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Validity, dependability and generalization

Nowadays, as what we should known students are prefer to do their research and gain the info throughout the online sources as opposed to the past time students. Utilizing the modern way, students probably will face several problems in term of comparison the information and linking the data along cause the student neglect the three different solutions of the books to steer the college student in form of business research, which is consists of the validity, trustworthiness and the generalization the data of information that they have been through. In this specific article, the researcher has to review and think about how exactly they will encourage the students to keep up the quality of the research on the three different methods in form of the literature which is distinguish into four categories views such as: the positivist view, the phenomenological view, the embedded view, and the skills view.

Critical of the following in the research paper


The composition of this article is not soft because it's doesn't point out any target and objective. It doesn't provide any research problem, list out all the methods research methods in generally. It does provide a great literature review.


The research methodologies dependence on the research newspaper are includes the three solutions which are mentioned by the article. It's consists validity, trustworthiness and generalization. The three methods must the student's research paper. However, students are facing a number of the problem on writing their research paper. Students are requiring applying the ideas of the three different strategies on the research paper. However, the students appear didn't notice those methods and lack of the factor on creating their research. Thus, students cannot write a good research newspaper. In this article, the research paper problem is about how exactly to encourage the scholar to write a good research and affect the university student consider to add those three methods which are: validity, consistency, and generalization in form of quantitative and qualitative research.

Validity and reliability in Quantitative analysis.

Validity in quantitative analysis is defined as "the test for internal validity is how assured the researcher is that the independent variable is at least partly responsible for the variation within the dependent varying. " (Smallbone, T. and Quinton, Sarah, 2004). On this research article has talked about there are four validity test that employed by philosophical procedure and research methodology that happen to be: construct validity, inside validity, external validity and reliability. The internal validity of the quantitative research way of measuring get into three aspects which can be involves the content validity, predictive validity and concurrent validity. The experimental analysts are using the triangulation in quantitative research. Dependability in quantitative research is mentioned about the uniformity or the precision of the result by doing the way of measuring to test the effect.

The author of this research article has mentioned the validity and stability in Qualitative research are relevant. The exterior validity in qualitative study is hard to generalise. In qualitative research there are two key issues, entails: trustworthiness and authenticity. Trustworthiness sub-divide into four aspects. They are including: reliability, transferability, stability, and confirmability. The authenticity sub-divide into four aspects. They are including: fairness, ontological authenticity, educative authenticity, and catalytic authenticity. In qualitative research, generalization is the weakness point and can only be generalised only by some theories. The consideration of the validity, dependability and generalisation as the extra data being read, discuss, review and the theories applied to the case study.

Underlying rules and assumptions

Thomas, Alan B (2006) argue that definition of validity in quantitative research is the discourse of the problems are firmly shows the clearly the way of measuring of the trouble. Corresponding to Golafshani. N (2003), validity in quantitative research is the dimension of the study which is solution and means that the effect is correct in the research. Generally, the experts set up the validity by asking the questions and compare the response with other research newspaper. In quantitative research, validity is referred to as the build validity which is to look for the information has been collected to be website link together and how to be linked by Wainer and Braun 1998 (cited in Golafshani. N, 2003). The four type of test in the study methods have been summarized, will involve: the first test is construct validity has defined as the problematic test in the study it usually perfect the way of measuring of the actual fact in case analysis for the ideas which may have been studied. The second test is internal validity has defined as the test that are usually more relied to causal studies which is determine the causal romantic relationship if the conditions are lead to the other conditions. The 3rd test is exterior validity has thought as the test of the problem to indentify research could be generalized. The very last test is reliability has defined as the test that to recognize if the examiner is used the earlier examiner steps and repeated the same end result again. (Yin, Robert K, 2003).

The quantitative research dimension classified into three major way of determining the ascertain and the kind of notion increase in the validity. These are including predictive validity - predictive validity has defined as the test of the relationship between the result of the test and the following manners for those being examined. Concurrent validity - has thought as the test of the partnership between the result of the test and those valid measurement methods are repeated and occupied over again. Content validity - has defined as the test of the validity which effectively, signify the content to assess by area under dialogue. Inside the other hand, predictive validity and concurrent validity were collected as a group in criterion-relation validity. The reason both types of validity has been grouped and identified by assessing their test end result with a set of attribute that proposed to be strategy (Thomas, Alan B, 2006). "An test is valid if the results obtained are scheduled only to the manipulated independent variable, and if they're generalizable to situation beyond the experimental environment" (Gay, L. R and Diehl, P. L. (P. 386), 1996). Triangulation is the most crucial methodologies concern in naturalistic procedure and it is typically improving the validity and dependability of the study evaluation of the data that is accumulated by using some strategy or a test to assess it (Golafshani, N. , 2003). Trustworthiness in quantitative research has thought as the scope to which email address details are consistent as time passes and a precise representation of the full total population under analysis is referred to as reliability if the result of a report can be reproduced under an identical methodology, then your research instrument is known as to be reliable by Joppe (2000) (p. 1) (cited in Golafshani, N. , 2003). Reliability is the amount of the test which has ended and over again actions anything it actions which is often useful in portrayed numerically (Gay, L. R. and Diehl, P. L. , 1996). Matching to Golafshani, N. (2003), the trustworthiness is the method of test by questioning or identify the test being clarified and can be determine the test by using the test-retest method is to measure the similarity of the effect and the result is repeatable.

In qualitative research, consistency is a method that used for examines and evaluates the quality by explaining way in qualitative research. Stability is irrelevant in qualitative research is due to difference of evaluate the quality. Qualifying and measure the research in term of validity in qualitative research is not relevant. To increase the validity of the research throughout the test to measure the high quality of the study is linked to the generalizability of the effect (Golafshani, N. , 2003).

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