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Underrepresentation Of LADIES IN Technology And Engineering

Women run the chance of lagging behind in the fields of technology and engineering. A wide gap is out there between women and men in these areas. Women generally have overrepresentation in public sciences and humanities, and underrepresentation in knowledge and engineering. Although the number of ladies in the fields is continuing to grow steadily, women remain underrepresented at high levels of these professions. Public norms, culture and behaviour, play a significant role in undermining the role of women in the aforementioned areas. Oftentimes, the achievement and superiority of women are measured using male driven benchmarks. Even for the ones that excel, their earnings are oftentimes dissimilar with their man counterparts. However, countries can use several recommendations that will help boost the presence of women in these fields. Addition of women in science and engineering is an essential factor that can significantly speed up technological progress in the modern-day society.


Underrepresentation of Women in Research and Engineering

There is a marked underrepresentation of ladies in science and engineering although the modern culture needs technology most society. Research and executive are historically Matching to statistics discovered by Blasdell (19); over 50 percent of the population is composed of women of whom 44 percent is in the workforce but only 13 percent in technology and executive. Recruitment of women in science and technology can help mitigate the drain of executive talent through the provision significant resources. However, several obstacles impede this addition and advancement of women in science and engineering.

Challenges and Known reasons for Underrepresentation

Social norms and culture come as the utmost significant factors impeding the improvement of women guy dominated professions. Practices, principles and styles slim and suit the male gender has designed the culture in SET areas. The culture is not fitted to the needs of women in cultural and learning environments. From time immemorial, women are regarded as caretakers where their work is fundamentally taking care of their families. This social norm contributes to a stereotypical view on women where a lot of men regard the skills of ladies in these fields negatively. As documented by Bystydzienski (24), a lot of men respond negatively on the ability of women to stand out in specialized (science) and engineering domains. The societal norms dictate a woman cannot be successful as a mother and a better half while in these profession paths. According to the International Labor Company, science and anatomist are associated with pervasive gender functions that encourage women to activate in 'tender' subject matter (hawks and Joan 250). This undermines the quality of ladies in the aforementioned areas.

Additionally, women who take Establish occupations are associated with a lack of femininity in their societies (Hall 82). This impedes their development in the fields since they may feel that their intuitive and imaginative styles do unfit to scientific research. Female stereotyping also is a key factor among communal norms that impede the achievements of ladies in SET. Women scientists are usually included as atypical women and atypical experts. This implies that, not only is their 'deficiency' in technology attacked, but also their gender identity. Female norms are definitely more associated with collaboration than competition. However, the societal norms arranged by men tend to be more competitive than they are really collaborative. However, women are focused towards win-win adjustments (Bystydzienski 39). The competitiveness and prefer to verify oneself significantly impedes the desire of women to move forward in these profession fields.

Legal systems to a lesser magnitude than norms impact women's superiority in knowledge and engineering. In several countries, anti-discriminatory laws and regulations require that universities offer differential accessibility conditions for ladies. However, the weakness of the legal systems in several other countries (especially producing ones) has remaining women at a drawback in the inclusion of knowledge and engineering programs. Legal fads encourage institutions to ease discrimination and other institutional norms and routines that pub women from participating in SET lessons. However, with high levels of female stereotyping in different societies, women still lag behind in their improvement, in these domains (Material and Emily 91).

Female Dominant Knowledge Fields

Although few women re within the engineering field, there are other research fields where there is a sizable number. Nursing is one of the most prominent science occupations where women are found. Medical, as a technology, attracts a significant number of female students. On top of that, this field has also been stereotyped, and it is more associated with women than with men. One factor that causes a high volume of feminine nurses is the bad attitude that a man will look unmanly if he joins the course. Hawks and Joan (257) add that women are capable of interacting better with other folks than men are. This implies that women can interact with patients more proficiently in nursing homes than men can. Additionally, nursing combines female worth with professional beliefs of support and attention. Furthermore, women are in an added good thing about taking nursing training since in many cases, men are excluded.

Academic Achievements of Ladies in SET

The academic achievement of women in science and engineering remains low. The achievement of ladies in the domains falters especially soon after the entry in the first season in universities. Regarding to Hall (102), of the 40 percent of the students who got into university this year 2010 in USA, 11 percent were female. Once they become a member of corporations of higher learning, their performance may also deteriorate significantly. Insufficient confidence in their capacity to balance family responsibilities and science job significantly affects their academic achievements in the areas. Additionally, the portrayal of technology and executive male-oriented courses exacerbate their anxieties of their quality. Additionally, in undergraduate research and executive classes, ladies in many conditions feel isolated. In addition they feel resented by their man counterparts since they feel that their opinions are not well known by their male counterparts. Furthermore, women who've high degrees of confidence in research and technology classrooms elicit negative responses from their male counterparts. Relating to sociologists, women also point out lower degrees of self-esteem than men in these domains do. The blend of these results affects the academic success of women adversely. A lot of women will have a tendency to mask their educational talents to evade alienation and ensure that they achieve interpersonal success. Hawks and Joan (108) add that women succeed acceptance through the increased loss of personal terms. As he observes, women who achieve highly in these fields will probably lose their gender tasks. In order to avoid this, women recede to standard gender roles. In such a situation, women do not ask many questions or explore alternative option, but rather, they go after and follow what they are taught. This significantly impacts their academic success and thy finish up lagging behind their guy counterparts. To exacerbate the situation, despite having their assumption of standard gender functions, the presence of ladies in a science or engineering category draws a great deal of attention (Metal and Emily 125). This inundation with interpersonal attention creates uneasy learning environment that could interfere with their academic achievements and/or improvement.

In America, women currently earn around 41 percent of PhDs in Place areas but make around 28 percent of the workforce in these domains. As seen by Nut, the reduced range of women mixed up in workforce is due to high dropout rate in Place field. Reducing the dropout rate of women in SET jobs is significantly essential in the quest for gender equality since women in SET jobs earn about 35 percent more than in non-SET fields (Blaisdell 24).

Cross-gender Disparity in Salaries

Albeit the combat for equality in all fields of life, there still is present a broad disparity between your earnings of male and women workers. In the domains of knowledge and engineering, this disparity is highly pronounced. Data collected through the census in the United States depict a significant dissimilarity between your staff in these domains. In 1999, the average salary for female scientists and technicians was almost 22 percent significantly less than that of their man counterparts. However, this is seen as a significant increase since this reflected a twenty five percent increase from the statistics uploaded in 1993. In 1999, among researchers and engineers who had kept their degrees for under 5 years, women earned 83 percent of what men received. Salary differential at the moment depended on the field. In life sciences, women gained 23 percent minimal than their guy counterparts while in, computer knowledge, the difference was 12 percent. However, the difference has reduced over the years. In 2009 2009, independent studies by Glassdoor disclosed that women gained approximately 93. 7 percent of what men attained. This applied for individuals who acquired zero to 3 years of experience. For scientists and engineers who got more than a decade of experience, women attained approximately 89. 1 percent of what men earned. Another review conducted in 2012 reveals that the distance is steadily being close, albeit at a significantly slow-moving pace. Women researchers and designers with zero to three years of experienced acquired 95. 2 percent of what their man counterparts earned. For all those with over ten years of experience, women earned 92. 6 percent of what men acquired. Albeit the underrepresentation, it is noticeable that the salary difference is being closed. Factors such as focus on equality between women and men play a noteworthy role in changing these dynamics. Additionally, stereotyping and discrimination are diminishing, and these fields are actually more cross-gender than they used to be several ages ago (Hall 124-130).

Cross-cultural Distinctions in Status of Ladies in SET

The status of ladies in science is oftentimes vary from culture to culture. This is because the norms noticed by one culture may vary from those of another culture. Studies conducted by Blaisdell (29) indicate a wide disparity in the manner different cultures uphold women in science and engineering. These differences tend to be more pronounced in societies which have stuck with their customs than in the modernized societies. Among the list of African People in america and other dark-colored societies, gender assignments are highly emphasized. Therefore that women are expected to manage their families while their male counterparts become breadwinners. On this word, women need to maintain their femininity in these societies. In these societies, a career in technology and executive is highly associated with a loss of femininity. In this regard, women are regarded adversely in these societies once they take to research and anatomist. This cultural stereotyping has significantly added to a few dark women getting involved in science and technology. Through women empowerment, the amount of women taking professions in technology and technology in several other cultures or societies has increased. American cultures are becoming more liberal and, thus, more women are being accepted into these male dominated occupations. This increase can be attributed to less strict cultural norms, constitutions promoting equity and discouraging discrimination and administration strategies promoting inclusion of women. Corresponding to statistics put up by the United Nations (quoted in Blaidell 30), the Asian communities (especially in america) have the best volume of women scientists and engineers. Among the list of Asian communities, Place (science, anatomist and technology) lessons are considered area of the community. Although their culture also emphasizes on gender tasks on women, they show significant liberalism regarding women engaging in research and technology. These observation indicates that, in societies where social norms, discrimination and stereotyping are high, variety of women getting into the field of knowledge and anatomist is less and vice versa.

Opportunities for Ladies in SET

Regardless of the troubles, women participating in SET fields have a multiplicity of opportunities. In the United States, the federal government has increased its work in having women contained in Collection programs. Through affirmative actions, the entry standards for ladies into university in SET fields are lower than for men. That is encouraging an additional volume of women engage in science and engineering. Also, other governmental and non-governmental research centers are including more women than it was a couple of years ago. On top of that, these institutes engage in campaigns and trainings to improve the number of women in science and engineering. For instance, through the Professional Office of the Leader, NASA was involved with a nationwide convention to encourage ladies and women to activate in Set in place. Through their existence, girls had hands-on experience on NASA activities to encourage them in chasing SET occupations (Metal and Emily 200).


Based on the issues facing ladies in SET, a lot remains undone. Several suggestions can help boost the presence of women in SET. First, the culture and sociable norms should be redefined to have an increased range of women in Collection. As mentioned by Bystydzienski (209), women need first to adapt to the system with the machine in which they have modest previous knowledge. In this regard, women need to develop coping ways of have high representation in this field. Also, the social and communal norms of the present day societies should change. Stereotyping and discrimination at basic level in colleges are a few of the most significant challenges for girls wishing to take part in SET classes. With federal government strategies, discrimination and stereotyping can be reduced thus increasing the number of women in Collection. Furthermore, a big change in the competitiveness in Collection can help raise the number of women. Regarding to Blaisdell (21), dissatisfaction and intimidation arise among women when confronted by competitiveness at the job. To mitigate this issue, group activities and non-threatening surroundings should be motivated. Additionally, criteria for assessment should be reduced to help women feel included. Furthermore, connected teaching can help combine women in science and executive. In connected classes, simple truth is created through consensus, but not conflict. This helps reduce intimidation among women.


Inclusion of ladies in science and executive can assist in the expansion of creativity. However, women are significantly underrepresented in Place fields. Community norms and some oppressive legal systems have been found to contribute to this underrepresentation. Even for females who boost in these occupations, a noticeable disparity is present between their earnings and those of the feminine counterparts. However, women, through government attempts, have a multiplicity of opportunities in advancing in these domains. As determined, several strategies can be used to allay the issues women face in Set in place fields. The inclusion of ladies in SET fields is vital for development of advancement thus additional women should be motivated to join SET courses.

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