Posted at 11.02.2018
'Celebrity' can be regarded as the subsequence of the social penetration of capitalist commercialism, as well as is the rest of the products resulted from the increasing of popular social industry in the 20th century. The emergence and development of modern consumer population have continued the flourish of super star culture. Popular culture is packed with the superstars' radiance. The advantage of technology has altered people's everyday activity. The progress of income and free time has turned people's attention on the issue of consumption. To be able to fulfill consumers' increasing desire of materials and cultural intake, celebrity and its comparative industry have emerged and taken main in the ground of poplar culture. Together, the progress of interpersonal democracy, drop of religion electric power, and commodification of each day life has added to current position of superstars, they become the idols to the mass populace in diverse aspects. In bulk conditions, celebrities has become the essential providers of media, and been fanatically imitated. Sports activities stars, movie stars and other types of public media images almost become icon and deity in many people's brain. Celebrity culture has provided the role method of fashion, external appearance, and personality for audience. In the world of mass media, superstars has crosses from the number of entertainment, activities, politic, and business, to each place of public life. From no one to a favorite superstar, the process needs an complete profitable system, not to mention, mass media is the best choice. Majority movements undertook by marketing are mainly adjoining the stars: the scriptwriter maybe make an professional screenplay for the superstars; the movie director has likelihood that condition a films star by labeled image; the picture taking, light and halloween costume might all provide the celebrity for his or her celebrification and commercial benefits. Under the impact of these series work, the admirer group have come out, and then, a new market serving supporters has emerged, by which, the deified status of stars established and consolidated day by day. Celebrities utilize advertising to complete self-propaganda, press reversely utilize them to create substantive commercial go back. However, in general, partial stars distaste the close supervision coming from marketing, similarly, media dislike stars' arrogance as well. With this perspective, there's a kind of indivisible and hostile romance between mass media and celebrities. Within this study, there are two questions heading to be solved, first, what kind of changes have happened on the way of getting popularity under the framework of modern consumer society? Second, the type of role has media played along the way of celebrity creation, or we can say what are the relation between mass media and superstars?
The Idea of Celebrity Culture
There are many reports undertook of how the way of men and women getting fame has improved from old to contemporary period. They have primarily concentrated on the differences between 'hero' and 'superstar'. 'Fame', as P. David Marshall (2006) explained, is only able to be gain through exemplified greatness in some way or other. To be remembered as great and known by everyone, a guy has to have the characteristics of making people admire his courage, talent or nobility. Shakespeare possessed divided great men into three categories: 'those born great, those who achieved greatness, and the ones who had greatness thrust upon them' (P. David Marshall, 2006. p. 72). Thomas Carlyle (1996) explained heros in six categories: divinity, prophet, poet, priest, man of characters, and king, all of who have a typical feature that their procedure for getting fame is gradual and by by natural means of becoming well known. Their fame had not been made overnight, but was by way of a mysterious treatment as which God ruled the the years. However, because the 'Graphic Trend' (Boorstin, 1992. p. 45), the definition of fame to the people has changed into an item that can be manufactured through the channel of media. Superstar culture has surfaced, and people's awareness of hero have been perplexed. Actually, as P. David Marshall (2006) reported, 'the hero was distinguished by his achievements; the movie star by his image or trademark. The hero created himself; the super star is established by the multimedia. The hero was a huge man; the celebrity is a huge name' ( p. 81). Rojek (2001) has similar point with Marshall, he feels that 'mass- advertising representation is the main element principle in the formation of celebrity culture' (p. 13). He also induced the emergence of movie star as a general public preoccupation into three major interrelated procedures: 'the democratization of modern culture, the decrease in organized religious beliefs, and the commodification of day-to-day life' ( p. 13). In other words, the democratic revolution challenged people's idea of belief, they want to find the stars from common mankind, who can 'replace the monarchy as the new symbols of identification and owed' (p. 14). Concurrently, with the introduction of commodification, superstars are regarded as the best tools for mobilizing populace's use desire.
In the next section, the principal task is to discuss celebrity culture in the context of consumer culture, and its impacts on our usage habits. Towards the conception of consumer culture, there are a great number of variationsЇјChinese economist Lezhong Wang (2002) has described consumer culture as the presence of human's creative imagination in the consumption place, and the sublimation and crystallization of singularly rational tactics of mankind. Consumer culture includes natural environment, human environment, materials resources made by human beings, spiritual and ethnical products, and the consumption tendencies which is full of creativity and benefits for human health. Furthermore, Chinese language sociologist-professor Haohui Xiao (cited in the translation of Lezhong Wang, 2002) items that broadly speaking, consumer culture is the blend of consuming material and spiritual culture; in a slim sense, consumer culture is the reflections of use on people's ideology, which are including the elements of consumer philosophy, consumer value, consumer ethics, consumer action, consumer flavor, consumer atheists and consumer mindset, which will be the ideological totality of reflecting and understanding consumer figure during the consumer practice. Synthesizing former claims of the conception of consumer culture, why don not we understand it simply as a materials movement in the task of use, which is followed with subconscious thinking and value orientation. When consumer culture has become a environment, consumerism was going to derive. The so-called consumerism things to a kind of living style: the buyer goal is not for fulfilling realistic requirement, but going after the manufactured and motivated desire, constantly. Quite simply, what people consumed is not the value-in-use of item and service, but their symbolic significance (translated from Pingwen Huang, 2003). The expression of consumerism in the place of cultural utilization is cultural consumerism. Respective ethnical products and social spirits undoubtedly play the role of symbolic consumer goods. These spiritual products on the form of entertainment is alternate, and capable of very rapid range of motion, however the innate ideological beliefs cannot be replaced. Thus in this context of consumer culture, what role of superstar has played out?
For understanding the impact of superstar on contemporary contemporary society, Chris Rojek (2001, p. 29) provides three techniques: subjectivism, structuralism and post-structuralism. Subjectivist emphasizes the unique characteristic of celebrity. Generally, this kind of characteristic of super star is from innate talent, which is shaped naturally, and becoming the principal force that attract people' attention. Structuralist methods to celebrity have attemptedto provide scientific understanding of superstar. They attributed the origination of star to the impact of the social industry capitalism, and masculinity (Rojek. 2001). Man Debord (cited in Rojek, 2001. p. 34) has suggested that professional culture as a culture of symptoms and 'the purpose of celebrity culture is to shepherd the populace into imitative ingestion'. Over the aspect of capitalism, superstars are serving entertainment industry, and the key reason why the public can be drawn by celebrities, as Edgar Morin (1961) stated that because celebrities could match the regressive needs of the audience, which is on the amount of psychology. In this admiration, the super star can be known as a carrier of ideology. David Marshall (1997) third, due, suggested that movie star has a political function. Maybe it's applied to add, propagate and expand certain forms of subjective prices, such as individualism and heroism. Marshall also promises that media is the fundamental channel to realize this politics function of stars. In Marshall's affirmation, stars to the audiences has taken result as symbolic symptoms, which are embedded with psychological so this means. Another proposal of structuralism is that 'super star is the expansion of what might be called important types of identity and embodiment in population' (Rojek, 2001, p. 40). Because of this suggestion, Orrin Klapp (1962) thinks that due to mass marketing communications industry, the fundamental types in modern-day modern culture have been successfully extended by the appearance of celebrities, consequently which provides the key prototypes for the audience to emulate.
The most effective methodology of understanding star culture because of this review is the post-structuralism, which is frequently associated with structuralism, but take a look at the condition of superstar images all together and exactly how those representations of these images are produced and used. Rojek (2001, p. 44) identified the notion of the post-structuralist strategy as that 'superstar image are inflected and altered by the mass media and successful assimilation of the audience'. In this respect, the images of superstars will be the common result of the task of media realtors, press, publicists, manufacturers, enthusiasts, and gossip columnists. As a result, the star system could be used to fulfill politics, economic, and ethnic requirements.
Associated with the consumer culture earlier mentioned, the next section will concentrate on the celebrification process. Most importantly, the precondition of superstar culture the framework of capitalist consumer world. The logic of capitalism requires consumers to keep up increasing consumption desire to have capitalist accumulation. However, people's desire are too various to unify. For constantly making the most of the market share, manufacturers need some thing that could tie up consumers' appeal in a long run. On this sense, manufacturers discovered that celebrities will be the desirable issue because, as what I described, celebrity has the function of filling the psychological shortage in human's mind. Rojek (2001, p. 15) remarks that superstars humanize the procedure of commodity use incidentally of structuring real human sentiments.
Then, why star could attract people attention on internal level? Richard Dyer (1998) has considered superstars 'as a happening of consumption' (p. 17), which hails from the four categories romantic relationship between personalities and audience: emotional affinity, self-identification imitation, and projection. This types of audience and celebrity relation was first of all reported by Andrew Tudor (1974) in his book 'Image and Affect', with the range of superstar and individual identification and the order of repercussions. 'Self-identification' and 'projection' belong to the high range of recognition, in the comparison, 'mental affinity' and 'imitation' ( of physical and simple behavioral characteristics) are categorised to the low category.
Dyer (1998) furthermore built-in Tudor's discourse, reconstructs the way of how these four types of star/audience relationship emerged. 'Emotional affinity' as the weakest category, maybe is the most frequent sense among people. Audience finds there are an connection between she or he with the superstar on the narrative of individual personality, and then, the sense of engagement has taken up. 'Self-identification' happens when 'engagement has reached the point at which the audience-member places himself in the same situation and persona of the star' (Tudor, p. 81). As for the 3rd category-'imitation', which is the primary reason for stimulating use as it is the commonest phenomenon one of the young people, and establishing a kind of sentiment with people beyond the sphere of multimedia texts. Individuals who reaches the group of 'imitation' are willing to consider celebrities as a role model and emulate their clothing, hair style and expression. Because of this, purchasing the products which are in accordance with the favored superstar is a subsequent behavior of audiences on this category. 'Projection' as the last category is similar to a distillation of 'imitation', which pursues the deeper similarity with the adoring celebrities.
Dyer (1998) concludes that out of this accounts of the legend/audience relationship, audiences participate few in the process of shaping the phenomenon, they are generally following designed routine of celebrity development. Thus to manufacturers, 'superstars are goods in the sense that consumers prefer to have got them' Rojek (2001, p. 15). For the stable economic expansion, capitalism requires mobilizing abstract desire in the unconsciousness, and celebrity culture has been recognized as 'one of the most important mechanisms for mobilizing abstract desire' anticipated to 'it embodies desire within an animate object, which allows for deeper degrees of attachment and identification than with inanimate commodities' (Rojek, 2001, p. 189).
After understanding the impact of superstar culture on intake society, the next step of the celebrification process is referring to the partnership between media and the star, or we can say how marketing product the celebrity. In the next part, I will integrate detailed instances to sophisticated this organic.
Media and Celebrification
Celebrity culture is a widespread phenomenon in modern day world, its main mechanism is on the effectiveness of celebrities to reach certain purposes. However, different from the great man in ancient period, modern celebrities are made through the tautology of mass media publicity to get audiences' attention on the 'big labels'.
Under the machine of media organizations, the appeal of superstar culture is characterized on three major aspects. First of all, movie star culture has promoted in various territories, the so-called celebrities are not merely refined to the number of entertainment, such as film, television, and music, but also concerning sports personalities and political stars. And in the media world, celebrities are active in every the sphere of entertainment, politic, activities, business and interpersonal life. For instance, Arnold. Schwarzenegger as a successful actor of action movie, received the same achievement on the ground of politic. Secondly, the commercial application of superstars is increasing, which also can be called as superstar strategy. In that circumstances of globalized current economic climate, the mixture of movie star culture and commerce is more and more close, somewhat, superstar culture already, become a commercial strategy.
Mass mass media is the main element force in the experience of movie star culture for commercial development. No matter what kind of superstars, in modern society they have to borrow the powerful power of media, especially the route of television to increase own fame. Actually, contemporary advertising culture appears to turn to a kind of celebrity culture. Thirdly, the impact of superstars is more profound and broad. Stars' effects are not just restricted on the film ticket results, or television audience ranking, the more effective one is they are the symbolic of fashion, success. Dyer (1998) considers the celebrities, mainly film superstars, have become types of consumption for everybody in consumer culture (p. 39). As what I pointed out previously, this sensation is resulted from a mental imitation. In this respect, superstars are beyond the images shaped in media texts, and intervening in viewers' everyday life, with providing the models of ideal personality and imaginary style which are matching with audiences' desire.
To media stars are as well as irreplaceable. In capitalist consumer contemporary society, the sustainment of multimedia institutions is largely replying on the huge profits made by advertising sponsors, who seek to on the strength of mass media propaganda to prompt commercial interests. In this particular perspective, media needs to use the experience of superstars to encourage and sustain people' attention and desire, subsequently, to maintain the intake of sponsored products and own financial benefits. As a result, the relationship between super star culture and mass media are interdependent. However, to advertising, the concrete super star member is changeable, to some extent.
In following examination, certain film celebrities are found to elaborate the connection between superstar and marketing. In quite a while, film as a typical formation of mass media means is the mating ground for star culture. As soon as the time of silent movie, the European film industry has generated the superstar-Charlie Chaplin. A high hat, sharp feet shoes, black mustache, tunic and loose trousers efficiently shaped the classic Chaplin and his Ciarlo image surrounding the world. Resulted from the preoccupation to his image, a huge selection of thousand fans visited buy the small statue of the homeless image he played in the film. In 14th December of 2004, the prop-a bamboo cane, that was employed by Chaplin in the film 'Modern Times' arrived under the hammer in London Christie's public sale house, and finally got deal by 47, 800 pounds. (From Internet Source, December, 2004). From this, maybe we can see how successful and continual the image formed by film is. The development of movie has added numerous film celebrities, and who are also regarded as the essential factor of Hollywood motion pictures. The big name of celebrity generally is the promise of ticket value as people are willing to pay money for their favored personalities, so providers as well as prefer using superstars to make predictable profit result.
With the engagement of superstars and the frenetic media hype prior to the show time, personalities and the film could both be famous. An effective occasion is the Hollywood film 'Ocean's Twelve', that was confirmed on 2004, and set up the top famous stars on that time: George Clooney, Brad Pit, Matt Damon, Andi Garcia, Julie Roberts and Catherine-zeta Jones. The executive standard of Exhibitor Relations Paul has said that film supporters commonly choose the videos gathering all celebrities together, watching this kind of film will feel like one time shopping for Hollywood top actors. Based on the data of Exhibitor Relations in 12th December of 2004, it proved that last week, 'Ocean's Twelve' has got the top position of the North American Pack office by $40, 900, 000 which created the forth highest pack office of starting premier in the history, just after 'The Lord of Diamond ring'. Many Hollywood experts even foresaw that 'Ocean's Twelve' will stretch the success of the part one "Ocean's Eleven', and earn more money. Within the commentary of this film, a large part of audiences said that no matter what the narrative is, they need to watch it just for the celebrities (From Internet sources, 14th Dec, 2004). In comparison, the commercialization of Chinese language film industry and super star culture occurred lately. In the first film times in China, a series film actors like Linyu Ruan and Xuan Zhou got few commercial feature, they just cared for acting as a specialist job. Besides, at that time China was still caught in the situation of international invasion and repression, the development of commercial system was not complete, the purpose of filming a movie, to large extent, is ideal for diffusing and agitating populaces' enthusiasm and self confidence of fighting, somewhat than earning box office and revenue. This example has modified because the conduction of the reform and wide open policy, folks have pointed out that film industry is great way for making revenue. Film producers started out to concern market movements, and be aware about the value of contenting audience's needs, seeking to search the type of film genre and film superstar will be preferred by Chinese people, and for what reason audiences have the ability to consume films. Because of this, from the gradual growth of Chinese language film industry, it is clear that consumption pursuit is the precondition of film development and beginning of superstar.
Star Production or Consumption
Within the interdependent romantic relationship of celebrities an mass media, a question called the 'production-consumption dialectic of mass marketing communications' has recommended by Edgar Morin (1968), which means stars are a happening of production that due to what the film makers provide, or of ingestion that due to film audiences requires (Dyer, 1998, p. 9). Firstly, as for the discourse of 'stars as a sensation of development', which is regarding personalities as products of mass communication. For example, majority American film stars are the products of Hollywood. Hollywood development has been regarded as a capitalist creation, and in this sense, the function of film stars is targeted on the current economic climate of hollywood (Dyer, 1998). Robert A. Brady (1947) advised that celebrities are some sort of capital possessed by Hollywood industry, which is characterized as monopoly, which is also the first aspect in the economics of Hollywood classified by Dyer (1998). The next role of celebrities is investment. Dyer (1998) analyzed that actors to filmmakers are a secure assurance, which could guarantee their investment on the film gets the profit value. Thirdly, actors themselves are a significant investment to filmmakers, the payment for personalities' appearance requires a large portion of the complete film budget. The last element celebrities representing is the marketplace. Alexander Walker (1974) reported a similar point that 'the use of the legend to stabilize audience response' (p. 15). For film companies, an effective way to organize the marketplace is to catch the attention of viewers' attention.
Secondly, the question is 'are stars a phenomenon of intake that due to film audience needs?'. Actually, in Part1, the consideration of the legend/audience romantic relationship has clarified this question by 'the audience's role in shaping the celebrity happening is very limited' (Dyer, 1998. p. 18), because stars are made by mass media to satisfy the necessity of commercial hobbies. However, because the feature of modern super star culture is basically dependent on the work of media promotion, audiences have opportunity to have a part in the process of star creation. To modern people residing in the consumer population, being rich and famous as a symbol of success, that actually is comparable with the connotation of modern star. In American culture, the individualism is an initial value, which effects American people in everyday routine. It advocates that everyone gets the fair to be successful as if you can understand a good chance, and pay hard work, regardless of skill and application. In the legend system, this value should have reformed, as it requires the ordinary people who want to be superstar have certain skill and specialness, of course, good luck is also an indispensable factor ( Dyer, 1998). In this admiration, under the context of modern device of movie star culture, people's value towards success has transformed. They dream of being famous, no subject by what kind of way. Evidently, being legend is a deserving way to get success, because on the effectiveness of multimedia, maybe the aspiration will be noticed overnight. Because of this, in contemporary society, individuals who have a star fantasy is a normal phenomenon.
Like I pointed out, media get accustomed to mobilize audiences' desire to maintain intake. when they found audiences' desire of being star, they may have began a fresh round of star production among the ordinary people, as the monetary return will be more intense, in this procedure, stars are playing the role of creation largely. This concept has also been seen by Chinese marketing system. The television program 'Super gal' can be an typical instance, which is run by an area television place of China. The essential program policy is the fact, it offers a system for ordinary people to present their ability on singing, any woman who are enthusiastic about singing all could participate in this contest, the previous three winners will get ten years deal with the music company, which means the winners of the television performing competition will be shaped as music celebrities. This competition has three professional music juries, but the final determinative right is in the hands of followers, who is able to vote their favorite participants through mobile text messages. Of course, the written text was billed as many times as ordinary cost, thus undoubtedly, the communication firm is the biggest sponsor. This program almost swept the whole country in that time, the reason why it could be so successful is basically because, first of all, it provides a chance for common people o show their expertise before people, which impossible in normal life. Subsequently, it transfers the energy of star production to viewers, which to some extent makes audience feel like these are more near the superstar system, which in ordinary life is an excellent stuff. Last but not least, through this program, someone who ever before is an regular resident has actually become a music superstar of China, this outcome further promotes audience's attention on the legend they picked out, and have some sort of intimacy with the superstar.
From this process, we can find that the biggest winner is multimedia itself. All the program is a open public projection of celebrity production, but the manufacturer is audience do it yourself. By this way of making audiences employed in the development could absorb audience's attention and desire in a more broad sphere, after all, television is the most effective communication tool. Associating with this occasion, the system of modern media institution is obvious, under the purpose of finally commercial come back, superstars can be created randomly as some sort of development in consumer culture.
The commercial flourish has resulted in the extension of celebrity culture. Celebrities become the living representation in this modern time. They create dreams for large ordinary people, who've been made as the accessories of business unconsciously. People are relying on superstars to make the final decision on utilization, and regarding them as the essential image model in natural life, the impact is not only on the exterior style of clothing, but also on the mental health movement. Idol chasing, worship, and imitation already become a kind of prevailing fashion in 21st century. If say stars provide imaginary landscape for the public, then mass media is the designer of the fantastic picture. Relying on mass media and basic communication technology, celebrities get earth to main and expand up. We even can say that superstars are the reaction to mass media development. To our viewers, since we have few influence on the procedure of celebrity production, the only thing we can do is to identify the innate identity of this system clearly. It is not telling criticize the superstar culture completely, but proposing to find our individual right position in this situation. Like I pointed out, there are major four types of stars/audience romance. In real life, the person who participate in the former two category-'emotional affinity' and 'self-identification' are both normal, because which just derive from a sense of engagement in the movies and also other media texts. However, one who if is found in the 'imitation' and 'projection' categories, the effect will be effective in his/her reasonable life, since it is possible of them to lose themselves just for imitating the living design of their favored personalities in or beyond display images.
In this research, there are two main constraints should be described. Firstly, as star culture is a reasonably complicated matter, this study only provides brief launch of the reason why of the introduction of celebrity, the way to understand superstar, and the impact of star on mass media in consumer society. The evaluation of detailed multimedia text is good for elaborating the relationship between mass media and celebrity culture, but the data is limited. Second, the impact of stars should be on various territories, however in this research, I narrowed the level of stars in the amount of film stars, as I think these are more typical and easy to get touch in. In the future, the research of super star culture should concentrate on the depth of certain depth, and give awareness with all choices in that territory. Besides, the standpoint of audience is also necessary to be involved, as they are the final information receiver, just how that they understand the propaganda, the news of stars is important resources for the analysis of super star culture.