Posted at 12.28.2018
The review was designed to investigate the continuing future of Urdu in the UK. British given birth to Asians were the populace of the analysis. The analysis was a review type which was delimited to the classes of Lancashire, Midlands and Western world Midlands and one institution from each was the sample of the study. Questionnaire was used as a research tool and forty-five questionnaires were distributed to collect data that forty replies could be possible. Guidelines appealing were, ages, track record (Natural), mother tongue, gender, places of research, education levels and use of Urdu. After research of data, it was found that future of Urdu in the united kingdom is smart and it enjoys still mostly used community dialect among Asians. Finally, regions of consideration are advised that will allow us to enhance the analysis of Urdu and also make it an instrument of public development (health, cultural good care etc).
"Urdu is a living vocabulary and has a dazzling future in the united kingdom".
During the author's PGCE placement at School, the top teacher said and generally believed that Urdu is dropping its appeal to British delivered Asian learners as; parents choose to instruct a language other than Urdu with their Children. The writer also noticed and witnessed that pupils have had less drive towards Urdu when compared with other dialects. So, in the light of the author's observations and the top teacher's views the writer conducted a study to get a much better picture about the continuing future of Urdu in the UK. There may be a lot of reasons behind this insufficient motivation but the author centered on following questions:
Why is Urdu less appealing to British learners?
What will be the sources of learning Urdu in the united kingdom?
What are the interests of English Asians for learning Urdu?
How do British isles Asians use Urdu terminology in their lifestyle?
Which writing script of Urdu is preferred by British Asians in the united kingdom?
How can you really promote and preserve Urdu through electric and print media?
Does Urdu desire a modern pedagogy to handle modern requirements?
Language seems to have many uses like, a way of communication, an instrument of transmitting knowledge and an expression of social and creative urges of a community. "A terms is the emblem of its speaker systems. Each language determines a unique way of taking a look at the world. It encapsulates the laws and customs and values of its cultural group. " (R. M. W. Dixen. 1997:135). So is the truth with the dialect of Urdu as, according to George Weber's article Top Languages:
"The World's 10 Most Important Languages in Terms Today, Hindi/Urdu is the fourth most spoken words in the world, with 4. 7 percent of the world's populace, after Mandarin, English, and Spanish".
Urdu is a South Asian vocabulary spoken in Pakistan as a countrywide vocabulary (Qaumi Zabaan). Urdu is also one of the officially regarded languages in India and has standard language status in the Indian claims of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and the nationwide capital, New Delhi. In Indian administered Kashmir, Urdu is the principal official language. It is the only point out in India where Urdu has been given such a status.
According to Mehrab online report on International Urdu Convention "Urdu does not have any boundary and has its root base all over the world". BBC Urdu website says:
"Urdu is meticulously related to Hindi. Urdu is spoken as a first language by over 60 million people (including 10 million in Pakistan and 48 million in India)".
Masica (1991: 22) represents "Urdu as having no specific territorial bottom part, in the sense that there surely is no vicinity or group of localities in the Indian sub-continent that can be pointed out at as an Urdu-speaking area. "
However, Urdu is demographically significant in another way as well. It is trusted as a second terms throughout the Muslim communities of South Asia. As Schmidt (1999:16) says, "Urdu is also spoken in Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Nepal, and is just about the cultural terminology and lingua franca of the South Asian Muslim diasporas outside the subcontinent".
The romantic relationship between Urdu and Britain is not new; it started out around three and a half century ago when the British entered into the sub-continent as a trader and established the East India Company. English studied in depth the culture, linguistic, cultural and economic qualifications of the sub-continent and they realised that to acquire full political ability they had a need to learn the terms of the land. To fulfil this purpose they set up Fort William School in Calcutta. It was founded on July 10, 1800.
According to Wikipedia "Fort William College or university was an academy and learning centre for Oriental studies proven by Lord Wellesley, then Governor-General of Uk India".
Gilchrist was called head of the college and he produced a whole lot of books in Urdu. Queen Victoria employed an Indian Muslim to instruct her Urdu and his family portrait can still be seen in the Royal Palace. Manama Afkaar Printed "Urdu in Britain" special quantity and on the title page there is a picture of Queen Victoria with Munshi Abdul Karim (the Queen's Urdu Tutor). (appendix1)
John Joshua Keterlaer, the Dutch ambassador to India, published Urdu's first grammar circa 1715. Written in Latin, it was named 'Grammatical Indostanica', as Indostan, Indostani, and Hindustani are among the several names Urdu has had through decades. In 1741, Benjamin Schultz, a German missionary, composed 'Grammatica Indostanica' in Latin. The first-ever grammar of Urdu in British was compiled by a MrGliston. John Gilchrist possessed also written a grammar book of Urdu himself but it was a English military officer named Hadley who was acknowledged with writing and posting the first-ever grammar of Urdu in British.
There were two countrywide Urdu conferences placed in the united kingdom. The first was held at the SOAS on Saturday, 8th December, 1979. The second Urdu national meeting was called by the Urdu Majlis (UK), the centre for Multicultural Education and it's took place on Apr 24th-25th, 1981 in London. Both conferences were an enormous success towards the role of Urdu education in the UK.
Professor Ralph Russell was a British scholar of Urdu literature and his scholarly research received him a distinctive and abiding place among great names of Urdu literature. He did tremendous work to promote and make Urdu popular in the united kingdom.
According to Community languages in advanced schooling record 2008 Urdu is the surface of the chart which is most extensively spoken community terms in the united kingdom. See chart below:
Source: Community languages in higher education report 2008, p11.
Urdu is a terminology spoken either as an initial or second vocabulary by a portion of English Asian people, particularly those of Pakistani heritage. It is generally spoken in the united kingdom by immigrants and their descendants. As stated by the BBC Urdu website
"The Urdu community in the UK amounts about one million speaker systems. "
The Urdu community in the UK is very much larger than the Hindi community. Most of those who identify themselves as Urdu speakers use a variety of Punjabi as the language of the house, and speak Urdu as another language for spiritual and social reasons. The overpowering majority originates from the western Punjab and the Mirpur area of Azad Kashmir, but smaller sets of Gujarati Muslims from both India and East Africa also use Urdu for spiritual purposes as mentioned on the BBC website. David Mathews described in his conversation at the five-day International Urdu Meeting held in Islamabad. "Urdu is recognized as the fourth international language in the UK".
The version spoken in Britain is greatly laced with Punjabi and Mirpuri (which is evident in my review) words and conditions. The reason behind this is that most UK residents who are of Pakistani descent originally originated from the Mirpur area in north Pakistan which is also next to the Punjab.
The Pakistani community is the second greatest of the three South Asian communities in Britain, with a human population estimate of 899, 000. Over 92 per cent of Pakistanis in Britain identify themselves as Muslim. Whilst a big proportion of the community is targeted in London, it is more consistently spread in the united states than most other Muslim populations, with major settlements in the Midlands, Yorkshire and the North West.
According to CILT survey 1995 Urdu is the most widely used community vocabulary in England and 69 local education government bodies are offering Urdu education.
Methodology is an image of process which is often explained as advised by
(Cohen et al, 2003:44), "the number of approaches found in educational research to assemble data which should be used as a basis for disturbance and interpretation, for explanation and prediction" For the intended purpose of my research I've preferred to use a survey as it can be "used to check a wide field of issues, populations, programs etc. In order to measure or express any generalised features" (Cohen, 2007:206).
According to Sapsford (1999), planning of survey includes four different periods; of problem meaning, test selection, design for measurements and concerns for participants, therefore I had taken into the profile to accommodate all the four phases. The first level of research engaged the pilot review as it is "an initial little bit of research conducted before an entire survey to check the effectiveness of the study methodology". It had been decided after the suggestions created by the Curriculum and Professional Mentor to carry out the Pilot analysis which was achieved in Dec 2009. A review was prepared to ascertain the chosen data collection method also to gain some preliminary findings. I decided closed finished questions for my review as Fink (1995) urges that "they can be easy to standardise, and data accumulated from closed down end questions provide themselves to statistical analysis".
For this goal I produced a questionnaire using the likert-scale, multiple choice and ordinal side of shut down end questions which required attention towards sampling as well concerning ensure that the info on which the sample is based is comprehensive. The research questions for this analysis asked how people used Urdu in their daily lives. Following the recommendations to the pilot study, the development of the entire review questionnaire was done together with the suggestions created by Stephen Toll (Email, Appendix2) and Teacher Itesh Sachdev (Email, Appendix3) to validate the pilot survey questionnaire.
In conclusion, the research will provide me as well as the readers with a clearer picture of the Urdu's Future as a Modern Language in the united kingdom and will raise motivation towards Urdu research. The observations were made to verify the consequence of the research and proposals were made to increase the determination and recognition among Urdu learners in the united kingdom.
The surveys were completed towards the finish of the wintertime term 2010. A total of 45 questionnaires were delivered to three different classes, one in Lancashire, one in the Midlands and one in Western Midlands. Of this 45 surveys sent out only 40 reactions were received (89% response) of which 8 were over 16(20%) and 32(80%) were under 16.
In terms of gender it is clear the sample is not indicative consultant of human population. Since only 10% of that populace surveyed were women. It really is visible that the survey must be changed and widened since it is non conformist, i. e. only 10% of the surveyed of were female. From formal experiences it is noticeable that a huge society of females tend to express fascination with languages than guys. So to get a more viable picture of the future the survey should have been conducted in two stages:
It is therefore advised that today's findings will be biased since 90% of the group were guys, who do not have a tendency to show affinity for languages review.
It is also visible that a disproportionate amount of those surveyed were learning Urdu language in a private establishment for example at a mosque. From these results it is clear that credited to large numbers of men surveyed the email address details are biased. From my very own experiences I realize that more young ladies tended to review Urdu at school than boys. Therefore, it is clear that of the review was extended an obvious picture of the amount of male students would be obtained.
In conditions of degree of Urdu being analyzed 98% of the individuals examined to GCSE level with only 2% going further to review A/S level.
Figure (displaying Education Level)
Another factor which needs to be born at heart is the age groups surveyed, since the present research took into account only those learning GCSE's (i. e. - 16). This must be extended to include a large quantity of content 16's. Since this is actually the group which will lead to make increased use of the Urdu qualifications.
Figure (showing Mother tongue)
Use of Urdu words in
Importance over a scale of 1- 5 with 1 is the most and 5 is the least.
Using it with customers of family
Using it locally.
Using it for travel. Browsing Pakistan and India.
Using it for friendship and interpersonal networking.
Reading newspapers, newspapers and catalogs in Urdu.
Cinema, Tv set, internet and Radio
Figure for non Urdu speakers studying Urdu shows a wide range of nationalties learning Urdu terms. These ranged from languages of the Indian sub-continent, Africa and Europe. These results are incredibly interesting for the reason that they show that the number of students learning Urdu originated from a number of backgrounds, in terms of their mom tongue. It can be inferred that Urdu has same interest in a variety of nationalties and this can be long further with publicity of the terminology to other backgrounds.
Results for How will you use Urdu terms in your daily lives?
The review asked to spell it out the utilization of Urdu vocabulary in their daily lives and get ranking these statements in order of importance over a level of 1- 5.
The most interesting and sharing set of data are extracted from the 'Use of Urdu' (Table 1).
From primary inspection of the info it seems that 50% of the group surveyed do not give much credence to the use of Urdu. However closer insight shows some interesting developments, these are defined below:
65% of the group uses Urdu in the house, probably because of the fact that the parents and grandparents find it better to converse in Urdu somewhat than English. Also the social aspects of the communications are easily communicated in Urdu than English.
From the use of Urdu in the community it appears that the majority of the group users seem to give most importance to Urdu in the community. This may be due to the biased mother nature of the review, i. e. 98% men. From a social point of view the male's role for the reason that of bread winner so if he's working all day there may be little dependence on him to utilize the terms to communicate in a way concerning get things done. I really believe a more thorough survey will show that whenever feminine views are considered this criteria will show different results.
Travelling style will show the highest use of Urdu, and even this is actually the case. Even here I really believe the expansion of the survey to include more females will result in an even higher quantity who use Urdu when travelling.
Social networking has a significant variety of surveyed organizations who use Urdu for communicating, but it should be born at heart that the Urdu used is written in Roman script for online communication!
It has been some sadness that we remember that use of Urdu appears to be on the decrease in advertising and entertainment.
Thus from a short go through the results it could seem to be that Urdu is drop in the UK, but one needs to generate other factors and shortfalls in the review to totally understand the situation.
Figure 5 (learning Urdu as a subject at level level)
Of the 40 studies completed questionnaires solved 12% responded favorably to the question whilst 35% explained that they did not consider to review Urdu at degree level and 53% were uncertain to study Urdu at degree level. Figure shows that 35% of respondents want to study Urdu as an individual subject matter whilst 65% portrayed that they want to study Urdu coupled with other subjects.
Survey of the opportunity of studying Urdu at higher levels shows that a very good sized quantities would like to research Urdu at higher levels, in a few form. I really believe Urdu as its own would be determined by hardly any individuals, but when given a selection of having under as a combined module a large number showed interest. This fits in with how Urdu can be produced more available to the complete community in different area: health, education, public services etc.
Which Urdu writing script is simple to read and understand?
Figure 6 (Which Urdu writing script is easy to read and understand: Traditional/Roman. )
An overwhelming bulk found Urdu written in Roman script to be easily read and comprehend, whereas only 65% thought that traditional Urdu script was easy to read and understand.
The present research has highlighted important issues about the future of Urdu as a ML and the future of Urdu locally. On first glance it would appear that Urdu is burning off its grass main importance. This can be recognized if one takes into account the continuing changing of the populace of the Urdu speaking organizations. Naturally the first technology group which give much importance to the Urdu Dialect since it is the language of the kin which is a language in which they experienced their formal education or have become up being ornamented by the use of the vocabulary (i. e. their formative years). The second generation immigrants performed to the use of Urdu in the home anticipated to strong ties using their relative in the local countries. As the immigrant population became informed their use of Urdu at home and within the networking socialising circles lowered. This sidelining of Urdu has resulted in many English immigrants of "Urdu descent" not being able to speak Urdu fluently; even within the house. However, preliminary groundwork shows that Urdu still appears to be spoken widely on the list of male group for reasons of culture and their jobs. Thus Urdu continues to be being analyzed in schools but the majority of the students learning Urdu are guys or students in spiritual based academic institutions of Indo-Pakistani roots.
From my discussions in academic institutions and the city it is clear that Urdu is again gathering popularity possibly due to the fact that we now have significant changes happening in the us of the immigrant inhabitants from India/Pakistan. Firstly, there are a huge number of individuals reaching later years (60+) who have to modify to a non-nuclear family. There's been a large increase in old people's homes housing Urdu speaking immigrants. By necessity they have to change from living away from their families which includes repercussions because of their careers. Older people prefer to converse in their local tongues, therefore the health careers need to be in a position to understand and speak accordingly. This certainly means that these professionals who are able to understand and use Urdu can look after this population better. This definitely means that the importance of Urdu can be improved by targeting individuals who work in these areas. Limits of the present work of this document don't allow a detailed discussion of all points, however the author suggests the next points to improve Urdu and secure its future:
Highlight the richness of Urdu books.
A global market of present times makes it possible for entrepreneurs to use the many opportunities to broaden business into areas where Urdu continues to be widely used.
NHS will need to cater for a growing population who will need to utilize Urdu to communicate with an organization which is currently growing and needs healthcare.
Social welfare groups have to be ready for the time when large numbers of Urdu speaking inhabitants will require assisted housing and care.
The importance of higher education lessons that offer study of Urdu alongside the major themes. E. g. Medication with Urdu, Pharmacy with Urdu, Dentistry with Urdu, Nursing with Urdu, Medical care with Urdu etc.
This section handles the significance of main results of this analysis for the writer as well as for others and, the way the findings relate with the literature cited in the section of 'Literature Review'. Actually the primary focus of the study was to research the continuing future of Urdu as a Modern Language in the united kingdom. The usage of Urdu by Uk blessed Asians in their tedious matters of daily life was also investigated and there is some focus on to find out their choices of learning Urdu. The primary findings present an obvious picture into the future of Urdu not only for the author also for future researchers executing some study in this area. According to the study, the continuing future of Urdu in this country is very shiny and utilization of Urdu may be enhanced with some strategies suggested in the portion of 'Advice' as, data show appreciable thirst for learning Urdu whether it might be as an individual subject matter or as a put together subject. Furthermore to it, a big number of participants desired to learn Urdu at higher levels also. The idea of view may be recognized by the research quoted before in the portion of Books Review which identifies CILT review 1995. Based on the survey, Urdu is the hottest community vocabulary in Great britain and 69 local education government bodies are providing Urdu education. So, Urdu still seems to be an important dialect in this country. Significant first era Urdu speakers are still alive and will work, still requiring health and social health care advice. They will wrap up in old people's homes due to changes developing in the nuclear family in the UK. Where you will need youngsters to look after them in terms of nurses and occupations (people around them) and those young people must be prepared with Urdu dialect to create a comfortable atmosphere. Thus, it could also be easily concluded acording to Community dialects in higher education survey 2008, "Urdu is top of the chart which is most greatly spoken community words in the united kingdom".
Source: Community dialects in advanced schooling survey 2008, p11.
In addition to it there is available a good attitude of youngsters towards Urdu learning and use. The author's home created figure below shows the behaviour towards learning the Urdu dialect in the united kingdom. There are three inner drives which motivate the English learners to study Urdu. Fascination with the Urdu is due to its rich history and books. Interest leads towards potential and ability brings good career opportunities.
Inner Individuals towards studying Urdu
There will be some external influences also which might play a essential role towards Urdu learning. Parents will be the first point of contact or communication and if they speak the language at home, learners will automatically pick up the terms. Parents can also raise and enhance drive towards Urdu analysis. Teachers also affect the learners and marketing also performs an important role to learn and make any vocabulary popular. The author's above mentioned perspective is referred to in the do it yourself created body below:
Still there seems some need to enhance the eye of young technology towards Urdu learning. If young era appears not to pay any serious attention to the Urdu terms, it is due to insufficient interest and opportunities they don't know, Urdu has a wealth of books and has produced great scholars.
External Affects towards Urdu
Urdu has wonderful poetry, Book, Fiction and Prose. So, the procedure of learning Urdu might take devote educational institutions. This is actually the author's home created figure which shows the role of school, teacher and class room in the training of Urdu terminology.
Interest in Languages
Relationship with community
Teacher Academic Skills
In the light of previously listed evaluation and implication for tactics, there's a need to make Urdu the dialect of work and professionalism. There is also a need to bring in higher education programs in Urdu combined with Historical Studies, Vocabulary and Linguistics, Film Studies, Idea and Faith based Studies, Literary Studies and Dilemma and Sciences and Mindset, as well as medical occupations and health insurance and social care. In the light of previously listed realities, the study may be declared very successful having a significant value for the writer as well for others enthusiastic about the area to bring some conclusions about the continuing future of Urdu in the UK. The worth may be anticipated to some reasons where the major reason identifies a remarkable quantity of youngsters having Urdu as their mom tongue and their drive towards Urdu learning even at their level level. The study is exactly in line with the expectations of the author and concerns of the top teacher and the writer about the declining situation of Urdu proved not to be true. However there may be need to provide opportunities to young era to learn Urdu. The author was much targeted during review as the review was of personal interest of the writer and so, awareness and focus remained target oriented having no digressions.
This research seems casting very significant affects on the writer as, now the author is much established to use such techniques while teaching in classroom which might be more and more helpful to create interest for students in Urdu learning. Equipped with the overwhelming movements for Urdu learning, the author may create and enhance style for Urdu learning better than before in school room and therefore may contribute to make Urdu a full time income language in the united kingdom.
The future of Urdu is quite glowing in the UK and it's proved by my review. Majority of individuals needed part in the study considered Urdu as an important terms. They think it's important for communication with parents, for discussion with community and to be in a position to speak Urdu during exploring amount of countries where you can go to is quite large.
The importance of Urdu can be further improved by developing courses which integrate the Urdu dialect. The mom tongue plays a very important role in shaping the continuing future of a kid. Shaping the future of the Urdu language is in the hands of the parents. If they realize this most important duty and sow the seeds of the mother tongue in the youth years, the continuing future of the Urdu words takes a appealing shape. The duty for preserving Urdu in UK falls onto the shoulder blades of parents, community, and existing teachers.
As Gopi Chand Narang rightly said in his conversation during International Urdu conference 2005, organised in Islamabad (Pakistan) "Urdu is an operating language and useful languages do not perish. Urdu history was glorious, its present is safe and its future reassured. Urdu is unstoppable exactly because this is actually the vocabulary that quenches society's ethnical thirst. "
On the basis of this research and survey, I would recommend the following:
The need to develop an institute of Urdu research in UK. (For career and CPD).
To enhance and showcase Urdu teaching programmes for English Asian learners through indigenous British Urdu exemplars through radio or internet.
The use of non-commercial broadcasting targeted to all and can enhance determination among Urdu learners.
Bilingualism is now increasingly important for economic creativity and development. Urdu business lessons should be launched in schools and colleges.
Train Urdu Terms Teachers utilising the web and ICT.
E-Learning teacher training Courses should be launched in the united kingdom.
To save the continuing future of Urdu in the age of Computer technology, there is a need to run and bring in specially designed programs to cater everyday activity in Urdu and make Urdu a words of the internet.
To connect Urdu to the cutting-edge research and consumption of Urdu to the present day information and communication technology in education and businesses.
To introduce Level, Master, M. Phil and Ph. D certification in Urdu with other content.
To enhance Urdu popularity Urdu catalogs should be readily available in Roman Urdu and Traditional Urdu writing scripts.