Posted at 12.10.2018
The research reported in this thesis was on "Urbanization and Determinants of Urbanization in Pakistan" The primary purpose of the research was to study the factors and determinants of urbanization leading to the challenge of urbanization in Pakistan. The secondary data was accumulated by discussing the literature available in the libraries and the internet. Main data was gathered by floating a questionnaire among everyone asking questions about the problem of Urbanization in Pakistan. Additionally, interviews were taken to get a much better understanding of the study subject. SPSS software was put on analyze the data accumulated from the questionnaire for frequencies and cross tabulations were set you back interpret the info by using the principles of Figures. The findings recommended that migration, net-reclassification and net natural increase were the major factors causing urbanization in Pakistan. Trend of Urbanization in Pakistan have been increasing within the last years due to a rise in the migration rate, mergers of small towns into big places and an excessive amount of delivery rates of death rates which in turn causes human population increase and a rise in the living society of the best cities. It was suggested that government should make proper strategies and plans to avoid this problem of Urbanization for a developing nation Urbanization can become a significant problem.
Urbanization is the enlargement of towns by the rise in total volume of populace. Urbanization is brought on by the social, economic & demographic aspects, which include inner migration, mergers of adjoining areas in the city and by the surplus of labor and birth rates over fatality rates. Internal migration is triggered due to the attractive opportunities city life provides to the rural people along with better living requirements and better pay. Migration cannot be manipulated as by regulations every citizen of the country is absolve to move and live where ever he desires. Second important factor leading to urbanization is world wide web reclassification that is, mergers of adjoining towns and villages into big metropolitan areas. Cities of Pakistan have widened in terms of the size and population within the last 50 years. This merger allows small towns and villages to excel and revel in the facilities of city life however in come back it brings a negative impact on the quality of essential open public services such as laws and order, health, education, water energy resources etc. as they before had been designed according to the human population living within the town limitations. This factor brings about un-regulated development of cities which cause communal, economical and administrative problems. Third major factor triggering urbanization is the net natural increase, upsurge in delivery rates over fatality rates. Growth in remedies and health technology contributes to an increase in the life span of an average person and reduces the infant mortality rate, which brings a rise in the populace if the country. According to the 1998 census, in Pakistan degree of urbanization has grown from 17. 5% in 1951 to 32. 5% in 1998. The style of urbanization is increasing within the last years in Pakistan. Now in Pakistan rural inhabitants is moving towards big places because of the decreasing dependency rate on the agricultural sector. Females from the rural areas are also moving to the big metropolitan areas to get work in the casual sector. Lack of basic essentials such as, food, energy, education and health in the rural areas of Pakistan force visitors to shift to big cities bringing an effect on the overall economy in a poor way. Lack of improper city restrictions also allow adjoining slums and small towns to merge within the big cities creating Urbanization in Pakistan. Small and mid-sized cities of Pakistan are growing at a higher rate and are offering as hubs of business and trade. Growth in business and industry and better cultivation methods also lead people to shift to urban centers. Urbanization is a significant problem which needs to be manipulated especially in a developing country like Pakistan where inflation rates are high, people live below poverty range, wages are less and politics instability exists. It can cause infrastructure deficit, increase urban poverty & unemployment, business lead to scarce resources and cause further political imbalance.
Pakistan was made consequently of religious and cultural differences present in the sub-continent. These variations resulted in the migration among both nations leading to an uneven distribution of men and women as well as resources. In the initial years after self-reliance government experienced a great deal of trouble in allocating resources among the list of places and villages according to the total people living. A large number of refugees resolved in the best cities because that they had no shelter and food to migrate in the rural areas. From 1951-1962 urbanization in the East and Western world Pakistan experienced the same urban progress rate. Later West Pakistan saw a rise in the metropolitan growth rate as people migrated to the two big metropolitan areas of the Western world Karachi and Lahore searching for better job opportunities and adjoining cities merged with the top cities to be able to avail the facilities places had to provide such as electricity, gas energy. Both of these were the largest metropolitan areas where all the politics, economic and social activities used to occur. Industrialization in the last mentioned years attracted people from the rural centers to acquire a much better lifestyle. Only a tiny volume of refugees made their way to the rural areas where no special development had occurred. In 1981-1998 urban growth declined because of the deteriorating rules and order situation. Politics instability, partition of East Pakistan was the primary known reasons for this drop. Urbanization in Pakistan has been occurring since freedom. Refugees caused metropolitan growth in the early years, in later years search for better job opportunities and freedom from landlords made people migrate to big locations. Lack of government's regulations in developing the rural areas of Pakistan also lead to this shift and insufficient proper family planning business lead to society increase and inappropriate city boundaries stretch the size of the big places which cause urbanization. Reduction in the agricultural sector over the years have also resulted in an increase in the urban progress as now people seek careers in the professional sector as opposed to the agricultural area.
Urbanization is an emerging financial problem as the upsurge in large metropolitan areas is not equal to the facilities available for the residents. Overcrowding in large metropolitan areas is triggering different problems which are difficult to handle by the politics parties. Especially for a developing nation enlargement of big towns related to the facilities available is a significant problem which needs attention. Urbanization is increasing at an alarming rate in the producing nations these days. Urban population increase in producing countries is double that experienced in the West years ago. Developing countries are less industrialized as compared to the Developed countries; therefore people from rural areas migrate to the urban cities browsing for better income rates. The degree of poverty in the rural areas of the developing countries is negative, which is another factor creating migration. Life of primate locations in developing countries brings a rise in the population of these metropolitan areas. In developing and under developed countries urban progress rate is relatively high than developed countries as rural poverty and its own triggers such as no stable earning habits, drought & low individuals capital make visitors to migrate to big towns in search of better quality of life. Urbanization has been increasing on the globe because of the large difference in income and lifestyle between rural and urban locations. . Greater emphasis laid down on the professional sector by the government is also a large reason why inhabitants or rural areas leave their careers in the agricultural sector and change to the industrial sector. Some economists think that city growth is a symbol of development of any land as it contributes to technological and commercial advancement. But most experts believe that urbanization is a serious problem which must be taken into account immediately. Urbanization must be controlled as it could turn into a serious risk to the market of any nation especially the producing ones as, these are indulged in other problems at the same time. Additionally, it may result in a problem to the people already living in the urban areas along with the people migrating to these areas. The Government has to take steps and control urban-rural migration to regulate the problem of urbanization
Urbanization is a significant problem faced by Pakistan these days. Urbanization in the first years was brought on due to the situation of refugees after self-reliance. Industrialization later made people change to cities browsing for better jobs and wage rates. Because of the life of new technology and better health facilities the pace of births over deaths is saturated in Pakistan. The indegent standard of living in the rural areas make people migrate to big cities to get the essential needs of life. Mergers of adjoining towns into big places formally convert the rural areas into metropolitan centers. Over the years there's been a rise in the size of Pakistan's top ten big towns, areas that have been considered small will have been included in the premises of the big cities. Craze of urbanization in Pakistan is certainly going up on a growing rate. The rural society is likely to be equal to the urban inhabitants by the year 2030. Now feminine labor force participation is also causing urbanization as women from the rural areas are stepping ahead to work in the towns in the casual sector. In Pakistan the key factors triggering rural out migration are unequal distribution of resources, insufficient basic requirements and poverty. Government over the years is not successful in utilizing positive policies to avoid rural out migration by producing the rural areas. The large gap between your income distribution habits in the rural cities lead to category issues which results in migrations causing violent activities. Moreover the mergers of small cities and slum into big locations also bring about such problems like income disparities and class conflicts. Rapid upsurge in how big is the city contributes to a deterioration in the grade of essential open public services, such as, regulation and order/police force, health, education, street works, water resources, energy equipment etc. , this expansions brings about economic, social and administrative problems. The populace progress is unevenly allocated in the four provinces and the populace of the 10 big cities is increasing over the years which have to be controlled as it's the real cause for the procedure of urbanization. Pakistani authorities should consider some policies to control the situation of urbanization which is a hurdle along the way of development. If this problem is now controlled immediately Pakistan can face numerous obstacles soon which is difficult to control then.
Urbanization & Determinants of Urbanization in Pakistan
The scope of the analysis is the reason why urbanization takes place, what are the various components which bring about the problem of urbanization.
Arif and Hamid (2009) analyzed the styles in urbanization, city expansion and women's show in rural to metropolitan migration. This research was a joint job of UNFPA and PIDE; financed by UNFPA. Development of towns is a common practice in the developing countries, including Pakistan. The basic objective with their research was to verify the amount of urbanization and urban growth of Pakistan, to investigate the role of migration in the expansion of cities and also to over view the quality of life of female immigrants who have relocated to big locations in search of better job opportunities because of their families. This paper has used both qualitative and quantitative methods to focus on the said targets. They may have used data from prior censuses and information from existing books. This research has further used both 2001 Pakistan Socio-Economic Study (PSES) and Pakistan Rural Household Review (PRHS) done by the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics to study the share of girl in rural-urban migration. The quality of life is reviewed by talking an example of 50 women and interviewing them about their decisions which led them to the migration. According to the 1998 census, level of urbanization is continuing to grow from 17. 5% in 1951 to 32. 5% in 1998. The type of urbanization is different in the four provinces. A lot more than 60% of the population of Sindh lives in Karachi, 22% of the total inhabitants of Punjab lives in Lahore and other 5 big metropolitan areas of Punjab, capital of NWFP, Peshawar constitutes of 33% of urban provincial people and the share of Quetta, the administrative centre of Baluchistan is 37%. Arif and Hamid say that we now have 3 major the different parts of urban population expansion, which include Net-natural increase (increase in the labor and birth rates over fatality rates due to the growth and improvement in the medical sector). Second aspect is the rural-urban migration, which is brought on because of the interest and opportunities the big cities have to offer to the rural inhabitants, the migration in metropolitan growth was 20. 1% in 1972-81 and 1981-98. The migration across provinces is also found in Pakistan. Third element is the Net-Reclassification (the mergers of adjoin areas into big towns). Medium and small towns of Pakistan have outgrown in conditions of development over the past 50 years which have resulted in the upsurge in size by area of the big towns. Women include a significant physique in the rural urban migration. Long lasting migrant women proceed to urban centers browsing for a better quality life for themselves and their children. The next kind of migrant women includes those who switch to the town for a non permanent time, to acquire full high quality education. Research says that long lasting women migrate because of the economic crisis, insufficient job opportunities and due to the domestic violence by partner and his family. The main conclusions of the qualitative research done by interviews of women who've shifted to the best cities disclose that poor of life, in security in conditions of these children's future, low mentality of these husbands and the feeling of being impartial motivated those to migrate. Further the findings of the overall analysis reveal that due to a street to redemption in the agricultural sector, the rural society is shifting to the top cities, leading to urban expansion. Pakistan's projected urban population is reported to be equal to its rural society by 2030, when one from every two person is a resident of the top city.
Farooq and Mateen (2005) conducted a report whose main objective was to review and explore the correlation about the socio-economic status and the determinants of inside migration by probit estimation strategy. Their research was conducted in Faisalabad city and four tehsils of Faisalabad. Probit model was used to test the hypothesis of the analysis, the first one being that the poorer economical conditions of the rural area's lead to more rural out migration. This test confirmed that 35-50% of the respondents migrated to big metropolitan areas credited to low levels of income, poor economical opportunities and poor quality of life. Land positioning is considered as an important economic opportunity in the rural sector of Pakistan. The aspect of the rural monetary opportunity hypothesis says that land holdings is an important determinant in the rural urban migration. The negative land holdings show that migration is most possible when people have small land holdings when compared with people who own land more than 13 acres, who do not think of moving to other big cities. Another hypothesis examined by Farooq and Mateen was that the bigger the speed of poverty reduction one of the migrants' people in the rural sector the higher will be specific migration. The effect shown against this hypothesis was that people from rural areas migrate usually because they get drawn to the economic opportunities cities have to offer. Specific migrants who possessed left their rural areas departing their families behind have improved their household income by mailing remittances which in return reduces their poverty level. Probit model implies that rural out change is directly associated with the aim of poverty reduction in the urban as well as rural neighborhoods. The conclusions say that unequal distribution of resources, usually land, and poverty causes rural out migration.
Dao (2002) conducted a study to make clear the distinctions in the urbanization growth rates of the producing countries. He argues that the difference in the genuine levels of income between rural cities is accountable for the process of migration. He chose to use the proportion of agricultural value added per employee to GDP per capita as a proxy variable for rural salary and assumed that urban wages do not differ due to the affect of politically motivated factors such as minimum income legislation, labor unions etc. He also hypothesize a country's development factors, rate of population progress, poverty, agricultural thickness all such factors affect the urbanization progress. Empirical tests applied on 3 expanding countries demonstrated that agricultural value added per worker in accordance with per capita GDP is reasonably significant in detailing the changes in urbanization growth rates meaning higher agricultural prices given per staff member does keep rural employees away from the idea of migrating. Development factors such as long constructed streets divided by land area have a good effect on the urbanization expansion rate; upsurge in population also offers a direct impact on the urban expansion rate. Impact of population thickness in agricultural areas does not clarify the urbanization expansion rates and the effect of the degree of poverty in rural centers on urbanization growth is negative.
Satterwaite (2010) studied the reason why behind the lack and imperfect data on the metropolitan populations for most under-developed and developing nations and exactly how this incomplete data effects future policies and makes international evaluations difficult. The study says that every nation has its own definition of urbanization and its particular ways of conducting a people census. Official meanings say that a city comprising of 20, 000 or even more inhabitants can be an urban city. But if this meaning is applied to the developing nations the world's degree of urbanization may change by several things. As a large percentage of such cities stay in the rural, underdeveloped areas. Furthermore the study instructs us that city limitations are not arranged based on the universally agreed criteria but are placed by the local and national body and change as time passes. Statistics used to guage environmentally friendly performance of the large metropolitan areas are greatly affected by the adjoining areas which affects the city boundaries. In many nations census is performed after a decade and generally in most nations' census aren't done before 15 years as, censuses are seen as expensive. Satterwaite says that difference in data about the urbanization rates of several countries makes the duty of earning urbanization control procedures a difficult job.
Kasarda and Crenshaw (1991) researched the 3rd world urbanization and its own determinants and sizes. They say that third world countries are facing an metropolitan explosion which is slightly like that faced by the Western world a century previously, the urban development faced by the third world nations is dual the growth confronted by the Western world. Urbanization problem operates as a hurdle in the development phase of the 3rd world countries. Growing countries face a issue of over urbanization which is the increase in the country's inhabitants as compared to the economical activities. Developing countries also face the situation of Urban Primacy which is all political, social, economic activities happen in a single big city of the nation which in return attracts people from the rural sector. The presence of improper city limitations also makes under-developed countries more underdeveloped and works as a constraint to future development. Migration in these countries takes place at an increasing rate because of the attractions the top cities have to give you. Moreover the upsurge in the delivery rates over loss of life rates due to the advancement in the medical sector has increased the populace which affects the pace of Urbanization. The wage difference and job opportunities also have an effect on your choice of rural urban migration, as the income rates in the rural sector are much low when compared with the metropolitan sector. The cover facilities provided in the top cities of the 3rd world nations are much better than those in the rural areas. The casing facilities provided in the rural areas of the third world countries are far less below than the conditions stated by the UNO.
Jan, Iqbal and Ifthikharuddin (2008) conducted a study in ten most populous towns of Pakistan to study the tendency and expansion of urbanization in these big metropolitan areas and their provinces. They say that province wise distribution of the rural metropolitan population and its projections are essential to make forecasts about the future. They have used the weighted matrix approach to make human population projections. Sindh province presently gets the highest proportion of urban population which is likely to increase by 12% by 2030; Punjab whose current society urbanized is 31. 267% is likely to be 50. 07% by 2030. The projected urbanization rate of NWFP is 41. 36% by 2030 with an increase of approx. 24%. The projected metropolitan percentage of Baluchistan is 45. 56% by 2030 exhibiting a rise of 22%. The studies say that the metropolitan society is unevenly sent out in the four provinces. The population development of the ten big metropolitan areas is increasing within the last ten years which is the gem cause of the challenge of urbanization and it should be quickly handled.
My research type is quantitative research as a questionnaire was used to accumulate the data and then it was coded and was made into a far more statistical version
Research is dependant on primary data as a questionnaire was floated to accumulate data. It is because there is no prior data available on the subject subject; hence the questionnaire given sufficient materials to conduct the research.
A questionnaire was floated requesting general questions regarding the romantic relationship of the centered adjustable with the unbiased ones
A process where an increasing percentage of an entire inhabitants lives in metropolitan areas or suburbs of places, areas of society dense enough that residents cannot expand their own food
(www. pbs. org/wgbh/rxforsurvival/glossary. html)
Excessive development of a country's metropolitan population relative to economic growth
Refers to the climb in the increasing population living in cities (Jones 1991)
Shifting of individuals from small villages to big metropolitan areas searching for better life-style and job opportunity
Built-up and filled area which includes a municipality and, generally, has a people of 5000 or more (http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/urban. html)
Rural people includes persons surviving in the available country or in cities of less than 2, 500 people. It really is subdivided in the rural farm population which includes all rural residents living on farms, and the rural non-farm population which includes the remaining rural population (www. mnforsustain. org/rockefeller_1972_glossary. htm)
Factors in charge of shifting people from rural to urban cities
Factors accountable for attracting rural populace to the metropolitan centers
Merger of adjoining areas into big cities due to insufficient proper city limitations and the development of these adjoining areas
The upsurge in delivery rates over fatality rates due to raised health facilities and go up in population
My test included the population of Lahore, with a sample size of 50 people. It included people from all spheres of life who had recently migrated to big metropolitan areas and people living in adjoining areas of Lahore. People above the age of 25 were with the capacity of filling out my questionnaire
Ho: Migration is an important factor along the way of urbanization and it has an effect on the country's economy
H1: Migration is not an important factor along the way of urbanization and it does not impact the country's economy
Ho: Lack of city boundaries lead to the annexure of adjoining small cities into big towns which in return boost the living urban people giving surge to urbanization
H1: Insufficient city restrictions do not lead to the annexure of adjoining small cities into big towns which in exchange boost the living urban population giving surge to urbanization
Ho: Option of better health facilities in metropolitan cities brings excess of labor and birth rates over loss of life rates
H1: Availability of better health facilities in metropolitan metropolitan areas do not bring any change in the birth and death rates
Ho: High rates of poverty & poor monetary conditions in the rural areas lead to rural out migration
H1: High rates of poverty & poor economical conditions in the rural areas will not lead to rural out migration
Ho: Uncheck urbanization contributes to economic, communal and administrative problems
H1: Uncheck urbanization brings about economic, communal and administrative problems
Ho: Lack of government guidelines and ideas have resulted in a rise in urbanization
H1: Insufficient government policies and plans have resulted in a decrease in urbanization
After the questionnaire was crammed and coding was done, cross tabulations were set you back analyze the relationship of the indie factors with the reliant one.
The statistical software which was used was SPSS. Cross tabulations to interpret the results accumulated by the questionnaire. It provided me with regularity desks to get a much better understanding of the accumulated data.
Based on the existing analysis the key aim was to understand which variable was the major factor causing urbanization.
Do you think migration is a serious factor in the process of urbanization? Do you think Migration has a significant effect on the market of Pakistan in a poor way?
Ho: Migration can be an important factor along the way of urbanization and it impacts the country's economy
H1: Migration is not an important factor along the way of urbanization and it generally does not impact the country's economy
This combination tabulation talks about migration as an important factor in the process of urbanization and affecting a state's overall economy in a poor way. 20 people consent to the fact that migration causes an urbanization which impacts the economy of the united states. 29 people decided and said that migration is a significant cause in the urbanization problem. 12 people disagree and believe migration don't have an effect on the country's economy in a negative way. Total 7 people stay neutral and are of the view that migration is not really a key factor along the way of urbanization.
Therefore, we allow our null hypothesis as many agrees to the fact that urbanization is brought on by migration which has a negative effect on the market.
Do you think insufficient city boundaries is a significant cause for urbanization? Do you really think that there must be a limit on how big is a city?
Ho: Insufficient city limitations lead to the annexure of adjoining small cities into big places which in return raise the living urban populace giving rise to urbanization
H1: Lack of city limitations do not lead to the annexure of adjoining small cities into big towns which in return increase the living urban population giving go up to urbanization
This cross tabulation talks about insufficient city limitations, and their role in the process of urbanization. 16 people stayed neutral when asked if indeed they considered mergers of small towns and villages one factor in the process of urbanization. 15 people believed that the challenge of urbanization was brought on due to the annexure of small villages and towns into big cites. However, 14 people disagreed and said that they did not think about this merger to be a factor in the problem of urbanization somewhat this merger provided the chance to the people moving into such poor areas to stand out, bringing a good effect on the market. 16 people agreed a limit should be establish by the government or local government bodies to the location restrictions. Whereas, 11 people disagreed in establishing a city boundary.
Thus, we acknowledge our hypotheses as more folks agree to the fact that mergers of adjoining towns and slums do cause urbanization and a limit should be set in the town size.
Do you consider the upsurge in delivery rates over death rates a cause for the situation of urbanization? Can you believe that a rise in the populace size of Pakistan is a source of the country's problems?
Ho: Availability of better health facilities in metropolitan cities brings excess of beginning rates over loss of life rates
H1: Option of better health facilities in metropolitan places do not bring any change in the beginning and fatality rates
This mix tabulation talks about whether increase in population is a source of country's problems which increase is due to the excess of birth rates over death rates. 22 people firmly agreed that the populace upsurge in Pakistan is a huge source of the country's problems. 8 people disagreed on the actual fact that human population increase possessed to do anything with the country's problems. 20 people said an excess of birth rates over loss of life rates was a factor along the way of urbanization, as urbanization means development of towns, which in this situation is done by an increase in labor and birth rates. 14 people remained neutral and said they somehow agreed and disagreed to the fact that the excess of births over deaths is a factor of urbanization.
So, we allow our null hypothesis as more folks believe population to be always a way to obtain a country's problems and feel that the excess of labor and birth rates over fatality rates allow the cities to expand causing the condition of urbanization.
Q3) Does Poverty act as a significant tool in the process of migration?
30 respondents decided to the fact that poverty is a major factor which in turn causes rural out migration which causes urbanization.
Q4) Better Life styles, health and education facilities, life security, independence entice the rural people towards the urban centers, do you really agree?
20 respondents arranged and 19 firmly agreed that better standard of residing in the urban centers draws in the rural populace making them migrate.
Q5) Do you consider people in metropolitan centers enjoy a higher quality of life than rural areas?
16 respondents highly decided and 14 decided that individuals in the top cities enjoy a high quality life than rural areas. However, 18 remained neutral as of this simple fact and were of the view that both rural and urban locations have their own options of quality life.
Q6) Does one agree that individuals in rural areas face increased restrictions to cultural & economic mobility as compared to people in metropolitan centers?
20 people agreed and thought that more limitations are enforced to rural people when compared with people surviving in the urban cities.
Q9) Do you really concur that local authorities rather that provincial or federal authority should be responsible for the administrative affairs of your city/town?
28 people agreed that the neighborhood authorities must have the duty for the administrative affairs of the city
Q10) Would you think that un-regulated development of urban areas lead to sociable, economic and administrative problems?
20 people agreed on the fact that the enlargement of big places lead to cultural, economic and administrative problems.
Q11) Would you think that the rapid increase in the population of urbanization brings about a deterioration in the quality of essential public services such as, regulation and order/law enforcement, health, education, road works, water resources, energy equipment etc. ?
Majority of the people surveyed believed that an upsurge in urbanization contributes to a deterioration in the quality of essential general public services.
Q12) Does one think that un-check urbanization creates opportunities for violent organizations to exploit because of income disparities, category issues etc. ?
19 respondents out of 50 decided that un-check urbanization brought on problems like course issues and income disparities. Whereas, 11 people remained neutral upon this fact.
Q15) Will you think that there should be a limit to how big is the nuclear family, similar to that in China?
22 people decided that the government should established a limit to how big is the nuclear family like the one in China.
Q16) Do you concur that the government's encouragement of two children per family is maximum?
24 respondents arranged and said that the government's encouragement of 2 children per family should be produced maximum. However, 14 people highly arranged and were of the view that this rule should be applied.
Q17) Would you think that the advancement in medical systems gave resulted in a rise in the life span of an average person?
18 people remained neutral at the actual fact that the progression in medical solutions increased the life span of an average person. Whereas 19 people arranged that due to high level technology in the medical field the average person could live much longer.
Q18) Does one agree that the government should increase its attempts to popularize family planning & people control?
23 people strongly agreed and agreed that the federal government should increase its initiatives to popularize family planning & population control.
Q19) Would you think that the attempts of the federal government in controlling the populace have prevailed?
21 respondents disagreed on the fact that the federal government has prevailed in controlling the population. 12 respondents firmly disagreed that the government's work to control population had been enough.
Ho: High rates of poverty & poor economic conditions in the rural areas lead to rural out migration
H1: High rates of poverty & poor monetary conditions in the rural areas does not lead to rural out migration
30 out of 50 respondents decided on the actual fact that poverty is a major tool along the way of urbanization which in turn causes rural out migration. Because of insufficient job opportunities, poor salary, low standard of living and insufficient basic necessities people migrate towards the big metropolitan areas. Hence, poverty causes the shift towards big locations, so Ho is accepted.
Ho: Uncheck urbanization brings about economic, cultural and administrative problems.
H1: Uncheck urbanization contributes to economic, social and administrative problems.
As per end result, it could be seen that a lot of respondents believe uncheck urbanization contributes to social, monetary and administrative problems. Interpersonal problems include high criminal offense rates etc. monetary problems include less job opportunities and administrative problems include taking care of law and order situation etc. Thus, we recognize the null hypothesis and say that uncheck urbanization brings about economic, public and politics problems.
Ho: Lack of government procedures and programs have led to an increase in urbanization
H1: Lack of government plans and strategies have resulted in a decrease in urbanization
By the survey conducted and research done it can be seen that people believe the absence of government ideas and policies, insufficient control have resulted in a rise in the challenge of urbanization. Local regulators have been inefficient to regulate the location size; the populace welfare ministry has been struggling to control society and the federal government all together has not been successful in providing basic necessities to the rural areas so that they enjoy their life there alternatively than thinking about migrating. Therefore, we recognize the null hypothesis and say that the government's incapability to plan, control and implement policies have led to an increase in urbanization.
The main purpose of this thesis was to review urbanization and the various determinants of urbanization. Because of this research a few articles were referred, questionnaire was built and a survey was held on 50 respondents asking various questions regarding urbanization and determinants of urbanization. Combination tabulation was operate on the results accumulated by the review, which showed a significant romantic relationship of the impartial factors with the based mostly ones and corresponding to that the hypothesis were produced. Migration, Net Natural increase and Online reclassification are believed to be the important factors leading to urbanization. Migration is done because of the poor criteria of surviving in the rural areas which will make people migrate to big locations in search for better lifestyle. Poverty works as a major tool in the rural out migration. Due to low salary people cannot spend the money for basic essentials of life, so they alter to urban cities for better wages and more job opportunities. Mergers of small cities and slums into big locations make the metropolitan areas expand creating urbanization. This un-regulated expansion leads to interpersonal, economic, political as well as administrative problems like food, energy, drinking water shortage. Adjoining of small towns into big places is because having less city boundaries. Human population is increasing day by day, people residing in small areas and cities want to be a part of the big locations and want to avail the facilities provided to the urban centers. So to be able to get them they combine their town and town with the top city by making use of the local authorities, which in return is causing the situation of urbanization which is affecting the overall economy in a negative way. Online natural increase, the surplus of births over deaths is also causing urbanization as the populace is expanding day by day because of the growth in the medical facilities wanted to people in the urban centers. This increase in population triggers urbanization, as the number of facilities offered decrease because of this of an increase in the populace who would like to avail them.
Thus, urbanization is an extremely serious problem that ought to be treated at a national level as it could affect the overall economy of Pakistan in a negative way. Federal should take corrective measures and implement ways of control this problem.