Posted at 10.04.2018
Job Examination is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job tasks and requirements and the comparative need for these tasks for a given job. Job Research is an activity where judgments are created about data accumulated on employment.
Job examination, which is also known as job review or job classification, is a organized exploration of the responsibilities, duties, tasks and accountabilities of a job. The process of job examination involves collection of background information, selection of representative jobs to be examined, assortment of job evaluation information, development of employment information and job specs.
The formal and organized methods of job analysis are practical job analysis, the position analysis questionnaire, and the critical incident technique. Job examination pays to for planning job information and job specs which will be the basis for almost all of the HR activities like recruitment, training, performance appraisal, professional relations and wage and salary supervision.
Job design decides how work should be performed which, in turn, affects the degree of expert of a worker over the work; the range of decision-making by the staff; the amount of tasks a worker must perform; and employee satisfaction. The primary aims of job design are to meet firm requirements such as higher production, operational efficiency and quality; and simultaneously fulfill the mental health and sociological needs of the employees.
The Job; not the individual An important idea of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the work, not the person. While Job Examination data may be gathered from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the evaluation is a information or features of the work, not a description of the individual.
The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of work strategies such as training, selection, settlement, and performance appraisal.
Job Examination can be utilized in training/"needs diagnosis" to identify or develop:
assessment checks to measure effectiveness of training
equipment to be used in delivering the training
Methods of training (i. e. , small group, computer-based, video tutorial, classroom. . . )
Job Examination can be used in compensation to identify or determine:
compensable job factors
work environment (e. g. , hazards; attention; physical effort)
responsibilities (e. g. , fiscal; supervisory)
required degree of education (indirectly related to salary level)
Job Analysis can be used in selection strategies to recognize or develop:
job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;
appropriate salary level for the positioning to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;
minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;
selection tests/instruments (e. g. , written checks; oral testing; job simulations);
applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
orientation materials for candidates/new hires
Job Analysis can be used in performance review to recognize or develop:
goals and objectives
length of probationary periods
duties to be evaluated
There are different approaches to job design - the engineering approach, the individuals relations approach, the job characteristics methodology and the sociotechnical methodology. An effectively designed job enhances employee efficiency and satisfaction. Modern management has many job design options, which can convert monotonous and routine jobs into more challenging and motivating ones. Some of the popular job design options are job rotation, job enlargement and job
Methods of collecting job examination information include:
Methods of observation include direct observation, work methods evaluation, critical incident approach.
Direct Observation is a method of job evaluation to see and record behavior / events / activities / responsibilities / responsibilities while something is going on.
Work methods evaluation is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as manufacturing plant or assembly-line careers. Work methods research includes time and movement research and micro-motion examination.
Critical incident technique is a method of job evaluation used to recognize work behaviors that classify in good and poor performance.
Interview method is a good tool of job examination to ask questions to both incumbents and supervisors in either a person or a group setting up. Interview includes organized Interviews, unstructured interview, open-ended questions.
Questionnaire methods include 6 techniques as follows:
PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It produced by McCormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), is a set up instrument of job examination to assess job characteristics and relate them to human being characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that identify generic real human work conducts.
FJA model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by the Career and Training Administration of america Section of Labor. It includes 7 scales (numbers) that measure: 3 worker-function scales: solution % of your energy spent with: data, people, things; 1 worker-instruction size; 3 scales that solution reasoning, mathematics, vocabulary.
WPS model is a questionnaire approach of job examination, is a computer-administered system for job research, developed by Saville & Holdsworth, Ltd.
MOSAIC model is a questionnaire approach of job analysis used to collect information from incumbents and supervisors. It contains 151 job jobs rated in conditions of importance for effective job performance and 22 competencies ranked in terms of importance, and needed skills at entry.
CMQ model is a method of job evaluation that was developed by Harvey as a "worker-oriented" job analysis instrument made to have applicability to a broad range of exempt and nonexempt careers. It includes 41 basic questions of background section, 62 questions of contacts with people, 80 items of decision making, 53 items of physical and mechanical activities, 47 components of work environment.
FJAS model is is a technique of job research that describe careers from the idea of view of the required capacities. It includes 52 cognitive, physical, psycho-motor, and sensory potential, each of the categories includes two parts - an functional and differential description and a grading level.
A job inventory is a list of the discrete activities that define a particular job in a particular organization.
This method is same the critical incident technique. It focuses on work actions and the results of the behavior rather than more abstract characteristics. Job aspect method developed by Ernest Prim off.
This method is a good tool of job examination to ask employee maintaining and keeping daily files or list of activities they are doing on every day
Checklist is job analysis method base on an inventory of job elements. You can ask question about reason for position; key responsibility areas; firm; relationships; decision making; authority; Skills, knowledge, experience; working conditions
Competency modeling is the activity of determining the precise competencies that are characteristic of high performance and success in confirmed job. Details of competency modeling include skills, knowledge, capabilities, values, pursuits, personalities.
Manuals/guide materials such as quality manual, human resource manual, strategies, instruction, forms, job informationare great for analyst in job research. These documents are available for organizations applied to ISO 9000 standard.
Technical meeting is a good tool of job examination base on Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). SMEs do brainstorming sessions to identify job elements. SMEs may use all job analysis methods in here.
Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model) is a way of job evaluation, was developed in 1970 by Felix Lopez. Threshold traits analysis system include a standard set of 33 qualities: ability traits are "can do" factors and attitudinal features are "ready to do" factors.
In procedure for job examination, analyst may use and associate all solutions to collecting job information. For example, when you use immediate observation, then you always do interview method.
What will be the uses of job evaluation information?
Job examination information is used in human resources frequently to establish:
Job description: A job description gives an account of the work and obligations associated with a particular job. It describes what sort of job is performed currently. Most job explanations contain the following information:
the job name
summary description of the job
a list of tasks for the job
a set of organizational obligations related to the job
Job requirements: Job specifications define the characteristics of the activities associated with the job and given in the job description. They express the skill units and qualifications that a candidate for the job should have got.
Job classification: Job classification groups similar careers into classes and families. This simplifies the overview for professionals and is essential for streamlined working of a business.
Job evaluation: Job evaluation involves finding out the monetary price of employment and helps to setup equitable pay buildings.
Job design: Job design integrates staff needs with productivity needs to boost staff member efficiency.
The conclusions attract out of this data will often be:
Identifying training needs of personnel
Creating recruitment strategies
Making performance reviews
Without proper job evaluation by the human resources division, it is problematic for any organization to remain competitive and also attract and keep talent.