Posted at 10.13.2018
Children and young people differ enormously in their responses to the same experiences and those who put up with adversity either develop coping strategies to get through it and emerge relatively unscathed whilst others do not, quite simply they sink or swim. This article puts forward bodies of research and ideas of resilience that impact thinking in sociable work and look at how those theories inform contemporary social work to market resilience in children and teenagers. It will examine some of the ways that issues arise that could hinder these approaches.
Frost and Hoggett (2008) say the internal and the public components of the child's world cannot be grasped as two parallel paradigms that influence and impact development. Holloway and Jefferson sophisticated cited in Frost and Hoggett (2008),
Subjects whose internal worlds can't be understood without understanding of their experiences on earth, and whose experience of the world can't be understood without understanding of the way in which their interior worlds permit them to see the exterior world.
It is visible that it's by way of a child's psycho-social experience that they learn to seem sensible of the world and their place within it. Rutter (1999) informs us that for a kid to be decided resilient they need to have encountered an experience with the risk of psychopathology for example those who have been living with domestic violence.
There is no-one universally accepted description of resilience however Masten et al (1990) define resilience in generalised conditions, as the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful version despite challenging or threatening circumstances. However an International Resilience Project, setup to review how different civilizations and countries promoted resilience, adopted the next definition of resilience:
Resilience is a common capacity that allows a person, group or community to avoid, minimize or defeat the damaging ramifications of adversity (Grotberg 1997, p 19).
Masten and Coatsworth (1998) recognized the characteristics of resilient children as 'good intellectual functioning, pleasing, sociable, easygoing disposition, self efficiency, self- assurance, high self-esteem, ability and trust; with a close romantic relationship to a caring parent figure and lengthened family network support and socio-economically advantaged'. These explanations provide useful starting points for the purposes of this essay.
Contemporary contemporary society has been referred to by Beck(1992) as a 'risk society' and early research concentrated on how children and teenagers responded to risk and became casualties of adversity. Ferguson (1997) points out that following a work of Foucault and the concept of 'governmentality' post modernist critics claim that the traditional role of communal work has experienced from family case workers searching for and working with 'dangerous young families' and children at 'high risk'. A report of children vulnerable was undertaken by Garmezy and Rutter (1983). The analysis of 200 children from USA seems to conclude that despite the high risk surroundings where they grew up some children appear to have 'do it yourself righting' tendencies which allow them to build up into well changed young adults. It will appear that everyone can be resilient at some times and in some circumstances depending on the mental state and level and length of the stress in the given event.
In order to discover resilience it is important to understand the factors that lead children and teenagers to succumb to adversity and to realise that resilience and vulnerability are at opposite ends of an continuum reflecting susceptibility to adverse repercussions (Anthony 1987). The reaction to adversity and stress can be afflicted by one or more variables from emotional and/or sociable aspects.
Freud (1910) developed a psychoanalytical theory where the unconscious sometimes appears as a central strategy on which other areas of mental performing are established. The emphasis of his research was mainly on the individual's personality. Communal workers need to be aware that unconscious operations may conceal or distort memory or even produce replies disproportionate to the situation, giving hints of underlying issues.
Erikson (1959) differs from Freud for the reason that he identified eight stages of psychosocial development. In these periods he shows that we face expectable crises which create conflict within ourselves and with significant others in everyday living. Personality and behaviour are affected incidentally where these crises are handled. Folks who have the ability to undertake Freud and Erikson's periods of development are more likely to become resilient people.
John Bowlby(1969) was a psychologist, doctor and psychoanalyst, who specialised in working with children. He assumed that attachment behaviour is a biologically originated reaction to nervousness and stress stimulated by physical needs such as pain or food cravings, parting from or rejection by the principal caregiver or external threats like a loud noise. He believed this response comes from the newborns desire to seek security and safeguard through closeness to a caregiver. Aldgate(2007) surmises that an attachment romance is part of any wider affectional marriage: that one individual sees the other as more powerful and wiser and someone to utilize when he or she is afraid. Through merged aspect and nurture individuals get started to establish human relationships and understand and commence to manage thoughts. By causing sense of the caregivers both psychologically and socially, (if they act in response in times of need) the infant commences to see them as a dependable and reliable. Such mental models help individuals organise their objectives about other's availableness and responsiveness (Howe 1996). Once the caregiver will not respond in the way the infant needs they experience stress and anxiety and this can lead to insecure parts. Bowlby's work was later built on by Ainsworth et al (1978) who through the 'Bizarre Situation' study unveiled profound effects of attachment on behaviour and continued to describe patterns of attachment (secure, avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganised added later on). Trevithick (2009) confirms that over time the task of Bowlby and more has been important within interpersonal work making links between children's behavior and the quality of their relationships with the father or mother(s) and other attachment results. Furthermore Howe (2009) confirms that attachment theory is also participating in a significant role in the resurgence of marriage based social work. Hence, it is of great relevance to sociable workers to learn how parenting styles, culture, family life and the public environments have afflicted the child's psychosocial development.
The notion of the secure bottom is of essential importance for children and young people. In a good analogy Gilligan (2001) runs on the tree adding down roots to sophisticated on the idea of a secure base. It is through continuity, quality and reliability of relationships a child could find their secure bottom. Relatives, friendship categories, a teacher or even a social worker may provide a secure platform in an in any other case sophisticated and chaotic world. If the kid is looked after (a kid who enters the good care system either informally or officially) they could need to learn to build up new relationships and also have the chance to create a secure base.
It is not necessarily psychological operations that shape resilience, sometimes a specific tv show or situation may occur which may be problematic and also have far reaching consequences. Giddens (1991) described these episodes as fateful moments, saying that these are occasions when events come together so that an specific stands, as it were, at a crossroads in his lifestyle; or in which a person learns of information with fateful outcomes. A fateful moment will have implications for the individual which might threaten their ontological security. Fateful moments however do not always bring about adversity they can signal a change for the better, a probably empowering experience, nonetheless it is the risk that things may be fallible that poses the task. Within this framework it is important that social staff assess the extent to that they seem sensible of population and people's experience.
Similar to fateful occasions, life happenings, ongoing adversities, personal stress, social problems or familial situations, can affect levels of stress or panic. Rutter (2000) used the exemplory case of a divorce in the family as a staged procedure for a life event, rather than a one off event. The divorce may be preceded by a long amount of unhappiness, accompanied by the divorce itself and the uncertainties that accompany it including the knowledge and burden of financial concerns, possible lack of a parent, launch of new family members, housing concerns etc. Social employees working with Giddensian ideas, (that multiple options are available to all through abstract systems) are able to help prone children and young people who are on a developmental pathway to make positive options about the path their lives will take in their life planning. However, those who criticise Giddens say that he's too optimistic in his view of the positive capacity of people to understand their lives and always know why they become they certainly (Ferguson 2009). You will discover families who use social staff who might not have the ability to analyse their lives in this way, and social workers should be mindful of this in their use people.
The negative impacts of poverty, lack of social and social capital and impact of marital discord can cause children, young people and young families to be characterised as at risk regarding to Hoffman (2010). Poverty can have serious and perhaps grave effects for households. Nonetheless, it is important to discover that not all poor family members, or even most poor family members experience these deleterious results. Many impoverished family members beat the chances and have stable, loving associations ( Seccombe, 2002)
Skeggs (2001) in her research with young women revealed that they were continually making comparisons between themselves while others and were certain of what they didn't want to be but were less sure of what they wanted to be, thus illustrating the way the constraints of category and gender are some of the structures that inhibit who we can be and how we can react. However this does not appear to mean that constructions should be accepted per se but by taking their presence and realising they are given so this means through individuals action and discussion it is possible to use service users and their own families. Frost (2003) illustrates the harsh reality for teenagers proclaiming that the
'structural inequalities of category and poverty hook up into the psychologically quite brutal lived realities of young people themselves- the energy of the pecking order, acceptance or unpopularity, and in-group regular membership or exclusion- via the conspicuous screen of expensive consumer goods'.
For some young people, the friendship groups they form, sub-cultures they participate in, the styles they wear dictates how they promote themselves and gain a sense of who they are in world. Being part of the group increases self esteem and resilience, conversely being different in some way may attract adverse response and stigmatisation for example a handicapped child may be influenced by the negative perceptions to be different.
According to Howe (2009) interpersonal personnel in the past due 1980s commenced to believe that the service users with whom they were working were the victims of their own biographical narratives, or their place within the communal structure. Service users became service users because that they had problems, pathologies or weaknesses and that defined them in some way. The social employee viewed them as a case which then depersonalised them. By producing a method of evaluation whereby they could go through the strengths of men and women somewhat than their pathology and problems it was possible for social workers to discover the resilience and resourcefulness possessed by many people living in adversity. When you are enthusiastic about and hearing the service customer the social worker could begin to uncover where someone's strengths lay. Saleebey (2002) identified some types of questions that can result in the finding of strengths; success questions, exception questions, possibility questions and esteem questions. It may be difficult to tease out advantages however as many people have had years of self question or blame from others to transport around with them however it is on these positive elements however lean the potential for progress is.
It is crucial to the basic safety of children and teenagers that social personnel can identify risks in a child's environment and remove or reduce such a risk. This may ultimately mean taking away the risk from the child or removing the child from the risk which could, with regards to the degree of risk, involve the child becoming a taken care of child. In cases like this the social worker can work with the kid to prevent social isolation by keeping or re-introducing contact with family, if appropriate. The social worker also needs to ensure that a child is able to attach the right meaning with an outcome, if for example, a taken care of child must move to a new placement the sociable worker must clarify in clear words what has happened and why. Schofield and Beck (2005) analyzed risk and resilience in children in permanent foster care and figured specific changes or solitary occasions in a child's life such as a new attachment romance, a big change of school, a big change of contact preparations or the finding of a child's particular ability do have the potential to alter the route significantly for better or worse.
Howe et al (1999) state that good quality attention presenting is the most potent form of home enhancement of children confirming that it is a positive foundation on which resilience to generate resilience. Therefore the social worker needs to ensure that a child's caregivers are able to give a secure attachment through their interactions to ensure that self esteem is promoted. Any romantic relationship break-down will impact on the child's self-confidence thus reinforcing their notion that they are not adored or lovable. A child must experience relationships using their caregivers that promote secure attachments. If a child has had a difficult time they could display behaviour or emotions that aren't what is expected or are disproportionate to the situation. Atwool (2006) confirms that connection theory gives weight to resilience theory by obviously outlining the importance of human relationships as the key to all areas of resilience- culture, community, romantic relationships and individual. A social staff member can work with the caregivers to explain the child's behaviour by using a theoretical construction and their knowledge of the kid and their communal situation.
Contemporary communal work can help promote resilience in the vulnerable in world however Ferguson (2009) states the discretion social workers once experienced has diminished as a result of climb of bureaucracy, managerialism and focuses on. This may effect on the time a social employee is able to devote to those they are trying to help. Furthermore Gilligan (2004) queried whether there is usually to be stress on valued practice concepts, for example concentrate on advantages in clients or is the emphasis to be on what agency management consider important, for example their latest insurance plan or group of procedures. Additionally it is clear that sociable workers spend a majority of their time at their desk rather than with service users, as Ince (2010) highlights in recent child maltreatment cases the social employees became victims to the point where they have a lot more familiarity with the pcs they use than the kids in need they may have responsibility for; however this is an thoughts and opinions and does not seem to be supported by research. .
In conclusion it is clear that human relationships and attachment theory is significant to your knowledge of resilience. Social workers who use families to make sure they take full consideration of their faith, racial, ethnical and linguistic backdrop in their work with them are demonstrating the link between social plan and socially inclusive practice. Psychosocial procedures should be carefully though out and tailored to the needs of every service users unique circumstances. Usage of social and social capital enables children and teenagers to handle stressors and adversity and increase resilience. Ideas of resilience are useful tools to call upon when dealing with the complex and chaotic lives of children, teenagers and their young families/caregivers. However there is nobody skill or theory to match all but many approaches and skills must inform and manage effective contemporary social work practice.