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Wall Construction Of Single Storey Residential Buildings Construction Essay

This finding is to determined the various types of wall featuring its own uses for several factors. Wall construction contains of various types of method used, it maybe not straightforward as you using one of the more common construction methods. Walls is constructed in a variety of form and of various materials to attain several functions. There are many different types of wall with its own functions ; exterior walls and interior walls or either load-bearing wall and non-load-bearing wall. Walls are often included doors and windows, which can be exists for controlled passing of environmental factors and peoples through the wall line. A couple of many types of materials can be utilized for wall construction, for example stone, rock, wood, clay, cement, brick, thatch and glass. Different type of wall needed different material to accomplish its main supporting function, and also others reason as well.


List of figure

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Brick is an individual block which is very commonly found in construction material. It really is constructed by the clay. Many bits of bricks can make up a wall,

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Aggregate is a composite material that normally used in the construction material. Additionally it is used to become mortal with the mixture of cement and fine sand.

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Cavity wall

Cavity wall is a wall that contains one layer of insulation between your brick outer leaf and the brick inner leaf. The primary function of the wall is the fact it offers insulation that prevent heat losses. It's very suitable for the united states which has 4 seasons like United Kingdom.

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Brick wall

Brick wall is the wall that constructed by the brick and mortal. It's main function is the fact that it give a layer of protection which separate the outside area and inside area of the houses. This wall is normally can see inside our country.

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Running Bond

It is also named as stretcher bond which is typically the most popular bonding in Malaysia. The style is known as running, build a straight line between the brick. One of the benefit is this bond is that there surely is no need to use header bricks. The structure is usually linked with wall ties and understood to be a cavity wall bond.

CHAPTER 1. 0 :


BCEC1104 Material and Construction course ask us to do some summary of material and construction for building structures and elements. Their objectives or aims are to get knowledge on construction of creating structures and elements theoretically as well as attain practically. It also to gain an improved understanding on justifications of consumption different materials and have the ability to link and integrate with all disciplines, fields and related requirements of construction engineering with regard to buildings.

Besides, there are many study benefit that people gain through completing this assignment. That is because our company is asking to get ready an item as follows for single storey residential buildings. As our case studies is an individual storey residential building, so we just concentrate on the components of that buildings. Due to the requirement of completing this assignment, we now know and popular all about wall. For instance, we know very well what the common types of wall used in Malaysia. We are able to differentiate what the common types of wall used in Malaysia and other country. Because, one of the design factors of walls construction is dependant on the weather. Basically, each country has different types of weather. Besides, we also know the types of materials used and the look factors of wall construction. In addition, through this assignment, we have been popular about the walls construction method according to materials used. The best moment is when we are asking to make a scale model of single storey residential buildings. It makes us simpler to gain our understanding about common types of walls, its elements and the materials used because they want us construct a scale model that exactly showing the construction of these three requirements.

CHAPTER 2. 0 :

Building Biodata

Our case studies is a single storey residential buildings at Lot 320, Kg Serdang Permai, 31300, Kg Kepayang, Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan and it was a hometown of 1 in our group members which is Nur Dania Azira Binti Azizul. This residential building plan has been designed and drawn by Mah Kwai Kuen on 13th January in 1987. He certify that the plans are submitted in accordance with the road, drainage and building act 1974 and uniform building for legal reasons (UBBL) 1984 and accept full tasks accordingly. Mah Kwai Kuen is a building draftsman that registered with Architects Malaysia Board. This residential building has been approved by Yang Di Pertua Majlis Daerah Kinta Barat Batu Gajah on 30th April in 1982. It really is a single storey residential building at No P. T. 320, Mukim Sungei Raya, Daerah Kinta. The owner of that residential building is Mr Mohamed Shafie Bin Ismail which lived at No 608, J. K. R. Quarter, 31800, Kampar before the construction.

The chronological development has been explained in the plans given by Mr Shafie. Firstly, all solid wall to maintain cement mortar 1:3 and reinforcement concrete to be in 1:2:4 mix. Secondly, glazed pipe have to be jointed with cement. Thus, joints in cast iron pipes must be produced with molten lead more than a gasket of packed yarn and men holes and inspection chamber should be grease sealed. Next, the inspection chambers must be bended render and corner rounded off. After that, the ends off tipper must be supported on bearing fixed, brass fixed with oiling cups. At the same time, all inverts of manholes and inspection chamber are must be built S. W. G. half round channel and all manholes inspection's covers and frames must be in standard municipal type. Mosquito proof conv. covers to inlet and outlet tee pipe should be provided while all sanitary appliances pump and mortars should be of the approved types by the council. But before commencement of works the resources of way to obtain C. I and S. G. W, pipe must be submitted to the council as well as simple of the pipes for approval. All pipes must be of an approved brand and made complying relevant British standard specifications and manufactures by the approved manufactures. Furthermore, elect - mortar pump must be provided with auto float switch and everything M. H covers must be 18'' - 24' iron grease sealed typs. Lastly, all sanitary appliances will be given proper trap.

CHAPTER 3. 0 :

Building Elemental Construction

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Figure 1. 1 Show the wall construction drawings of case studies.

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Figure 1. 2 Show the wall construction details drawings of case studies.

As we know, wall is the structures constructed to enclose and area, to support floors and roof or divide the floor portion of a building into a required amount of rooms. Building construction process is activities done on construction site. Building construction process usually started with site clearance, earthworks, setting out, substructure, superstructure, finishes, services, external work and finally is completion. However, site activities are different according to site location and topography and also the type of building.

Building construction process can be divides into five parts. The first part is site preparation. While doing the site preparation, usually they'll do some clearance, earthworks, site marking, hoarding, dewatering, non permanent building and also short-term road. Thus, the next part is sub structure. While doing the sub structure process, they often will do the piles, foundation, ground floor slab, ground beam and column stump. Next, the 3rd part is super structure. While doing the super structures process, they'll make a frame, upper floor slab, walls, roof, doors & windows, finishes and utilities. Then, the fourth part is services. While doing the services process, they often do the procedure of sanitary, cold water supply, air conditioning equipment and also fire fighting. Lastly, the last part is external works. While doing the external works, they'll do the roads, carpark, drainage, fencing, truing and landscape.

Based on everything mentioned above, the element which is wall is an element that made in the third part of construction process. The 3rd part of construction process is super structure. This is means that wall can be an aspect in super structure process. The construction procedure for each wall is different according to the types of wall itself. For solid bricks wall, it is made from clay or sand plus lime. Each bricks will be arranged in a wall or column. It is called as bonding. The goal of bonding is to acquire maximum strength, ensure the lateral stability and also to be an acceptable appearance. A couple of various kinds of brick bonding. Take for examples are English bonding and Flemish bonding. Solid wall of brick or block work usually comes with an inside finish of plaster. The external face is often rendered or painted to avoid rain and moisture penetration.

Another type of wall is solid blocks wall. It has no specific size but more than bricks size. It is made from pre-cast concrete and it is well suited for external walls. For cavity walls, it is an improved thermal insulation and weather resistance. It is been constructed by two leaves of an cavity wall are tied together with wall ties. The outer leaf normally is brick. While the inner leaf of brick or block work, usually with a plastered finish. The partial cavity is fill insulation. Some walls may have no insulation or may be fully filled. Thus, for parapet wall, it is a low wall projecting above the level of a roof, bridge or balcony. It is utilized to create a guard or barrier at the edge. Apart from these is curtain walling. Because of this kind of wall, it is lightweight non loading bearing. In the low rise buildings, it is use timber or patent glazing. However, in the high rise buildings, it is use steel or aluminium alloy. The last is retaining walls. It is become an earth retaining structure. CHAPTER 4. 0 :

Wall are designed and constructed in many different form and of varied materials to attain several functions. There are various types of wall using its own functions ; exterior walls and interior walls or either load-bearing wall and non-load-bearing wall. Walls are often included doors and windows, which are exists for handled passing of environmental factors and peoples through the wall line. Nowadays, modern building wall including bearing and curtain wall as a combination of both in reaction to the construct the needs of buildings all together. Both types can happen similar when complete but their sequences of construction not often.

Exterior walls used to protect the building from external environment and accidental factors or effects such as climate changes, fires, ultraviolet radiation, bacteria and virus, dust and sound, by taking into consideration the desirable interior environmental conditions. These walls are usually a load-bearing walls and always constructed to be tough and strong enough to resist the horizontal and vertical forces impose after them safely, which is as defined by building codes. A load-bearing wall not only supports its own weight in just a building, but also supports weights of other areas of the construction which is usually put at the strategic points within the structure in order to supports a ceiling, roof or the others building elements, for example like floor joists or ceiling beams which various kinds of buildings use those 2 elements to produce a large degree of strength to the spaces, it willl regarded as not enough for any building that occupies an appreciate amount of space. So, a load-bearing wall is gauged to appropriate thickness to carry the weight above them, if not its likely that an outer wall couild become unstable state. If the strain exceeds the strength of material used, potentially leading to to collapse of the structure of creating. Even a tiny space of only thousands square feet will be largely increased by the existence of a bearing wall to help support a stable roofline and augment to the stability supported by joists and rafters. If without a bearing wall, the structure will probably collapse or weaken at a speed up rate. Ceiling beams and rafters will slowly weakens from the raised stress, leading to a weakened ceiling and roof that is less likely to resist to strong blowing winds or storms. Regarding a doubled storey building, with no exist of bearing wall positioned on the first floor will almost guaranteed that the flooring for the second storey will be weaken eventually and incredibly fast. Therefore, exterior walls normally construct with concrete, block or brick to provide a better grip betweeen the structures of building. The alterations of your load-bearing wall can be produced is also limited, it could required the keeping temporary supports for several types of remodelling those construction or renovation projects. A bearing wall does not must have to be a solid expanse of wall. Walls of the type can include doors among others openings such as windows and vents. Additional framing built to it. When renovate or reconstruct the interior home or other building, it's essential to identify the supporting wall of the building. If at all possible, movement of walls should be limited to any part that determined to be non-bearing wall. When the new renovation or construction does call for removing a bearing, caution steps should be studied to shove up the structure until a newly located bearing wall is put into a location and support system for the structure is restored to full efficiency. In housing, most usual found in light construction method known as platform framing and each load-bearing wall lies on a wall sill plate which is match to the cheapest base plate. The sills are connected and assemble to the masonry or concrete foundation.

On the other hand, interior walls normally used to split up rooms in a residence or building. Interior walls will not be load-bearing walls. This sort of walls are support only themselves, it might run perpendicular to the ground and ceiling joists, it will not be aligned upon support beams, for example partition walls is a kind of non-load bearing interior walls. A non-load bearing wall can be altered or even removed completely without weakening the structure of the building. A lot of the material used for the elements of interior building have to be safe, and should be appropriate for the lighting schemes which can produce a comfort and harmless environment for occupancy. Besides that, the ways to create and the sort of materials used for interior construction or renovation should be easy to keep well and keep it from clean. Interior walls commonly may construct with blocks or bricks from clay, reinforced or hollow, terra-cotta or concrete, sometimes glass blocks may also be used for several visual purposes. Other than that, timber is been used for partition walls which involves wooden framework either supported on the floor side walls or below.

Bearing wall construction may be masonry wall, cast-in place wall or precast reinforced concrete wall, stud and sheathing wall and composite type's wall. Bearing wall must be erected before supported building component above can be built. Meanwhile, curtain wall including lighter versions of these used for bearing walls. These walls also comprise the combination of ceramic-coated metal panels, glass panels, or corrugated metal sheets, each laterally supported by light sub framing members. Because it receives vertical support by spandrel beams, or relieving angles, at the wall line, the curtain wall can be built after the building frame is completed.

Among these kind of walls, the commonly wall used in our buildings is masonry wall, reinforced concrete wall, stud and sheathing wall, prefabricated wall, glass, metal or ceramic-coated metal panel wall and tilt-up wall. Masonry walls is one of the original type and now commonly found in most wall construction of buildings. It really is kind of durable form of wall construction that normally used in both bearing and curtain walls. It is designed in conformity with building codes which is constructed by individual placement of blocks of stone, bricks, cinder concrete, cut stone, or combinations of these materials. These units are held together by putting a mortar between them, this can helps to provide powerful enclosures, which fulfil support, control and finish functions. Load-bearing walls, infill walls, and partition walls are physical barriers that help to provide privacy, security and fire and sound separation from external environment. When it's the section or part of the building envelope, masonry walls also become a durable support for barrier and cladding, elements and maybe useful to supply the cladding as well.

Reinforced concrete is one of the very most trusted materials for wall construction in modern buildings. It is created from artificial stone obtained by mixing of cement, sand and aggregates with water. Fresh concrete can be compressed into nearly every shape, leaving an inherent advantage over other materials. However, its restricted tension resistance is initially prevented its widely use in building construction. To solve the challenge of poor tensile strength, steel bars are lodged solidly in concrete to create a composite material called reinforced concrete (RC). Aside from the blend of cement and steel, the production of concrete will not needed expensive manufacturing mills. Basically, reinforced concrete walls are used for improving strength purposes. Some walls may be in place or pre-cast, such as bearing or curtain walls. Some pre-cast concrete walls are constructed are generally used for floor or rood deck construction. They can be located vertically, hand and hand, and caulked at adjacent edges.

Stud and sheathing walls are a light type of wall construction which is generally used in residential houses or other light constructions where they're usually become light bearing walls. It is usually contains wood and sheathing nailed to wood or steel studs. That is always sheetrock which is a sandwich of gypsum between cardboard facings. Sheetrock, so called a wallboard or gypsum board is a panel of gypsum covered on both side with papers and used as the primary wall materials in building construction. Wall sheathing is often using plywood or other laminate and always applied to the framing prior to erection, relieve the positioning of studs and raise the speed and cutting workforce needs and expenses. Some form of exterior sheathing is undoubtedly as asphalt-impregnated fibreboard, plywood, oriented strand board and wafer board, which will provide necessary to resist lateral loads and make sure the wall square, where rigid glass-fibre, asphalt-coated fibreboard, polystyrene or polyurethane won't do so. In the event, the wall should be reinforced with a diagonal wood or meal bracing infix into the studs. Composite walls are a far more vital substantial type of stud walls, they are simply constructed of cementations materials such as pre-cast concrete and weatherproof sheetrock as an external sheathing, and sheetrock as an internal finishes. With at the mercy of strong wind storms local codes or state law will finally require both wind braces and the stiff exterior sheathing regardless to the sort and the type of outer weather resistant coverings. Prefabricated wall is also a kind of commonly used for curtain wall construction; it's frequently known as prefab wall. Prefab wall usually made of corrugated steel or aluminium sheets, although they sometimes are constructed of fibber- reinforced plastic sheets, attached to light horizontal bearing a known grits, spaced several feet apart. These type of wall are usually manufactured from sandwich construction which the outside part can be corrugated sheet, an internal part may be liner or flat or corrugated sheet, and a specific insulation are attached together by screws and to form a thin, effective sandwich wall. These walls frequently have tongue-and-groove vertical edges to allow sealed joints when the united are designed at the building sites when you are mounted on framing grits. Glass-coated, metal-coated or ceramic-coated metal panel wall often found in high-rise construction are actually commonly used in curtain walls. These walls are typically gathered as a sandwich by using glass, formed metal, or ceramic-coated metal sheets on external side, plus some form of liner, including possible masonry ; on the inner side, insulation on enclosed. Tilt-up walls are usually non-load bearing wall, which is constructed as with thinner versions of some of standard wall types, and they are often constructed for a few resistance to fire and sound. These walls are occasionally used for construction efficiency. It really is a wall that constructed in a horizontal position at walk out, and it is then tilted up and connects at its adages to adjacent tilt-up wall sections. The internal partition is a lighter form of wall used for making separations of the inside areas in the buildings.

There are many types of materials can be used for wall construction, for example stone, rock, wood, clay, cement, brick, thatch and glass.

The stone can be utilized as the wall material because it is of interest, durable, zero-maintenance, strong, and high thermal mass. The stone can divided into many different kinds and can be divide into two categories which is hard stone and soft stone. The example of the hard stone is granite stone and the examples for the soft stone are limestone and sandstone. The stone wall are incredibly strong and can last for over hundreds years and still maintain in a very good shape but it depend on the types of the stone found in the wall construction. Because the stone is available in every section of the earth therefore it's cost is much more cheaper than other wall construction materials. Besides that, the stone wall have a higher thermal mass which can slowed down heat transfer from the outdoor get into inside the houses and can also avoid the heat loss from the indoor to the outdoor. Inside the other words, the stone wall can regulated the inside the area temperature. In addition, the stone wall also very easy to keep. What we have to do is merely to check on the mortar among the stone wall is within good condition, if crumbling is happen we need to do repair or replace the mortar. Besides that, we need to clear the top of stone wall so that can keep it clear but by the way it may reduce the life span of the stone wall.

Wood is commonly been used for wall construction. Wood are been used for construction at many of the countries even though climate and soil condition are difference in every countries. This is because wood are flexible and resistant against climate harshness. Therefore wood was strongly suggested use for construction but we should look at the wood quality and the problem it grown up. Clay is also one of the most common types of the material used to develop houses. For instance, the houses in country sides mostly are produced from clay and mud. Associated with because clay has the capacity to keep carefully the house warn during cool weather and can keep the house cool during hot summer, which mean that the clay has high thermal mass. Cement is been found in nearly every countries. Cement is employed to become listed on brick or stone together. When cement is mixed with water it could be used to sick the brick together and when it is dried, it will become very hard and difficult to remove these brick apart. Thatch is not very common been found in Malaysia but it is commonly be used for building material in Africa. It is because the thatch is made from a grass which is easy to hardest which is an all natural insulator. Nowadays, glass also been found in wall construction. In modern structures, the glass is employed for outer beauty of the structure. Besides that, using the glass as wall can allowed more obvious light to get into the houses and the quantity of light entry into the house is be based upon the refraction index of the glass. Even though the glass makes it possible for the obvious light to come into the house but at the same time it can also block or eliminated the heat energy to transfer in to the houses.

Brick is one of the most typical materials found in wall construction since it was available in everywhere. In different countries will have different type of brick where are different in size, colour and material used.

In our case study, the walls are made from brick. Nowadays, brick are created by pressing clay into a block and firing them in kiln. At days gone by time, the brick are not be fried but the brick are just putted outdoor and dried by the sun. Since the DARK AGES, the brick is been widely used as the building material in many of the countries. An excellent brick are incredibly durable and can resistant to atmospheric action and temperature. Therefore brick can also be used for fire wall construction. This is why why most of the old building or wooden houses are replaced or rebuilt in brick. Brick become even more important during the Industrial Revolution. The way the brick was made? The brick is made by clay. After the clay has been dug out for soil, it will mixed with water and make into the wanted shape. From then on, these are permitted to dried slowly before there are fired in kiln at temperature of 1000C - 1200C. At this temperature, the clay is undergoes the metamorphosed proses. If the water is totally driven off, a new anhydrous mineral namely as aluminosilicates are formed with is divided from the mineral name as Kuolinite. Aluminosilicates is more stable at temperature. Besides that, minerals like mullite crystals, quartz and supercooledliquied in the brick are making the brick become harder and stronger. Why the brick are red in colour? It is because clay was provides the iron minerals. At the beginning the iron exist as ferrous iron ( iron II) but after undergo firing the iron in clay are oxidised to become iron III which form red-brown iron oxide haematite.

We mostly use bricks to create the wall because I've many advantages and only a few disadvantages to make use of it to create the wall. Advantages are attractive, durable, zero-maintenance and it have high thermal mass. The disadvantage is the time to build or to install is slow as compare to other wall materials. The brick used in wall construction can be divided into two types which can be solid brick and veneer brick. The solid brick are more prevalent been found in house wall construction since it have high thermal mass such that it is good in slow down the heat transmission and can regulate the temperature in the houses though it is more costly as compare to veneer brick. The solid wall not only good in heat insulation but also good in insulate the sound. The solid wall can block the majority of the unwanted noise from outside such as traffic noise engaging in the home. Besides that, the brick also used as fire wall since the brick aren't easy burn material. When the fire accident is happen it might take a least 8 hours to let the fire to spread to the other house. Used brick to construct a wall is very attractive also, this is because the brick itself already have it own colour, so that we you don't need to paint it after we built it. Besides that, the brick is been used because it is easy to maintain and it can stay in a good condition for a very period. The brick wall would not get rot or dent so that we no need paint the wall within a short period.

In our group, we will discuss the topic entitle WALL. Wall is a simple unit that needed to build up a building or houses. So that it is an essential compartment. However, its design factors may affect its function. Inside the below contents are the several design factors of the wall.

First of all, wall construction can be classified into two types that are external wall and interior wall. There are a great number of wall type in the entire world, while our group only discuss two types of wall that are normal solid wall which can normally be found in our country, Malaysia. A different type of wall that people are going to discuss is the cavity wall which can normally be found in the country that have four seasons such as UK, United State, Portland and etc.

This normal brick wall that found in our country can be divided into two types that are one brick wall and half brick wall which its thickness is 90mm. These walls are made up by the cement, sand, and aggregate in the mixture of the ratio in 1:2:4 which is 1 portion of cement, 2 portions of sand and 4 portions of aggregates. While the cavity walls consist of a half brick or block outer leaf, a brick or 90 mm /100mm lightweight load bearing concrete block or stud framed structure inner leaf, a 50 mm or 75mm cavity or air space among the outer and inner leaf.

The design factors of the normal brick wall and the cavity wall are almost the same. The primary design factor of the walls is the fact that they offer sufficient strength and stability to resist the loading imposed onto it. The loadings which the wall need to withstand included dead load and live load. The example of dead load is the furniture and etc as the example of live load is rain, snow, occupants and etc.

Another design factor of the walls is the fact it acts as an envelope that differentiates the outdoor and indoor area. Additionally it is a shelter that can resist the unpredictable climate change for example rain, snow to enter the interior area of the houses. Besides, wall also plays an important role to resist the transmission of sound which will eventually causes the pollution. So, the wall acts as a barrier to resist the entering of the unwanted sound to the houses.

Nowadays, owing to the fast development of the united states, there's a lot of pollution happened in our surrounding especially polluting of the environment. To minimize the contact of the occupants to these pollution, wall plays an important role which act as a barrier to avoid the outside contaminant to enter the houses such as dust, pollen, hazardous particle and etc. These contaminated particles will cause the indoor air quality in a terrible condition and thus will influence the indoor environment quality and therefore some diseases might occur for that reason poor condition for example asthma. So, with the existence of the wall, these problems can be solved and a good quality of the indoor air may be accomplished.

Besides, wall also acts as a barrier to resist the fire which is call the fire solid wall. To be able to slow down the pace of flame spread in case of fire within the building, the architects apply various techniques including the creation of compartments which would support the fire for quite a while before spreading to other areas of the building. So, to achieve this, one way to use is to take the block walls between rooms up to the underside of the roof, for instance and with respect to the quality of the aggregates used. These brick wall may have a Fire Resistance Rating of up to one and half hours (100mm thick solid brick wall).

Walls are probably the most noticeable and important area of the interior wall and also the exterior wall. Another meaning is the fact that it provides an appearance. When entering into the room, people will notices the color, kind and the surface of the wall and hence, they'll determine the psycho physiological atmosphere. So the function of walls is the fact to create space in which a person feels comfortable. Besides, the good appearance of wall is a wall without crack which the infiltration will not happen. Without infiltration, there will be no extra air to flow into the building, therefore the extra heat flow will not enter or leave the building, indirectly, the thermal comfort can perform.

The design factors of solid wall and the cavity wall are almost the same. However, there may be one thing that the standard wall cannot provide, this is the cavity wall can offer insulation to prevent the heat to transmit in to the houses or heat loses to the outside of the house. In the cavity wall, there's a 50 mm or 75 mm cavity or air space in between the outer and inner leaf. Aside from the air space, there's also have other replacement materials which use to replace the air space that are blown in blanket, flexible batt, and also loose fill insulation. This cavity prevents the passage of moisture through the wall. Therefore the outside moisture air cannot enter into the interior section of the houses. This cavity wall is quite typical in the united states which includes four seasons such as UK, United State, Finland and etc. This is because in these countries, they want this cavity wall to provide the thermal insulation to the houses especially in the wintertime season. In the winter season, the cool air beyond your door cannot pass into the wall through infiltration easily; hence, the temperature in the inside area can be maintained. In the summertime, when the occupants activate the air conditioning, the cooler air inside the interior section of the house also will not flow out to the surface area with the aid of this cavity space. Although the standard solid wall can also provide this insulation system, the level of the insulation system of the normal solid wall is much more poor when compare to the cavity wall. So, with the help of the cavity space in the cavity wall, the thermal comfort in the indoor may be accomplished and the indoor air quality also can maintain at the nice condition.


Masonry terms

Figure 4. 1: Masonry units and mortar joints

Table 4. 2: Masonry units and mortar joints



Bull header

A rowlock brick lay with its longest dimension perpendicular to the facial skin of the wall.

Bull stretcher

A rowlock brick lay using its longest dimension parallel to the face of the wall.


One of the continuous horizontal rows of masonry that, bonded together, forms the masonry structure.


A masonry unit laid flat using its longest dimension perpendicular to the face of the wall. Generally, it is utilized to tie two withes of masonry together.


A brick laid on its face, or edge.


A brick laid on its end so that its longest dimension is parallel to the vertical axis of the face of the wall.


A masonry unit laid flat using its longest dimension parallel to the face of the wall.


A continuous vertical section or thickness of masonry 4'' or greater.

Source: QUIKRETE. (2006). Basic wall construction: Walls, Corners, Pillars& Edging. .

Pattern bond

Pattern bond refers to the pattern formed by the masonry units and mortar joints on the facial skin of an wall.

Figure 4. 3: Types of masonry bonds

There are six patterns of bonding however the simplest bonding is running bonding which involves whole totally of stretchers. Mostly, running bond can be used mainly in cavity wall construction, facing tile walls made with extra wide tile and brick veneer walls. The variation between common bond and running bond is the fact that common bond has a span of full-length headers at regular intervals. These headers provide the structural bond and also pattern. Usually header courses appear at every fifth, sixth or seventh course depending on requirements. A three-quarter closure can be used in a typical bond at the corner of every header course. Alternating of headers and stretchers in each course are located in Flemish bond. The alignments of the joints between the stretchers in every stretcher courses are vertical. Bricks called blind headers can be used when headers are not required for structural bonding. A three-quarter closure starts the course in the Dutch corner. Inside the English corner, a 2-inch or quarter closure starts each course. The English bond alternates courses of headers and stretchers, which is the headers centre over and under the stretchers however the joints between stretchers in all stretcher courses do not align vertically. In this case, blind headers can be utilized in courses that are not structural bonding courses. The stack bond is a purely pattern bond that has no overlapping units and all vertical joints aligning. Rigid steel tiles or 8-inch thick stretcher units are usually bonded to the backing of the pattern when available. Steel pencil rods are inserted in to the horizontal mortar joints as reinforcement in large wall areas or load-bearing construction. The English cross or Dutch bond is a variation of the English bond which differs only for the reason that the joints between the stretchers in the stretcher courses align vertically and these joints center on the headers in the courses above and below.

Procedure of bricklaying

In order to make a satisfactory result, extreme care and experience are required in bricklaying especially where the bricklayers working in teamwork to produce a quality work. Speed and quality are the elements of the work of a skilled mason as speed is vital to the economy of masonry construction. The explanation for the apprenticeship period is miss masons are that to be expertise in bricklaying takes time and hard work.

Course heights are marked over a mason's rule or a tale pole to be able to establish accurate course heights in the leads. Prior to the leads have been completed, the work must be checked frequently with a spirit level to ensure that surfaces are flat as well as plumb and courses are level. The next thing is stretching a mason's line between the leads by using L-shaped line blocks at each end so that the end of the line near the top of each span of blocks can be located precisely.

It is faster and much easier to lay the infill bricks between your leads because the mason needs only a brick in one hand and a trowel in the other to lay to the line. Due to the facts leading are expensive as compared to the wall surface between, that's the reason economy plays a key point in designer to reduce the number of corners in a brick structure.

A power saw that utilizes a water-cooled diamond blade is employed to cut the bricks rather than using well-directed blows of the chisel-pointed end of any mason's hammer because power saw has a greater accuracy plus more intricate shapes. Ordinary brick walls should be dimensioned to reduce cutting though cutting of bricks slows the procedure of bricklaying.

When it involves mortar joints, thickness may differ from about ˜ inch (6. 5mm) to more than inch (13mm). For the thin joints to work, the bricks need to be identical one to the other within really small tolerances and the mortar is manufactured with fine sand. A stiff mortar that is tough to work with is necessary in very thick joints. 3/8 inch (9. 5 mm) is a standard standard for mortal joints, which is easy for the mason and however permits considerable distortion and unevenness in the bricks. Another common joint is one-half-inch (12. 7 mm) joint.

In order to provide a neat appearance as well concerning transform the mortar into an overview that meets the visual and weather-resistive requirements of the wall, tool the joints in brickwork an hour or two after laying as the mortar commences to harden. The vee joint and concave joint are used in outdoors as their ability to shed water and resist freeze-thaw damage much better than others. If someone wishes to accentuate the pattern of bricks in the wall and deemphasize the mortar, a raked or stripped joint can be used in indoors. Sweep the facial skin of the solid wall after joint tooling to remove the dry crumbs of mortar left by the tooling process. Finally, scrub the brick walls with muriatic acid (HCl) and rinse with water to eliminate mortar stains from the faces of the bricks. Light-colored bricks cannot be cleaned by acids as they can be stained by acids and should be cleaned in another ways.

Figure 4. 4: Brick mortar joints

CHAPTER 5. 0 :

Wall are designed and constructed in many forms that are is determined by the materials used and the encompassing environment. Exterior walls and interior walls or load-bearing wall and non-load-bearing wall will be the basic wall of any building. The surface wall is utilized to safeguard the building from external environment. Besides that, it also become load-bearing wall which carry the load such as ceiling, roof, beam and other dead load or live load at the building. Interior wall are being used to split up all the area or room in the building. The inside wall is often not a load-bearing wall. It doesn't support other load but themselves load.

There have many types of wall construction materials for example wood, brick, glass, and stone. Various kinds of materials will own it advantages and disadvantage. Which means best wall construction materials won't exist. Besides that, we have to take account the environment issue and the activities will occur inside the building before we choose the material to create the wall. Nowadays in Malaysia, we widely used the solid wall because it is attractive, durable, and strong and can decelerate the heat transfers which are suitable for the warm weather in Malaysia.

In different countries will have different types of wall, it depends on the climate of the united states and some other factors. Inside our research study, we only focus on two types of wall that are brick wall and cavity wall. The brick walls are common in Malaysia and the cavity wall are common in countries likes United Kingdom, United State, and Portland. The main design factor of both types of wall is to provide sufficient strength and stability to resist all load imposed on the house or building. Another factor design is to envelope the building and differentiates indoor area and outdoor area. This also really helps to prevent the change of climate and can also avoid the pollution, so that the indoor quality of air can be maintain in a good or health level. The wall also designed to produce a comfortable space for any users of the house or building. The various of the look factor between the solid wall and the cavity wall is that the cavity wall is designed to insulate the heat but the brick wall didn't. The cavity wall is designed to avoid the heat transfer which it can prevent the heat to getting into the building and can also prevent the heat loss from the building so that, the temperature inside the building are maintained. Although the brick wall also have the similar function but it not as good as the cavity wall. It is because the cavity wall has an insulator within it however the brick wall doesn't have the insulator.

In our case study, the material of the wall is brick wall. And there have a few solutions to construct the wall for example running bond, English bond, strack bond, dutch bond, Flemish bond and common bond. In Malaysia, the bond or the construction methods commonly been apply is English bond.

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