversity as the level of Dissolved Air and the ammonia and phosphate nutrition are high. The E. coli is high which is dangerous to the health of folks living about the stream. (Crompton, 2002) The faecal air pollution is a major source of the waterborne diseases that impact the city living around. The sources of the faecal air pollution a wide range of and cannot be avoided unless the amount of treatment for the sewage discharged in the stream is lifted to better standards.
The natural data implies that the stream is more polluted with the faecal wastes from both treated sewage and the encompassing area which is also potential way to obtain faecal pollution for the Bevern stream.
The intestinal coli is a warranty that their must be some direct disposal of feaces in to the stream with no treatment or there is certainly discharge of raw sewage in to the stream. This also demonstrates there are afflicted people around with the E. coli bacterias that cause Typhoid, Dysentery or Diarrhea in human beings. However it is not proved that water shrew faeces are present in the stream. The current research that has been conducted by the Sussex Conservation Population is underway where cheap tubes are establish near the normal water with muslin bait at one end, the shrews will type in the pipe to feed on this delicacy. If they are found then the faecal wastes will be too much which will have drawn the faecal shrews. (www. sussex-ouse. org. uk/research/index. htm)
Crompton, R. (2000). Determination of Organic Compound in Normal water, (NY, Macintosh Graw Hill)
Lorna, F. and Jamie, B. (2001). Drinking water Quality, Rules, Quality and Health, (London, MacMillan)
Joseph, A. (2004). Waterborne Zoonoses, (London, MacMillan)
Mason, F. (2002). Biology of Freshwater, (New York, Wesley)
Duncan, D. and Horan, J. (2003). Water and Wastewater Microbiology, (London, Oxford College or university Press)
Bull, T. and Marrs, L. (1998). Biotechnology for Clean Industrial Products and Functions, (London, Oxford College or university Press)
Kavanagh, D. (2006). A Country Cushion Booklet, (London, Cambridge University or college Press)
Information on the Bevern Stream also available from www. sussex. org. uk (Retrieved on 15th April, 2008)