Posted at 10.04.2018
Before initiating the interviews, approximately eighteen semi-structured questions were created, some of which were changed or re-worded during the interview. Interview topics were selected predicated on their position. The name of the delegation leader for every single African member talk about was extracted from the UNFCCC secretariat. For several member states, where in fact the leading delegate was struggling to be interviewed due to security reasons or timing, an alternative solution senior person in the delegation was looked for. A complete of 23 African leaders were interviewed. Appendix E lists the African Group market leaders who have been interviewed within the analysis. The African market leaders who had been interviewed consisted of Presidents, Ministers, Ambassadors, Director Generals, Directors and other senior staff of the countries delegation like the UNFCCC Focal Point Representative.
The choice of a semi-structured rather than structured interview was hired as it offered sufficient overall flexibility to approach the average person respondents in various ways, while collecting the same data. All interviews were performed in the many getting together with rooms of Bella Centre and half
of the interviews occurred during the high level segment of COP15, i. e. between your 16th - 18th December 2009. The interviews were pre-scheduled; however, due to the overrunning of many of the COP15 Plenary trainings, a certain amount of versatility was required by the researcher. In a few of the interviews, an interpreter had to be used. In every instances, this interpreter would be a member of the same African delegation as the interviewee. The length of each interview assorted from 45 minutes to at least one 1 time and quarter-hour.
Before each interview commenced, the researcher gave an advantages highlighting the reason and qualifications to the study, the interview questions, the length of the interview in conditions of time and the confidentiality of the results. Most mature interviewees were combined with security officers, directors or special assistants. Several interviewees had invited a couple of members of the delegation to provide remarks or information in addition with their own response and these were also noted.
The interviews were registered using a combo or methods. Some were documented utilizing a tape recorder, whilst others were transcribed or a mixture of both methods was used through the interview. The purpose was to use a tape recorder for any interviews conducted, as this might ensure the most correct bank account of the discussions held. However, credited to certain reasons, some security aides and ministerial assistants didn't permit the use of an tape recorder. In these occasions, the interview was transcribed and a synopsis of the interview was read back to ensure the precision of the data captured. However, this slowed down the progress of the interview.
4. 7. 5 Participant Observer
According to Jorgensen (1989), participant observation is most appropriate when certain nominal conditions can be found:
The research problem can be involved with individual meanings and interpretations gained from the insider's perspective.
The occurrence is sufficiently limited in proportions and location to be studied as a case
Study questions work for an instance.
The research question can be resolved by qualitative data collected by immediate observation and other means important to the field environment.
Jorgensen (1989) further claims that "participant observation is especially appropriate for exploratory studies [as it is a] a special form of observation and a unique way of collecting data [. . . ] Direct involvement in the here and today of people's daily lives provides both a point of reference for the logic and process of involvement observational inquiry and a strategy for gaining access to phenomena that commonly are obscured from the standpoint of any non-participant. "
Furthermore, relating to Iacono et al (2009), participant observation can "arise from an on-going work situation where the researcher can be an industry practitioner. " Given this researcher's professional position as a practitioner in the field of management consultancy and her current assignment as the Special Complex Assistant to the Minister of Environment, participant observation was used as a method to further understand the group decision-making procedure for African market leaders within the context of the African Group. Observed were the daily activities in relation to how decisions were made, the connection between delegates and the group dynamics.
The formal African Group meetings scheduled from 8am - 9am daily were went to, as well as the African Conferences relating to the Kyoto Standard protocol between 7pm - 8pm, every day. These African Conferences were at the technical level. A complete of 18 African Conferences at the technological level were went to during COP15. The researcher also attended all four meetings of the African Ministers Committee on Environment (AMCEN) and both conferences of the Seminar of African Heads of Express on Weather Change (CAHOSCC).
The plenary consultations of the COP15 / MOP5 were shut down to party delegates. However, as the researcher was signed up as a participant to the Discussion, further need to make a deal usage of the plenary periods had not been required. During the conferences of the African Group, AMCEN, CAHOSCC and the plenary trainings, specific observations and field notes were made, including observations on the 'culture' of the UNFCCC decision-making environment. To be a researcher, being amid the decision-making process allowed my own understanding and notions to be continually challenged by the action and words of the African leaders within COP15.
Conversations were possessed and questions were asked through the African Conferences only.
4. 7. 6 Focus Groups
According to Morgan (1997), 'Concentration Communities' are a way of collecting data through group connections on a topic dependant on the researcher. Morgan (1997) also declares that focus groupings are especially useful when wanting to gather a "massive amount interaction on a subject in a restricted time frame. " Regarding to Greenbaum (2000), ''the goal of any emphasis group is to delve into attitudes and emotions in regards to a particular topic, to understand the 'why' behind certain behaviours''.
Other research workers, such as Gibbs (2007) suggests ''target group research consists of organised discussions with a determined band of individuals to get information about their views and activities of a subject that is specially fitted to obtaining several perspectives a comparable subject''. Gibbs further says ''the benefits of concentrate group research includes getting insights into individuals distributed understandings of each day life and the ways in which individuals are affected by others in the same situation.
According to Fern (2001) ''target communities'' can be recognized in conditions of the study purpose they serve, the types of information and knowledge they produce, their clinical position and methodological factors. Fern (2001) also claims that we now have three types of emphasis categories i. e. exploratory, experimental and scientific. This research uses the exploratory type, as this kind is used to "explore a fresh issue, generate a hypothesis and then for theory applications including generating theoretical constructs, causal connections, models and theories. " The researcher's choice of using an 'Exploratory Target Group' can be summarised as follows: -
The character of the topic under analysis;
The exploratory nature of the research;
The simple fact the researcher got ready usage of people of the African Group;
The data collected would strengthen the findings of the research in conjunction with other research methods used for the research.
The concentrate group process involves seven components. Included in these are: group cohesion, the discourse process, the outcome, group structure, research environment, the moderator and the group process factors (Fern, 2001). A few of these can be handled by the researcher, while others cannot. The central part is the conversation process and the exchange of information. The discussion process, subsequently, affects the nature of the concentration group result. Fern (2001) also expresses that group cohesion is important to the success of a concentration group as it provides the explanation for participants to contribute to the discourse. Group structure and the focus group placing affect cohesion, both directly and in mixture.
Morgan (1997) declares focus communities generally comprised of 6 - 10 individuals, whereas regarding to Fern (2001), smaller mini-group emphasis teams are also common with 4 - 6 individuals. Morgan (1997) also claims that the amount that every participant must contribute to the debate is a major awareness in determining group size. Small organizations work best when the participants will tend to be both thinking about this issue and respectful of the other person when the researcher desires to gain a clear sense of every participant's a reaction to this issue.
The researcher conducted 6 concentrate groups composed of of 4 - 9 users.
Compatibility is a major concern when identifying the structure of focus organizations. According to Morgan (1988), "when individuals perceive the other person as fundamentally similar they can spend less time detailing themselves to the other person and additional time discussing the problems at hand. " Morgan (1988) also suggests that the traditional way to attain compatibility is by bringing together homogeneous participants. A shared qualifications or demographic characteristics, i. e. gender, contest or ethnicity, get older, location or property, educational level, profession, income, marital position or family structure are one common basis for selection. An excessive amount of homogeneity, however, can limit the range of issues and positions talked about; therefore a amount of heterogeneity was wanted in the selection of the African Group associates.
In this research, the participants were selected based on gender, job and location (in conditions of the African state they symbolized). Gender was chosen to ensure female representations amongst users. In terms of profession, all the respondents were market leaders within the environmental sector and experienced a relatively good knowledge of the goal of COP15. Locality was a key point, as the researcher's purpose was to have a member from each one of the African states symbolized in the many focus groups. This is not achieved, because of the difficulty of getting participants together at the same time because of the volume of conferences and side situations being organised during COP15. How big is each focus group mixed from 6 - 9 members as mentioned above.
The setting refers to the space where the focus group takes place. Considerations for setting up include the ambient (i. e. tangible or physical) characteristics of an area, the tables, chairs and tracking equipment (Fern, 2001). The environment of the focus conferences was fixed for the duration of the seminar. The set-up of the reaching room for the focus communities is illustrated in Figure 5 below. That is based on a group comprising of six members.
The date of every focus group meeting was set; however there is need to be flexible on the timing scheduled to meetings and plenary consultations over running. Most of the focus group meetings were held through the first week of the discussion, to avoid impacting on the conferences planned to interview Ministers and Minds of Governments during the second week of the seminar.
The majority of the respondents used for the focus group interviews, were complex members of the delegation, but all were in a position of leadership. Suggestions about the optimal range of focus group periods range from 2 to 8 (Fern, 2001). Though most focus group research implies that fewer than five consultations are sufficient, if the purpose of the research, as is the truth with this research, is to collect a total society of thoughts alternatively than common or unique ones (Fern, 2001).
Appendix F provides breakdown of the focus organizations held, the participants and the country of origin of the participants. The purpose of the researcher was to achieve a good representation of market leaders across the continent.
Morgan (1997) identifies some more concerns in determining the number of focus communities. Probably the most crucial of these is the variability of the participants both within and across the groups. Within groups, when there are more heterogeneous members, this will typically need a larger variety of groups to sort out the different pieces of views and experiences. Amount of structure of the interview also has a direct effect on the amount of groupings required.
Less set up interviews, with lower degrees of moderator engagement, require more organizations. Another significant thought concerns the availability of members. If there are fewer potential participants available or if they're highly dispersed, several smaller groups of an inferior size are required to address the criterion of saturation. All these factors were considered in deciding the exact variety of focus groups used in this research.
Discussion process (Foulkes, 1964, as cited in Fern, 2001) offers a group of factors which guide the focus group dialogue process. These factors symbolize sequential phases in the group talk. The first factor, cultural integration, is the chance for equal participation of all group people in the discourse. The second, the mirror response, is the individual participant's realization that others show similar ideas, anxieties, or impulses and this then relieves the anxieties they feel in relation to involvement in the concentration group. Condenser phenomenon, as the third factor, is an activation of the collective mindful and unconscious that means it is easier to speak about the issues lifted in the debate. Finally, exchange, is the process of posting information and explanations that makes up the majority of the talk.
In the 90 minutes scheduled for each concentrate group, the first 10 minutes were devoted to the first two factors, cultural integration and reflection response. This included time for members to check in and be acclimatised to the room and engage in light discussion with the researcher and other participants. Introductions were made and individuals got to know just a little about each other. Individuals were then asked to sit back around the table. The researcher place the stage in conditions of the role of the researcher, the purpose, and the ground guidelines (i. e. use of sound recorder) and the role of the researcher as the moderator for the treatment (Greenbaum, 2000).
Interview questions were personalized for about 80 minutes of discussion. Each target group was conducted in a moderately structured manner. Consequently, the researcher was led by a set of questions, but neither the precise wording nor the order of questions was predetermined. Likewise, the questions themselves were fine-tuned from emphasis group to focus group as information gleaned and data analysed from previous groupings was used to steer each following group.
As previously discussed in earlier chapters, fully organised style had not been used as this research is exploratory and the intent was to determine the participant's perspective. On the other hand, a fully unstructured approach was not considered suitable as the researcher possessed insights into the relevant discussion subject areas from an considerable overview of the books and her personal experience as a advisor/practitioner.
Generally, the focus group began with each participant providing a short personal benefits. Questions were then asked about Africa's preparedness for the COP15. This is followed by questions associated with how the African Group proved helpful. These questions were used to see, whether there was a knowledge and awareness amidst participants on the decision-making process of the African Group, and whether the Group leaders completely understood the process. Furthermore, it was important to ascertain whether people of the group were alert to the background and commencement of Africa's common position. Other questions which were reviewed included those associated with the participants' views on the effects of Local climate Change on Africa and the key concerns of the African Group. In addition there were questions relating to their views on whether they thought the decisions made by African market leaders were rational and what the likely final result from COP15 in terms of the expectations of the African Group would be.
A final important element of the discourse process is the moderator. Within a concentration group, the moderator is a facilitation or talk leader, not a participant to the discourse (Fern, 2001). Two important factors must be taken into consideration when choosing a moderator. They are preceding experience and romance to the participants (Morgan, 1998). As the researcher got both, she made a decision to use an unbiased moderator for the emphasis groups.
Focus Group Results - The concentrate group outcome identifies the success of obtaining the researcher's goal. Fern, (2001), described 'result' as:
''Task performance success (i. e. quality, amount, and the price of information);
The user's reaction (i. e. satisfaction with the process and output), and;
Group member relationships (i. e. cohesive, suitable, and lively communities)'