Organisations goal and aim of the job can be achieve by using a suitable management way. Some management methods will be analysis and discuss in this are accountable to put together the major movements in the management approaches. The management approaches had been picked to review are Classical Procedure, Scientific Management, Bureaucracy Strategy, Human Relations Approach, Neo-Human Relations Strategy, Systems Approach, Social Action Procedure and Contingency Theory. Besides, one of the very most effective approach in promoting a good organizational framework and organizational marriage will be select from the many management approaches. Moreover, the attributes to be a good leader would also be discuss in this record.
TYPES OF MANGEMENT APPROACHES
Classical approach was associated by some writers who are Taylor, Fayol, Urwick, Mooney and Reiley, and Brech at the early of previous century. "They placed emphasis on the planning of work, the technical requirements of the company, concepts of management, and the assumption of logical and logical action. " (Mullins, 2007). The classical approaches was basically centered on the knowledge of the purpose of a business by the employees to build the understanding of how the organisation work and how can the working solutions to be improved. Hence, to make an effective business, the section of work in the hierarchy of power and formal organizational human relationships was important and it could be achieves through the scientific ways. Besides, traditional way has provide some common principals to all or any the organisations today such as the suggestions to the structuring and efficiency of organisations as a starting place to achieves the effectiveness of an organisations.
Scientific management was contributed by F. W. Taylor (1856-1917). Taylor was thought that there surely is a best machine for every single job so the scientific strategy was focused on the scientific method to arrange the job into the most effective methods of working. "Deemed the 'Dad of Scientific Management', Taylor is acknowledged with the early attempts at deciding the simplest way of executing human-based work by simplifying its component parts and process. " (Alan, 2011). Mullins (2007) possessed summarized some guidelines of methodical management as:-
the development of a genuine science for every person's work;
the scientic selection, training and development of the individuals;
co-operation with the personnel to ensure work is carried out in the recommended way;
the department of work and responsibility between management and the workers.
The management idea was to reduce the working time by simplify the working job of the human-based work. However, the contribution thinking of Taylor has been misinterpreted. Some organisations experienced misused his idea to invoke the employees to perform more just work at the less cost basis. Nonetheless, by implemented the thought of F. W. Taylor (1911), some permanent working chart method has been surfaced by Henry Gantt (1919). Such working chart has been known as the Gantt or pub chart. Probably the most prominent notion of management originated by Henri Fayol (1949) which known as the 'five procedure for management'. The management process has been known as forecasting, arranging, commanding, co-ordinating and managing. This management strategic has been extensively use over the last 1 / 2 century.
Bureaucracy management methodology was written by a German sociologist named Max Weber. According to VectorStudy. com (2008), bureaucratic management can be described as a formal system of organisation based on evidently described hierarchical levels and tasks in order to maintain efficiency and performance. The view of Weber on the bureaucracy can be defined as a system based on discipline which the leader has to exercise their power to control over others. Bureaucracy management has plainly defined and stated the authority electric power of the hierarchy in the organisations. Besides, by discussing Mullins (2007), the progress of bureaucracy has contributed to the increasing size and complexity of organisation and the associated demand for effective supervision. Hence, the rational-legal form stressed by Weber was a far more steady of systems between your superiors and subordinates. This system allows the subordinates to challenge the decisions with their leaders by referring to the stated rules. Because of this, bureaucratic management are designed for some more intricate operations than the original management strategy.
The principal advocate of the human relations strategy was Elton Mayo (1880-1949) in yr 1920s. Human relations approach was became famous with the Hawthorne Test conduct at the American Electric Hawthorne Place near Chicago, America (USA) from years 1924s to 1932s. This approach was advocate on the individual welfare and motivation will connect to the productivity. Matching to Alan (2011), this theory has suggested that the sense of owed of a working group by an individual and their level of motivation and beneficial outputs has a primary romance. Mullins (2007) asserts that "The Hawthorne experiments undoubtedly proclaimed a signicant step forward in providing further understanding into human behaviour at work and the introduction of management thinking. " Thus the efficiency of an company can be increased upon the rise of the communication, teamwork, desire and morale on the list of employees.
Neo-human relations way was arise due for some shortcoming in the human being relations procedure and assumptions which of the studies of Hawthorne tests were not always recognized by the empirical data. However, the result of Hawthorne experiments was the reason for the subsequent drive of research at the theory. The neo-human way was reformed by Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) in years 1943. As make reference to Mullins (2007), Maslow has labeled the desire into five degree of hierarchy from the cheapest level which will be the basic level to achieve as physiological needs, through protection needs, love needs and esteem needs to the need for self-actualisation at the highest level to accomplish. This famous theory was known as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Others writers of the neo-human relations way was Frederick Herzberg (1923) who isolate two models factors which affecting the determination and satisfaction at the job such as 'hygienic' factors and the 'motivators' factors. Besides, McGregor was argued that the management style implemented by the supervisor will affect the human dynamics and behavior at work so he has wrote two theories known as as Theory X and Theory Y which predicated on the manager's tendencies.
System approach was generally produced by the German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831). "The systems approach views the organisation all together and involves the study of the organisation in terms of the relationship between complex and social factors within the machine. Changes in one part, technological or public, will affect other areas and thus the whole system. " (Mullins, 2007). System procedure is something which the entire organisation was split into various parts by the characteristics, the parts in the system was synergy or interdependent which suggest the changes of any part in the business will affect other part and the complete system. In order to produce the higher productivity, all the parts must be working alongside one another to achieve the outcome. Matching to Alan (2011), system theory can offer a framework for the managed course of the organizational activity through the provision of most its managed parts with a focus on and profit to the primary business it embark on. This will generate the synergy and a alternative perspective of an organization. Thus, this approach was designed and found in the configuration of virtually all the business nowadays.
Social action approach can be defined from the idea shown by Bowey. It is an approach which the individual users will complete their work in their own satisfaction effect at each situation of work. Relating to Mullins (2007), the idea can be analyse on three essential principles of action theory, and augmented by the four additional principles which taken from the system way. The three essential key points can be summarised as the sociology can be involved not only with behavior but with this is of action. The second essential key points are some specific meanings are persist through the reaffirmation in actions. The 3rd essential concepts was action can also lead to changes in meanings. Besides, the four additional concepts which taken out from the machine approach are therole, romantic relationship, structure and process ideas. The organisations behaviour of public action strategy can be achieve through the three key points of action theory together with the four additional principles from the system theory.
Contingency theory has mentioned that the organization must evolve to support change within both business itself and the surroundings with the prosper changing of politics, regulatory and financial market. "Essentially, the tenets of contingency theory are that: you can find no person right or easiest way to manage; the construction of a business must be commensurate with its environment; effective organisations have effective sub-elements, or system; and the procedure of the company is closely from the management style implemented. " (Alan, 2011). Relating to Mullins (2007), the contingency approach implies that organisation theory should not seek to suggest one best way to structure or deal with organisations but should provide insights in to the situational and contextual factors which inuence management decisions. Thus the management of a business must frequently change to suit the circumstances of the business exists to keep the prevailing position of the organisation.
MOST EFFECTIVE Procedure IN PROMOTING A GOOD ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATIONAL RELATIONSHIP
The Contingency way was the management strategy which I have been considered as the very best management in promoting a good organizational composition and organizational associations. Matching to Zeithaml (1988), contingency approaches are positioned within management as mid-range ideas between your two extreme views which talk about either that universal principles of organisation and management exist or that all organisation is exclusive and each situation must be analysed individually. Mullins (2007) stated contingency approach suggests organisation theory shouldn't seek to suggest one best way to structure or control organisations but should provide insights into the situational and contextual factors which inuence management decisions.
There are always have some arguments, variables and conflicts happen in an corporation. Contingency approach can be used to solve those problems as it is dependant on the management that there are no-one right or easiest way to manage just how of planning, organizing, leading, controlling and effective. The judgment on who are right or fault could not be analyses in this situation as the organization, people and situation are changes and fluctuate over a time. The effectiveness of an organization are always been affect when some problem and issue was happened. Thus, contingency strategy was the effectively way as it could used to handle and solve the challenge in the effective ways.
Referring to Alan (2011), the tenets of contingency theory has stated that construction of a business must be commensurate with its environment and the effective organisations must have effective sub-elements or system. Thus, a proper strategy will be preferred on the many changes within an organization. Besides, contingency procedure will not seek to produce the common prescriptions or ideas of behaviour but retain transform over the time to commensurate with the change and vary of the environment circumstances. In conclusion, contingency way was the very best management approach within an organization framework and relationship to create higher productivity and efficiency as it might very over enough time to match for the situations.
ATTRIBUTE TO BE A GOOD LEADER
Leader was important in an firm as he play the role on leading the whole project team to achieve the goal and aim. A good head must have evidently understand on all the management approach before applied into the project. To be always a good leader, the ability to hold up against the changes and pressure must be gained. He have to well prepared some online backup plan to carry with the risk of changes arise in the project.
As a good leader, he should be humble as will not consider oneself was better than others yet continues to be assured and assertive. As Dan (2010) said, "A leader that is clearly a servant at heart and a commander used. " and "A leader that is able to change words into action and motivate others to provide their finest every day. They know the strategy of the business and implement it daily. " so a good innovator must also be capable of execute their job, listen to others and inspire their subordinates to perform their job. Besides, to be always a good leader he must develop their team as teaches, coaches and show their knowledge and experience with their workers to help them to become a stronger leaders.
Good communication skill between internal and external corporation was also one of the attribute to be a good leader. Additionally, a innovator could be in authoritative styles which are strong persona in giving education to attain objective and in the other hands, it can be a democratic style who work and discuss alongside the team member but are the decision manufacturers in the team. Good head would also a risk taker who is not fearful to try new strategies, conform it and put into action the ideas of their workers.
The finish was to be a good leader it should be rely on several command style and adopt more leader feature to perform the various management methodology in the different organisations project to be able to take it to the success and improve the production and efficiency.
In my opinion, by reviewing the many types of management approaches the contingency methodology was the very best management methodology for a business. The contingency procedure can solve the many kind of problem such as discord and some problem happen on having less communication conducted during the project period with more easy ways. So the contingency approach could help to ensure the improvement of the job to go smooth and achieve the target and objective in a more effective manner. Furthermore, the attribute to be always a good innovator would been discussed. In order to be a good innovator, various feature of leader should be choose and the first choice must have different design of command and with a good understanding of all the management approach in order to execute and lead the organisation assignments to be success in higher efficiency and production.