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Waste Materials In Construction Sites

Malaysian development industry still encounters increasing in the era of construction spend and for certain they face problems in removing this waste. Within the last two decades, huge construction building and infrastructure development projects have led to raise the production of construction waste material. The construction waste material has a significant impact on the environment, and its own environmental effects are in direct relation to the product quality and level of the waste it generates. (Begum RA, Siwar C, Pereira JJ, Jaafar AH)

In Malaysia, The engineering industry generates a lot of waste material that can be reused and recycled. A lot of the waste materials go into landfill which is both direct cost to engineering, and workers efficiency and also offers wider environmental implication. Additionally, Malaysia have little reliable statistic of engineering and demolition that presents the rate of waste era, type of waste, method of handling procedure for wastage, and the amount of materials wastage reduced at source, used again or recycled on-site or off-site in a particular type of engineering such as personal construction. (Haliza B. M 2010)

According to (Hassan et al. 1998) which shows that on average, the generation of misuse can be break down into 36. 73% from home waste products, 28. 34% from commercial and construction waste products while other resources (market and commercial waste material, institutional waste, landscaping waste and road sweeping waste) account for the rest of the 34. 93% in the Central and Southern region of Malaysia as shown in Number 1. 1. This amount demonstrates the waste produced from construction has a significant role in adding to the disposed in the landfills.


The construction domains produce huge amounts of waste by consuming natural resources (Poon, 2007). Waste in the structure industry includes such delays as time, cost, insufficient safety, rework, needless travel journeys, long distances, poor choice or management of program or tools and poor constructability. (Lee. et al. , 1999)

Wastages impact not only on environment it's also bring extra task costs to the companies and programmers. Many countries especially the developed countries have started to aggressively recycle the building materials due to its many benefits. In Malaysia, there is a huge probable' in recycling of engineering throw away and 'if applied correctly; is only going to bring about a building resurgence.

(Wong X. W. 2010)

It is then apparent that throw away management should be put in place. Reducing, reusing and recycling look like profitable alternatives that will improve the lifetime of landfills and reduce exploration of natural' resources. (Woolley, 2000) Most of all, our environment won't face more deterioration. As well as the environmental benefits in minimizing the demand on land for disposing the waste materials, the recycling of engineering wastes, can also help to save natural materials and also to reduce the price tag on waste products treatment prior to disposal (Poon, 2002).

Despite the efficiency and experience of the builders in the use of the materials there can be an increase in the cost of removal of demolition waste material, which requires the need to develop an effective plan for waste materials management options using the lowering and recycling.

Contractors, creators, architects and engineers must have knowledge about how exactly to deal with construction spend by reducing, reusing and recycling. Also the governmental power must play a role by introducing appropriate legislation to use the law and follow up on all offenders who do not follow the regulations. With the enlargement of urban areas, all relevant people must ensure that waste materials are reduced and there's a full execution of recycling, spend to steer the development industry in the right direction.

(Mohd. N. 2010)


  • To identify the types of spend in building site
  • To determine procedure being use at building site to lessen spend.
  • To give advice on reduce, reuse, and recycle of engineering spend.


The study covers part of Selangor at Malaysia.


Construction industry comes with an important effect on environmentally friendly in term of unbalanced ecology, change of living environment, potential sewage, and depletion of natural resources, energy usage and creation of waste. This review will generally discuss reduction materials wastage issues in development field.

Reduce the material wastage in development is approved in applying reuse, recycling and decrease the building materials in construction activities. This thesis reviews the technology on building waste materials recycling and their viability.




On this section, definition, classifications, features of reduce waste engineering materials and reasons that lead to waste the materials. Investigate or study the related information concerning this case in from literature information will be definitely put in place in the Technique. Literature reviews is vital in the research works and consider as basis for any study which be based upon the info of previous studies that has been carried out on the related subject. It offers further understanding of the opportunity of research.


Construction waste material can be defined as the difference between your value of materials shipped and accepted on site and the ones properly used as given and accurately measured in the task, after deducting the price keeping of substituted materials transferred elsewhere, where needless cost and time may be incurred by materials wastage.

Construction waste materials is any material where there holder has an intention to dispose of the material as no longer area of the normal commercial pattern or string of power.

(Ferguson, 1995).

According to The environmental protection Take action 1990 (EPA 90) Section 75 defines waste material as any materials which formalizes remains substances or loading or other pointless surplus substance coming from the program of any process: and any material which involves to be removed as being harmed, run down, spoiled, or contaminated, but does not contain any materials that is an explosive within the meaning of the explosives Act 1875; or Any chemicals that are unwanted and dismissed or on other hands deal with as if the materials were waste materials shall be said to be throw away unless the in contrast is proved.

(PING, OMRAN, & PAKIR, 2009)

The throw away building materials, presentation, and rubble caused by construction, remodelling, repair, and demolition procedures on pavements, residences, commercial buildings, and other buildings.

(U. S. Environmental Security Agency (USEPA)

Waste is defined as the by-product generated and taken off construction, restoration and demolition workplaces or sites of building and civil engineering structure.

(Cheung, 1993)

Waste is thought as any material by-product of real human and industry activity does not have any residual value. (Serpell and Alarcon, 1998)

Construction materials wastage is unused materials (such as blocks, bricks, concrete, goblet, plastics, steel, real wood and soil generated by new building structure, renovation, or tugging down of existing development.

The World Publication Dictionary defines waste as "useless or worthless materials; stuff to be thrown away.


According to the Environment Protection Section (EPD) (Chung, 2000). The additional wastages require more time and extra resources for removal which can delay the building businesses. The most important sources of engineering material waste containing such as:

1. Cement/cement.

2. Steel/reinforcement.

3. Brick/stop.

4. Plastic/PVC

5. Glass

5. Timber/formwork.

6. Screw/bolt/nail.

7. Tile, ceramic tile

8. Non-ferrous material aluminium


Generally, the usage of concrete is mainly for substructure and superstructure of structures wastage is largely caused from the mismatch between the amount of concrete required which bought from suppliers regarding ready mixture concrete resource. The provider might not be familiar with the exact quantity due to improper management planning, leading to over-ordering. Wastage is also happened because the delays and needless waste material handling processes.


As known metal bars are believed one of the most materials being found in construction site. Wastage of material mainly resulted from chopping. Also wastage might be happen scheduled to damage during storage area and rusting. Pre-bending in the making works can eliminate chopping waste.


While timber is one of the key materials using for formwork wastage usually happen because the continuous or bad utilization and as well as the over reducing. Timber usually dumped after use to do form work. Timber cannot avoid termites and can simply break. So it is not suited to long-term utilization. Old timber also usually ends up in the trash and cannot be recycled.


Because the common use of bricks and blocks in engineering as walling and for partition. Wastage usually caused because of the improper lowering and careless of managing material. Improper handling might increase wastage of brick and blocks destruction as a result of breakable nature of the materials. Bricks remained on site without consumption will finish up in the trash skip in the end.


Plastic wastage normally resulted from the clipping during piping work. Also cheap wastes happen credited the inappropriate storage space which throws it on site without considering its bad weakness and longevity. PVC or plastic will melt if it direct contact with heating. Clear plastic also cannot resist chemical type reactions.


The usage of those items usually being as interconnection. For sure they are used with large quantity which easily ruined because of the carelessness of the staff. Throwing screws or fingernails by employees lead to raise the wastage of them. Also wastage of tiles commonly happens during reducing.


Minimizing the total costs of the job throughout averted removal costs, averted buying new materials, and revenue profit from materials sale anticipated to reusing of materials onsite.

Helps societies, structure companies, and engineering owners adhere to condition and local insurance policies, such as disposal bans and recycling goals.

  • Promote basic image of construction companies which minimize waste disposal. (Zhang, 2008)
  • Reduce the environmental impact of the misuse.
  • Cleaner and safer structure site.
  • Conserves space in existing landfills.
  • Additional costs are avoided by diverting waste material from landfills.


According to Ekanayake who have discuss the sources of construction waste he said that there are many factors lead to structure waste products at site and he specified that the most crucial are ordered the normal sources of engineering waste materials under six categories: (1) design; (2) procurement; (3) managing of materials; (4) operation; (5) residual related; and (6) others. Furthermore those resources of waste materials probably happen during main stages of the job life cycle, (1) design, (2) operational, (3) material managing and, (4) procurement.


  • Design
  • Carelessness to dimensions skills of some materials
  • Design changes during building improvement.
  • Lack of connection with designers and task managers in arranging works.
  • Lack of attention paid to standard sizes available on the market
  • Designer's familiarity with choice products
  • Complication of reading drawing's details
  • Lack of information in the drawings
  • Errors in agreement documents
  • No completed deal documents at the beginning of project
  • low quality materials selection
  • Procurement
  • Suppliers and employees errors
  • Accidents coming from carelessness of labors
  • Damage to work done induced by subsequent trades
  • Use of incorrect materials, which need replacement
  • Failure to reach the required amount before work from number surveyors.
  • Late passage of information to responsible person on types and sizes of materials to be used
  • Equipment cracked and rainy weather
  • Handling materials
  • Damage happens because of the transportation process
  • Unsuitable storage space for materials brought on damage to them
  • Materials offered in loose form
  • Bad construction site design where materials close to working place
  • Misunderstanding between teamwork and workers
  • Theft
  • Operations
  • Ordering errors
  • Lack of alternatives to order small quantities
  • Buy materials which can not be adhere to specification


Construction Waste Reduction has been identified by the UK Environment Firm (1997) as reducing construction throw away by precautionary measures (prevent, reduce at source, and reuse of lost materials) and waste management options (quality improvement, and recycling). Likewise, Envirowise (1998) identified Construction Waste Decrease as the process of systematic waste products reduction at source, by preventing and reducing waste materials before its physical technology, and stimulating reuse, recycling and restoration. Therefore, according to (Riemer and Kristoffersen 1999) lowering waste materials is a process of avoidance, eliminate or decrease the waste on resources or allow reuse and recycling process of waste materials for such purposes in engineering field.

Waste lowering hierarchy has been responding to (reduce) as one of the highest priority for lowering the levels of waste. The key objective of the strategy of misuse lowering is to avoid or avoid it from the outset, at the start stage stage of the task. (Andy, Andrew and Simon)

Waste lowering is achieved through the use of a 'Waste Lowering Hierarchy' which is applied from design through to disposal, as detailed below:-

1. Reduce. Avoidance of pointless intake of materials at the idea and design level of procurement;

2. Reuse. Reuse requires the design and usage of re-useable storage containers and materials without subjecting that to a manufacturing process that changes its original settings and composition (e. g. reusable product packaging and pallets for storage);

3. Recycle. Product recycling requires the uncooked materials to be recovered and used to produce another product;

4. Disposal. Removal of waste products to landfill is the least acceptable form of waste management, and is to be regarded as the choice of final resort.


In days gone by, waste decrease strategies took many forms, but the primary purpose has continued to be the cornerstone of most waste decrease strategies which is to learn the maximum practical benefits from waste material and also to produce the least amount of waste material.

The understanding of what construction materials need to buy is the most first and important part in waste materials reduction, then monitoring materials usage, and after that find ways to avoidance, reduce, reuse, then recycle the wasted materials. An excellent strategy is to target the major part in the waste material stream, and put into practice the easy throw away reduction steps first.

Below are ideas to help you identify waste materials reduction opportunities:-

Buy pre-cut materials like foam planks and floor trusses to minimize waste.

Re-utilize wasted chemicals like siding, inside cut, door, and construction for wood, wood floors, and bathroom fitting.

Planning for use 4' x 8' panels and standard timber lengths; plan to create functional use of standard lengths of heating pipe material, metal pipes, wiring, siding, and gutters.

Find out new developed methods that can lower and make use of materials more financially and proficiently.

Consult trade publication, building companies, and local organizations for information on resource useful building designs and techniques.

Choose design which allow and present possibility to dismantling all parts of the structure as an alternative choice instead of the demolition, which might save building materials for recover those to be useful source of materials for volunteer organizations.

Work with famous designers, contractors, and suppliers those people who have good character types in use of resource-efficient design and building.

Select to grow long period of new or existing buildings. Choosing the best quality, more durable substances extend the life of the building framework and providing easier remodelling, coverage, or renovation.

Usage of elegant design characteristics from architect and designers might be useful for minimization of building wastage and enhance the productivity because of the genius designation like multi-purpose rooms, pushing smaller footprints, and choosing engineering materials which friendly to environment and energy conserving.

Construction companies also might use lowering and advanced framing techniques to lessen building wastage, this method may produce few waste materials, and holding over surplus to another engineering site or donating by these to the volunteer corporation.


Separation of the materials is the most important part of reuse lost materials also separation should be segregated in good shape to keep material's durability. Most these materials are durable and for that reason, have a high potential of reuse. It could, however, be suitable to have quality standards for the recycled materials.

There a wide range of materials might recovered from development sites waste plus they can be sold, donated, stored for later use, or used again on the existing project. Some materials are convenient for reuse such as entrances, cabinets, home windows, carpet, brick, light fixtures, ceiling and floor tiles, hardwood, HVAC equipment, and decorative items (including fireplaces and stonework).

Construction waste products can be utilized in the following manner:

Reuse on site of blocks, natural stone slabs, timber, piping railings etc.

Sale materials that can't used again on site through design restraint or design changes.

Recycle materials such as plastics, broken glass, scrap steel etc.

Use materials like shattered stop or brick, plaster cement bits etc. in other request at the construction. For ex girlfriend or boyfriend. levelling, cavity under coating of paths where in fact the passage not required of heavy moving loads.

Big portions and unused parts can be sent to lower areas to fill them.

Soft materials might be used as can be used as cover materials over sanitary landfill, like sand, dirt etc.


There are some materials can be straight recycled onsite into new structure or offsite at a structure and demolition processor. Typical materials recycled from development sites contain material, timber, asphalt, pavement, and concrete parts, roof covering materials, corrugated cardboard and wallboard.

Most of the construction wastages throw out to landfill. There are numerous opportunities for the building companies to reduce that in order to extend the life span period of landfill sites, lower transportation requirements and decrease the primary resource requirements.


Landfilling is the key method of disposal of all solid wastes including the construction spend in most of countries. Landfilling is not capital extensive and will not require skilled labour unlike compositing or incineration.


Recycling of structure materials has been recommended from many researchers in their studies and companies work for the reason that field however the factual administering of engineering and demolition waste recycling is bound to some types of sound wastes. Matching to (Mindess et al. , 2003): who thought that market, compatibility with other materials and materials properties should be taken into account when considering recycle materials. He justified that recycling can be only useful when the recycled product is economical compared to the natural resource in expense and quality. He added recycled materials will be preferable in areas where less raw materials and land filling up sites is out there. It investigates the technology on construction waste material recycling and their viability.

In addition, (Mindess, 2003) has been pointed out to materials recycling practice had been studies such as concrete, plastic material, brick, ferrous and non-ferrous material, masonry, wine glass and timber.


In fact, cement is the most materials being thrown away during engineering and demolition. Relating to (Emily, 2010), manufacturers produce more the 25 billion tonnes of concrete per calendar year. Large levels of concrete waste materials during tear down/building new development therefore concrete need to recycle. It is an easy way to recycle cement. The most important thing is to form concrete and take away the steel rebar then after sorting cement proceed through out crush machine to grind them forming very small bits as sand or aggregates. Crushing can be produced on site to reuse at the same time.


Bricks wastage via engineering site might be polluted with mortar, rendering and plaster, and usually they being blinded with another materials such as lumber and cement. But there are difficulties being faced in the separation of bricks which usually have to be segregated and sorting by hand. You will discover small percentage around 10 to 15% of bricks from broken complexes are facing bricks, therefore they need manpower and it could be expensive to sort and clean bricks. Therefore contaminated bricks aren't economical to be utilized because which will be more costing than natural bricks.

In 2004, Japanese building site had been burning the demolished bricks into slime burnt ash. And, in recent 12 months, bricks are generally be crushed to form filling up materials and hardcore in Hong Kong.


Preferably, it is best to reuse metal wastage directly on site. In case the direct consumption is not possible, then it can be fuse to create new steel. According to (Coventry, 1999) there is certainly more than 80% of the steel wastage coming from construction domains being recycled into new materials in the Netherlands, even though almost 100% may be claimed to be recyclable. Metallic organization records that approximately 100% steel encouragement is manufactured out of recycled scrap and 25% steel sections are made from recycled scrap. Scrap metal is almost completely recycled and allowed repeated recycling. Also in Japan, they recycles building material such as metal reinforcement and rebar due to fabricated steel or slice to resize off-site with the cutting throw away, 100% of metallic waste might be recycled to stay away from wastage at development site.


According to (Coventry, 1999), in UK, 425, 000 tonnes of wine glass has been recycled. However, the recycling rate is rather low in Hong Kong 1% comparing with countries such as USA, Japan and Germany which their rates are 20, 78 and 85%, respectively. Wine glass can be reused in the development industry for several applications:

(i) Home window: (Coventry, 1999) thought that windowpane a glass might be reusing on construction which will be depend on that they deal with a glass handling, storage, transportation from/to construction site, and the quality.

(ii) Wine glass fibre: for materials properties improvement, wine glass can be recycled in the make of goblet fibre using long easy process beginning with collecting the waste products to recycle pin then transported to treatment flower, the wine glass then should be sorted matching to its shade and type and cleaned to completely clean it from any pollutants after that a glass smashed and melted then moulded into new product. Wine glass can be used in thermal and acoustic insulations, which may be blended with strengthen cement, gypsum or resin products.

(iii) Filling material: that they had practiced recycling for glass in UK as an excellent material for cement alternative called ConGlassCrete that support the strength of concrete.

(iv) Tile: in US 100% replacing of recycled wine glass that provides good-looking reflective appearance on the exterior after burnishing.

(v) Paving block: in United Condition they created aggregate from recycled a glass by crushing. Also in Hong Kong, these are developing this recycling technology, which can produce advantages such as promote good-looking reflective appearance externally after burnishing, minimize drinking water absorption of concrete block and provide good compressive power.

However, the problems on instability, sharpness of aggregate and alkali-silica reaction expansion have to be resolved. By implementing pulverized take a flight ash for depressant in alkali-silica effect and decrease the impurities are essential in improving the quality of paving block implementing recycled goblet aggregate.

(vi) Asphalt in street: 15% of old glass had been recycled forming asphalt in Taiwan. Furthermore glass needed to grind to very smooth materials exchanging asphalt

(vii) Aggregate in street: also in US materials called 'glassphalt' has been created from crushed a glass and used as an aggregate in bituminous concrete pavement.

(viii) Man-made dirt: Japan routines adopted waste a glass as ultra-fine particles at high temperature.


Masonry waste usually crushing as recycled to be masonry aggregate. So after grinding till become masonry aggregate will be such thermal insulating for concrete. it can also help cement to become more strength with comfortable thermal insulation, masonry waste material can be used after recycled for traditional clay bricks

(i) Crushing recycle masonry aggregate till be as ash then will be replacement for clay in brick including sand sodium silicate brick.

(ii) Using masonry aggregate in traditional clay brick in this case it prefers to avoid any contain of any component that will prevent effects on durability and durability of clay brick.

(iii) In case of sing masonry in sodium silicate brick it could contains some of elements like lime but have to be under great pressure of 15 pubs to produce sodium silicate bricks.


The major non-ferrous metallic materials obtained from construction sites are aluminium, copper, business lead and zinc (Coventry, 1999). Furthermore after separations and sorting of these materials, they can be sold right to the scrap steel merchants for recycling or right to end-user by melting. In UK, the use of aluminium is up to 95, 000 tonnes with about 70% recycled in 1997, recycling of copper is up to 119, 000 tonnes out of a national market of 262, 000 tonnes used (100% recycling rate may be accomplished).

While newspaper and cardboard form approximately 37% of engineering wastes by quantity (EPD, 2002). Recycling companies usually reprocess them as newspaper product by purification.


In fact, it's very hard to recycle plastics wastages if they are combined with other plastic or impure materials but matching to (Hendriks and Pietersen, 2000) great probability to reuse materials such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and Polyvinylchloride (PVC) especially if they being accumulated properly segregate and spotless.

Because of the damages in a few of the feature of the old plastic material the possibilities of higher level recycle will be definitely constrained. Virgin material should include in recycling. The recycled materials are used for the making of new plastic material includes 70% recycled material; 30% virgin material is implemented for protecting sufficient ultra violet (UV) amount of resistance in holland. Furthermore it might be probable to build up this substitute proportion up to 80 or 90% in the coming years.

According to (Coventry, 1999) there are many major chances to handle when considering the recycling of clear plastic such as:-

(i) Panel: in 1992 roof covering panels have been started due to the recycling of diaphanous PVC. Because of the impurity and the consolidation, the recycling materials have less quality than new roof covering component, so that should be requested only the substandard face. This -panel must be changed to powder using cryogenic milling. Then powder should mingle with plasticizers and also mix up with other materials to create new panel.

(ii) Plastic material might be street furniture, roof covering and floor, piling, PVC window, noise barrier, cable television ducting and pipe, cladding and insulation foam through recycling and redesign for utilization.

(iii) there are new methods has been developed to permit development materials to be with time infused with plastic ingredient in order to increase power, sturdiness and impact resistance, and improve appearance.


The wastage of wood from building site operations is made in huge amount all over the world. Relating to (Coventry, 1999) he stated compared to that the wastage of timber generated in UK is more than 2. 5 tonnes per season. For sure, wastage of timber has choices to be recycled after collection for a few purpose such as:

(i) Timber wastage via building activity might be utilized straight for reusing in virtually any applications in structure tasks but before reusing need to completely clean the from fingernails and resize the these to the right way. Furthermore unspoiled timber should be reused as plank, beams, entry doors, floorboard, roofing beam, balcony ramparts, partitions, and pile. In Japan they already developed timber waste products into new technology turning them to furniture, shoring solid wood pile for relocate pine trees and shrubs, hardwood bench and timber stair.

(ii) A particular lightweight concrete might be formed from aggregate made from recycled small real wood pieces.

(iii) Matching to (Hendriks and Pietersen, 2000) in Japan wood waste products might be recycled as energy sources, for Ex. petrol, charcoal for electricity generation. Also there tend to be than 400, 000 tonnes of real wood from building activities are stated in Netherland.

(iv) wood portions wastage throwing from building activities might be recycled and used again as new building materials as partitions, board for roof, roof and floor, cladding in agricultural building, ad panels, a presentation substitute, wall structure and sound barrier.

(v) Paper, In Japan, they recycled timber producing table and mulching. Besides that wastage of lumber might be mixed with topsoil to boost soil texture and covered with plastic to create material called cheap lumber.

(vi) Clipped timber is recycled by spraying them onto sloped garden soil surface in Japan, which is called "geofibre".

(vii) Timber misuse can be recycled to make insulation board, kitchen tool and furniture from the chipped timber under great pressure at around 180 -C for 40 min with vapor, drinking water and addition of binder. In 2004, Japan routines used this technology in changing timber fragment to pavement material.




In this section, research methodology will be talked about in order to complete this research. The method should be systematically, effectively and give attention to the main objective. Under systematic steps, study will be conducted following programmed plan which provides to find directions to find the answer of the study's question. All needed information will be obtained through a reliable plan or methodology which outlines various phases in collecting information and data.


The research work will be split into four periods including books review, collecting data and information, and bottom line and advice.

Table 3. 1: Methodology Flow Chart


Information and data collection will be compiled through two different resources which are:

Primary Data

Secondary Data.


In key data, information is collected from numerous kinds of resource that happen to be journals, conference documents, reference book and some unpublished materials. The information which can be obtained from these sources include the types of structure misuse, reasons lead to spend, ways of reduce and reuse waste materials on site, and development in recycling structure waste materials.


In supplementary data, collection primary data will involve questionnaire, site trips and interviews with structure companies which can be registered with Construction Industry Development Mother board (CIDB) in the region around. The questions asked are related to the objective of this study. Then the collected data from the questionnaire will be analyzed. Within the interview process, the respondent's advice or point of view could be studied predicated on their huge experience in construction sites. Also interview can be an chance to ask questions that are not included in the questionnaire.


In literature review will be concentrating on the construction spend from building sites and their recycling and exactly how to lessen them, the purpose of that is to provide the background to research, convey what knowledge and ideas have been proven on this issue.

To complete this research a great deal of academic knowledge is needed, including literature in catalogue, journal in publish paper news, conference message board, school research and thesis that related to this topic is effective. Literature review is to help determine this issue, and execute a questionnaire to collect the info.


To collect a complete data of the research, it requires to perform a questionnaire bottom on the 4 major elements. The questionnaire will basically content 2 kind of question there are:

Scale question.

Open-ended question.

The questionnaire is concentrate on the next and third objectives which are to ascertain approaches being used in reduce waste materials in development site and also to give recommendation on lowering, re-use and recycle for engineering waste material in Malaysia engineering industry.


After collecting data and information obtained from questionnaire it will be analyzed using the technique of statically offer for social knowledge (SPSS) software which determine and gauge the dependability of the questionnaire. Data analysis will be achieved using the descriptive or regularity research then for the five-point questions will be examined using the Comparative Important Index.

1 2 3 4 5

Each scale presents the following rating

1: Strongly disagreed

2: Disagree

3: Neutral

4: Agree

5: Strongly agree

Basically the relative index is a method used to compute the strength of index of the familiarity, occurrence and arrangement of the precise questions. The computation of (RI) is distributed by the following form:

 ˜ W

Relative importance index RII =


Where w = weighting directed at each question by the respondents and range from 1 to 5 where 1 = very low impact and 5 = high impact; A = highest weight; and N = total number of sample. Then the result analyzed then is provided in the desk and chart.


Information collected in key data and the result which will be found from analyses of the questionnaire will be mixed to make a conclusion. A study into the waste materials engineering materials was completed to comprehend the disadvantages, and to find the problems and control that are facing the waste material construction materials in Malaysian construction industry.

The selection of sub-contractors must consider their wastage decrease plan within assessment standards. Provision of misuse decrease training to on-site personnel is also considered important in boosting environmental understanding and assisting site staff creating an improved working procedure to lessen generation of materials wastage.

Contractors must be informed about possible cost savings from procedures which efficiently prevent construction throw away, as well as environmentally friendly impacts of the throw away and the long-term countrywide and global implication. The merits of waste materials minimization and environment cover must be advertised to clients.

The construction site will be obviously signposted with information relating to waste management including guidelines to waste containers and the recycling centre, waste collection intervals, squander management targets and improvement on site, acceptable and unacceptable site misuse practice and fantastic performers amongst others.




In this chapter, data evaluation will be reviewed regarding to data extracted from questionnaire review which we already delivered to all parties included on engineering sites. The purpose of the questionnaire study was to find the way the company and companies are working with reducing waste material development materials, as well as to know their experience and their views in reducing misuse and which types of materials are the most squandered. Furthermore to know problems and reasons that caused by misused materials and get their views in how to lessen spend in structure site.

Site meeting study has been executing on the finish of November semester 2011 to 5 structure site. Ten initial survey documents were delivered to the respondents who possessed relating with the structure projects namely builder, engineer, site supervisor and job manager. The purpose for conducting this survey is to determine the entire question whether the questions are under secure, intelligible, easy to answer, unambiguous, appropriate and focus on the objectives of the study. The info getting from the questionnaire review will be analyzed using Statistical Program for Social Science (SPSS) in order to gauge the reliability analysis

Then final modification done to the questionnaire review, and total of 100 questionnaires form received directly by hand to the 100 company that working at development field on the early of July to the finish of August 2012. A response rate of only 65% was from respondents of 100, whereby 35% did not reply the questionnaire

Reliability and Balance test

The data information extracted from the questionnaire study has been analyzed using Statistical Deal for Social Science (SPSS) in order to measure the reliability evaluation to clarify that the questionnaire review was succeed and reliable or not.

Case Control Summary

Then the degree of stability of the info and the stability and the internal consistency between the answers is examined. For this, we used the coefficient of Cronbach Alpha for calculating the amount of reliability and balance of the respondents' answers to (test of analysis) the questionnaire's questions. The statistically suitable value for the coefficient alpha is (60%) or even more to become a good way of measuring credibility and trustworthiness and in such a case, the results can even is generalized. Utilizing the SPSS the overall reliability coefficient for all your constructs is 0. 793. This is an indication of the high degree of reliability and stableness of the questionnaires and the internal consistency of the answers which can count upon the research of respondents' answers.


The questionnaire research were designed to identify the types of engineering waste materials and what the highest type been wasted in engineering sites. The questions were fundamentally required respondent to list the factors that they consider as the crucial for the success of structure waste material management.

The question had been given the set of factor in line with the five-point scale (where 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 means suprisingly low, low, natural, high, and incredibly high respectively). The data analysis was completed based on Relative Importance Index (RII).

Relative Importance Index is a method to compute the effectiveness of index of familiarity, consistency and arrangement of specific question. In this section, the weighted average of Comparative Importance Index was analyzed against all the factors.


Descriptive Statistics

On the above table, descriptive reports related to types of structure materials have been analysed using SPSS and the overall findings revealed that there were nine items with a mean (M) value that signifies the size of 'disagree or lower'.

The (M) values of these nine items were range from 2. 57 to 3. 51. Those prices indicate that waste materials in seven types of structure material in values more than the common value which displayed by (3). Except two types of construction materials (Cup & tile/ceramic) were symbolized in less than the neutral worth which mean these were in low degree waste at building site.

Type of waste materials

Common kind of construction waste materials include concrete/ concrete, Steel/reinforcement bar, plastic PVC, Screw/bolt/nail, non-ferrous metal light weight aluminum, Timber/formwork, brick/block, tile/ceramic tile. The questionnaire respondents may actually feel firmly that concrete / concrete was the most important type of spend. As shown in Table 4. 2, concrete/cement was positioned first with the value of Relative Importance Index of 0. 702, second rank was Timber/formwork (RII =0. 700) third ranking was Steel/reinforcement bar (RII = 0. 665), and Brick/block. (RII = 0. 652) the others items as shown in the aforementioned Table.


Descriptive Information related to the condition and downside of waste products materials

As exhibited above, the overall findings exhibited that there have been three items with a mean (M) value of 2. 85 that symbolizes the level of 'disagree'. The (M) values of the five items range from 2. 85 to 3. 85. For further detailed interpretation of the results, they are really discussed the following:

1: The M value of the results extracted from examining the respondents' answers to the questionnaire affirmation (' Project disposal cost increased) is 3. 85, which is more than the natural value 3. This indicates that down sides of spend can caused increasing the job cost. By reduction of the sum level of waste generated, a reduced amount of total cost for the task can be achieved.

2: The M value of the results from studying the respondents' answers to the questionnaire declaration (Great lost for the owner and people that involved in the task. ') is 3. 25, which is slightly greater than the neutral value 3. This means that respondents are uncertain about the impact of the spend drawback that can brought on create lost for everyone parties mixed up in project.

3: The M value of the results extracted from analyzing the respondents' answers to the questionnaire assertion (Work will be postponed due to the materials shorten, ) is 2. 85 which means they are really disagree beside me in this aspect.

Problems and obstacles of companies related to spend materials





Based on the finding that contain being analyzed using Comparative Importance Index (RII), as shown in Stand, Problems and drawback of high waste materials during construction, Project cost increased was rated first with value of (RII= 0. 769), followed by great lost for the dog owner and functions that mixed up in project with ranking of (RII = 0. 649) and previous ranking was Work will be delayed due to the materials shorten, and lead to environment hazard (RII = 0. 569).

Wastage of structure materials have been indentifies as you of the primary issues in the engineering industry which a big influence to environment and industry impact of creating projects. Additionally, wastage quantity consider as an essential part in managing of the development systems while that is successful way to evaluate their performance, allowing regions of possible development to be pointed out.

It can be seen that the first problem for high waste at construction field to service provider and parties involved in that is the cost of project increase as a result of material which broken or unused during structure process that improve the task cost and lose them money in disposal.


As shown above in Desk, the overall conclusions showed that there were ten items with a mean (M) value of the results obtained from inspecting the respondent's answers that represents one of the five-point scales. The (M) prices of the ten items range between 3. 15 to 3. 46. Actually all the Mean beliefs in this table are in same degree which means that the majority of respondents said that all factors and reasons talked about in the given questionnaire are greater than neutral value 3. This indicates that those can be viewed as as important problem business lead to waste materials at structure site.

As shown in these Stand 4. 7, that recognizes the reason why that causing waste materials in the engineering site, Carelessness of personnel was the most ranked factor with RII= (0. 692, ) among the whole factors shown under cause of the waste materials. Quite simply this factor received very high rated to reason behind the waste materials in engineering site, with relative importance index of 0. 692. Stand shows the ranking of the factors from the highest at the very top to the lowest in the bottom listed.

Based on the results, several reasons take part in building materials wastage production at site. Wastage might happen throughout one or a combination of such causes. The crucial factor was taken from the factor ranked by the order of importance from Comparative Importance Index. The next high factor leading to waste materials in construction site scheduled to inappropriate safe-keeping with Comparative Importance Index of RII= 0. 686.

The companies and project managers thought that providing better storage space services onsite, make the sub-contractors responsible for their own wastage development, provide better throw away management, and choose the skilled personnel and appropriate equipment for site procedures that might be supporting in minimizing of the present wastage production expectations.

The third factor of waste materials in construction site due to the incorrect management form job administrator or site supervisor followed by the Re-designing/problem on development the structure with same ranked of RII = 0. 671. The correct management in structure can reduce the spend at some level of construction procedures. Damage to work done by subsequent works, harm happens due to the transportation process and bad engineering site design where materials near to working place discovered by the respondents of the questionnaire among the mainly important effective factor to waste materials production while inappropriate storage facilities onsite and Materials provided in loose form were named the generally major handling problem.

Re-designing/problem on building the structure causes the waste in building site because of the wrong communication between your contractor and creator of the task during construct the task.

Change in design during development operations, Lack of experience of designers and project managers in scheduling works during design stage being designated as critical indicators leading to materials wastage in structure site. However, Lack of attention paid to standard sizes available on the market, designer's familiarity with alternative products were also reported as the second major factors to site wastage which can be related to the look process. This underlines the urgent need for effective communication and adaptable information showing systems throughout the structure process.

Respondent can evidently explain that over-order concrete is serious problem with Mean value of 3. 32 which shows that it's greater than neutral scale 3. Respondent answer was placed using Relative Important index with value of RII= (0. 665). It is therefore clear that mismatch of concrete order and the required cement is one of the major reasons for wastage of concrete. Companies or companies will daily receive a big quantity of over-ordered fresh cement coming back from other building sites so they categorized as wastage and need to dump it in to the landfills.

Regarding the huge technology of concrete misuse, five significant reasons are revealed, including: over buying, damage during transportation, loss during set up, poor workmanship and change of design. (Cheung, 1993, Poon et al. , 2001, Shen and Tam, 2002)

Concrete recycling is among the finest alternatives to save lots of materials. Within the various types of concrete waste, over-order of concrete is found to be the major contributor amongst others. Presently, the practice of handling over-ordered fresh concrete is to dump them into landfill areas. The cost for this will be high when the suggested landfill charging design is implemented.

75% of the respondents thought that the existing level of engineering spend still problem for Malaysian construction industry, while 25% thought that aren't problem.

A majority of the respondents, 83% agreed that the control spend is an excellent factor for the project's market, they turned out that reduce spend is good element in decreasing the total cost for the materials because most of construction job has high waste materials which lead to improve the complete cost of the task. Only 16% assume that control spend will not be a good factor for the project's overall economy.

Only 48% of the respondents said that there is no a person or team of their company specifically in charge of construction waste materials management to regulate the waste materials in development site while 52 % of respondents have a person or department within their company specifically responsible for construction throw away management. In my opinion for the firms which still do not have anybody or department for misuse management, they have to employee person or create team to be responsible for controlling spend, at least that action will help the company to minimize the waste products of materials in development site.

57% of the respondents agreed that there is a proper intermediary storage service in their company for their waste materials that is at the mercy of sorting, recycling or re-use weather 43% don't have.

54% of the respondents voted that there surely is capacity in their company to increase sorting and recycling of misuse while 46% do not have.

78% of the respondents keep the material in good storage with good security and only 22% of the respondents do not keep the material in good storage area with good security. In my own opinion the most crucial thing in reducing and control waste to keep the material in good storage space prevent the materials from the weather and from fraud also. Safe and productive materials storage depends upon good co-operation and co-ordination between everyone included including, client, contractors, suppliers and the engineering trades.

The development companies should organize the required materials storage prior to the start of the works improvement and must be arranged between contractors and clients. Greater modifiable developments must have arrangements for materials storage incorporated in the building stage plan.

According to the result above in desk 4. 8 there are only 38% from the respondent reuse and recycling the materials such as, , Metallic / reinforcement pub, Brick/block, Cement/cement, Vinyl/PVC, A glass, Masonry, Non-ferrous metal and Timber, while 62% do not reuse or recycle the waste that mentioned above.

87% is the ratio of the respondents who thought that the first proper management for job can reduce the waste materials during construction, and only 14% do not think so.

77% of respondent decided that spend stream increased in the past 2 yrs because in the time they do not use technology in engineering to reduce the waste of engineering, 23% agrees that the materials stream reduction in the past 2 yrs,

There are 68% of respondents who believe the waste material stream will decrease in the next two years and 32% believe that the waste material stream increase within the next 2 yrs.

Across the test, there is only 58% of the respondents have training for staff how they package with materials to minimize the spend, 42% do not have any program whatsoever for workers in reducing spend.


Figure 4. 1:- Percentage of Waste materials Cost From the Total Project Cost

As it shown above, the percentage of the waste material cost from the total project cost seems high which clearly make clear that structure companies still faced this problem and not used any action in minimizing spend. From the above graph 55% of the respondents possessed expect that 2% of the total cost of their project considered as waste, also 28% of respondents assumed that 5% with their job cost lose in waste materials, 17% of respondent also lost 10% as cost of waste materials from other total job cost.


Reducing the construction waste materials during construction can make good financial for the task as well as environmental impact. It saves operating and removal costs and helps conserve natural resources and energy.

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