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Understanding The Enemy System Theory

A variety of theories exist to clarify ethnic issues. Others have also been developed to assist design measure to manage and fix these conflicts. A theoretical construction of conflict resolution will be analyzed which will add the factors behind the conflict. It is from this platform that the appropriate peace building and turmoil resolution actions will be developed for the problem in Bawku. I will use the Enemy system theory, Individuals needs theory, and colonialism as theories to explain the cause of the conflict.

The general idea of the Foe System Theory matching to Volkan et al, (1990) is the hypothesis that humans tend to discriminate which contributes to the establishment of opponents and allies. The next ideas make up the Opponent System Theory. The first idea is that of identity with its associated concept of the negative personality and distinguishes an enemy from an ally. Another theory is that of ethno-nationalism under which Montville (in Volkan 1990, p. 169) defines the concept of "ethnic victimization as the talk about of ethnic insecurity brought on by violence and aggression". With regards to the circumstances, feuding gatherings often have a sense of insecurity in their survival hence the propensity to protect it. Another part of the principle is the known idea among ethno-national groupings that passivity ensures the continuation of victimization (p. Montville in Volkan 1990, p. 170). The next concept deals with the psychological device that enables humans to aggress and get rid of one another. They are the operations of demonisation and dehumanization (Demetrois and Juluis in Volkan et al. 1990). Corresponding to Cunningham (1998), the Foe System Theory offers a sophisticated theory of issue which talks about difficult problems such as terrorism and the depth of cultural conflict. Although it is a behavioural theory, it offers a bridge to classical theory by mixing a number of approaches. Therefore, the truth of Bawku can be identified in the Foe System Theory. This is because of the fact that even though there exists intermarriage amidst the tribes, an organization that builds bonds and strengthens marriage, the legacy of earlier years and their socialization with their children has conserved the term 'adversary'. Because of this one tribe always considers the other as the antagonist leading to demonization and dehumanization. In other to ensure a halt in victimization and disorders, reprisals are necessary. It is for this reason that a massacre of women and children occurred during the conflict in Bawku. Additionally it is not unusual for retaliatory killings of investors and even motorists from tribes that are believed neutral just because they sympathize with either of the feuding groupings.

Human Needs Theory (HNT) originated in the 1970s and 1980s as a basic theory of real human behaviour. It really is based on the fact that humans have basic needs that have to be met in order to keep secure societies. John Burton (1990, also in Volkan 1991, p. 82-83) identifies that discord situations are necessitate by the have difficulty in any way levels to fulfill needs such as security, identification, recognition, and development. They struggle to harness their environment as a necessary tool to guaranteeing the realization and achievement of the needs. This have difficulty for basic needs is theoretically related to the "Frustration-Aggression theory which is based on the stimulus-response hypothesis". The frustration of not fulfilling these needs brings about aggression and subsequently, issue. What distinguishes Real human Needs theory from the Frustration-Aggression theory is usually that the former is concerned only with absolute requirements (needs) while the later is also worried about wants and desires.

The need to meet basic needs of life in Bawku is achieved through formal education and gainful occupation. The basic profession of the residents are farming and trading. It is believed a most Kusaasis are farmers while Mamprusis monopolise the business enterprise sector. Because of this, an attempt by either tribe to project in the livelihood of the other causes a violent confrontation. A good example is a monopoly of the cattle market which includes being a display point for sometime. The acquisition and control of land has being the largest and root cause of the conflict. Since land is the major and basic capital of folks having absolute control of the land by taking over kingship by either of the factors will mean a lack of significant capital. This will threaten their security and survival therefore they lay claim they are struggling a just cause. Unemployed young ones are a fairly easy target for judgment leaders to use as a struggling pressure. Politicians have worsened the problem by participating in to the melody of the tribe that has most its people in the get together thereby presenting the other a impression of insufficient recognition that may eventually lead to lack of development.

Colonialism was possible by the use of force, this is the invasion, subjugation, and control of a recently indie region. The values of the colonialist generally dictated the cultural patterns present in the colonies. Europeans assumed that Africans were a tribal people who recognized with an individual ruler, usually local to the village unit. In spite of of the motives, and the various types of public business that confronted colonial administrators, an identical pattern of any homogenous tribal unit controlled by an autocratic ruler was forcibly applied. According to David Welsh (1996, p. 477 ), even in situations "Where colonized societies had known no indigenous chieftainship, including the Kikuyu, the English, believing that African people must have chiefs, created chiefs and endowed them with trivial bureaucratic functions. "

Bill Berkeley (2001, p. 79-88) represents the European mechanism for dealing with the disparity between your few white settlers and the many administrative areas in the colonies: "Tribalism solved the colonial dilemma of how to dominate and exploit great numbers of indigenous inhabitants with a restricted amount of colonial realtors, by mobilizing categories on the basis of linguistic and cultural similarities that formerly have been irrelevant. " Nowhere was this issue more readily clear than in Sub-Saharan Africa, where, with the exception of few white dominions like South Africa, direct Western domination was limited by a handful of metropolitan centers with scarcely a few thousand long term white residents in each colony.

While the formal method of colonial control started to wither away in the next one half of the 20th century, a legacy of an deadly tendency of "tribal" issue in Sub-Saharan Africa remained. Africans got to find a way to adjust to the nation-state style of governance, while striving to cope with social and financial structures that were remnants of the colonial time. After freedom, the ethnic identities that were constructed and taken shape during the past century arrived to direct turmoil, thus, one of the Africans themselves on which group, or coalition of communities, would achieve control. "

Similarly, the legacy of the colonial administrators to utilize the Mamprusis as a tool to harmonize and control parts of the Northern Portion of Ghana for easy administration resulted in violent clashes among the people. These clashes happened during colonial rule which the colonial administration did little to end. Bawku was one of the difficulty zones in the North which was still left until today. This legacy has become a bane on the introduction of the area.

CONFLICT Image resolution THEORIES

Professor Burton distinguishes between turmoil image resolution, management and pay out. Turmoil Management is 'by solution dispute quality skills' and can confine or limit conflict; negotiation is 'by authoritative and legal procedures' and can be imposed by elites. Burton (1993) implies by contrast:

. . . conflict quality means terminating discord by methods that are analytical and that get to the root of the problem. Conflict resolution, as opposed to mere management or 'settlement', details to an results that, in the view of the people involved, is a long lasting solution to issues. [49]

Conflict image resolution is, in the long run, a process of change in politics, social, and financial systems. It is an analytical and problem solving process that considers such specific and group needs as identification and reputation, as well as institutional changes that are required to fulfill these needs. [52]

Traditional approaches to issue management or regulation have basically been based on mediation and negotiated 'settlements'. These solutions is only going to work when the conflicting gatherings are amenable to negotiation and also have something tangible they are able to bargain. The use of the Trail Two Diplomacy approach to conflict resolution, Electricity sharing theories as a means of solving conflicts which may have their root base in electricity and autonomy will be explores.


Using the Adversary System and Individual Needs theories to clarify the conflict in Northern Ghana only the first step. Understanding the type and parameters of a conflict pays to, but the goal is by using this analysis to resolve the conflict. By applying the assumptions of John Burton's Issue Resolution Theory, we can map a way forward. You can find useful methods and techniques that can be used in our move from theory to practice. These procedures are what's known as Track Two Diplomacy. Joseph Montville defines this as: Monitor two diplomacy can be an unofficial, informal connection between participants of adversary organizations or nations that aims to develop strategies, influence general public opinion, and coordinate human and material resources in ways that might help resolve their turmoil. It must be comprehended that track two diplomacy is by no means a substitute for formal, formal, "track one" federal government to administration or leader-to-leader human relationships. [53]

One of the main element phenomenon that track two diplomacy has been developed to deal with isProtracted Social Conflict (PSC). [54] Protracted public conflict is a type of conflict that is not based on materials passions, but is one based on needs; particularly personality related needs of ethno-national or communal communities. Edward Azar identifies this turmoil type: These personality groups, whether created around shared spiritual, ethnic, racial, ethnic, or other characteristics, will work to accomplish and make sure their distinctive identification within a modern culture. When they are denied physical and financial security, political contribution, and acknowledgement from other groups, their distinctive identity is lost, and they will do whatever is in their capacity to regain it. In a nutshell, this is the origins of protracted sociable conflict. [55]

Track two diplomacy is a three level process that enables group associates to work at resolving intergroup conflict in a non-threatening, non-coercive and non-confrontational environment. As mentioned, it isn't designed to replace keep track of one or official diplomacy, but it can often pave the way for official negotiations by initiating frame of mind changes in public areas judgment and decision creators. There are three periods or functions. The first stage is some problem solving workshops or message boards. These workshops are made to bring influential folks from the respective neighborhoods in conflict, although not the main element decision makers, along to explore choice means of defining their conflict. The goal is to convert their perceptions about the discord from zero-sum to win-win. This is achieved through the process of facilitated conferences within the workshops. These workshops are facilitated by the -panel of experts on the psychology of intergroup conflict and on the specifics of the conflict involved. The facilitators do not seek to impose or even offer solutions to the discord, their goal is to accomplish communications and smoothly guide the participants towards changing their behaviour and perceptions themselves. Through this change comes the ability to view the discord in new conditions. This is actually the transformation that makes viewing the discord as zero-sum to browsing it as win-win, possible.

The second level of record two diplomacy is to affect public opinion and also to change the behaviour and perceptions of the protagonist areas. These changes depends on the modifications that were created by the members in the problem solving workshops. This is in no way a straightforward or automatic process, but the one which takes time, and significant amounts of perseverance and tolerance. Before the neighborhoods themselves can be targeted, the workshop individuals must first convince the decision producers in their communities of the veracity of their newfound perceptions. Following this has been achieved, the wider communities can undergo a process of transformation. Mass communication will be an important component of this process. Besides mass media, academic journals and meetings and special situations can help with perceptional changes. This technique is helped by tangible profits that are made in the third process: cooperative economical development.


Horowitz offers some desire through something of power posting; but not the kind of top - down power posting that was attempted in North Ireland in 1974 (the energy Sharing Professional), but from underneath - up. [24] Politics engineering is required in situations like this. Corporations must be altered or, regarding circumstances with little legitimacy, changed with new ones.

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