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Ultimate Goal Of Any Management Information System Information Technology Essay

For this survey you need to go through the application of involved MIS in something based or manufacturing based organization and critically assess how it has helped them to improve their performance in the context to the three main functions described for a built-in MIS, accompanied by future recommendations that will be beneficial to the business.

Introduction 3386

Management Information System can be explained as a system that delivers professionals and employees with the information they have to perform their careers as effectively as is feasible. (Satisfaction W et al. , 2010, pg 464)

It is unimaginable to really have the notion of an information system without complex it.

(Vidgen R et al. , 2002, pg1-2)

Another classification which talks about the Management Information System from another viewpoint is

"Any telecommunication and/or computer related equipment or interconnected system or sub-systems of equipment that can be used for the acquisition, storage space, manipulation, management, activity, control, display, turning, interchange, transmission, or reception of voice and/or data, and includes software, firmware, and hardware". (oma. od. nih. gov/ms/level of privacy/privacyglossary. html)

However, if we incorporate these perspectives, Louden & Louden (2002) defines the four main factors that are necessary for the success of a business with information systems and have brought in incredible changes and alteration to the business World.

Global Economy

It is very important to an organization to operate on a global level also to manage its customers, suppliers and distributors.

Industrial Transformation

Industrial economies are becoming knowledge established service oriented economies. Services are information and knowledge rigorous, and many jobs rely on creating and distributing information. For instance: healthcare.

Business Transformation

New businesses have focussed more on conference customers' requirements. To meet this, Organizations need to invest in Information technology to have a competitive edge.

Digital Firms

The e-businesses concentrate around their workers, customers and suppliers so they may be much aware of the changes that happen in their environment and so they have the ability to respond in an instant manner to these changes.


AAH Pharmaceuticals is area of the Celesio Group which is an international company which specialises in pharmaceutical trade pharmaceutical related services. They cover seven countries providing 550, 000 customers every day. (www. aah. co. uk) they may have highly successful and effective resource chain to aid these operations and retains a supply string between manufacturers and consumers such as pharmacies and patients. Celesio offers pharmaceutical manufacturers logistics and syndication solutions and helps them in sales and marketing. Beside this AAH Celesio is also the mother or father company of other entities like Lloyds Pharmacy and Movianto

AAH Pharmaceuticals is the UK's leading distributor of pharmaceutical and healthcare products and offers its services to different firms like pharmacy, nursing homes and doctors. AAH has been established in the year 1923 and they're the one full lines pharmaceutical wholesaler with comprehensive national reach including North Ireland, Route Islands and the Isle of Man (www. aah-hospitalservice. co. uk)

Some of the main element facts about the business are as follows:

They offer an comprehensive branch network with which they provide services to one customer every three mere seconds.

The company can manage and provide its customers by using around 850 vans plus they cover more than 23. 5 million kilometers a year during the process.

They produce an comprehensive network of warehouses numbering nineteen in the United Kingdom by which they serve different customers around the country.

They have around 20000 products at any given time which are functional.

The company utilizes over 3800 people.

The following graph shows others owned by the Celesio Group.


It is impossible to imagine the functioning of your company without a smooth movement of information across various departments. Electronic digital information is the sole information which may be transferred easily and nominal cost (Fattahi et al 2006).

This is realized that the key goal of any management information systems is marketing. This optimization may be accomplished by facilitating decision making at the mentioned three tiers of management.

To facilitate and keep maintaining a constant flow of results from decision making, Components of information systems like Decision support systems (DSS), Professional support systems (ESS) and Group decision support systems (GDSS) are widely-used. By using these systems, professionals are able to manage short and permanent problems. In some cases employees from the 3rd tier are involved to manage the grade of decision making of any organisation. This varies in one sector to some other like in a person service providing company such as a call centre, the managers decide on forecasting and predicting the number of cell phone calls and the demand of the service provided and management of the services. These decisions results the continuing future of the company as these are combined with engagement of a huge budget and ends in generating revenue

Management Pyramid

Strategic level = Policy

Senior management

Tactical level = Procedure

Middle management

Operational level = Execution

Operational management

managers mmmmmmmmmmmmammamanagemanagers managers


The plans carried out at the highest level of the pyramid are Strategic strategies which are place and developed to achieve achieving strategic goals. It is required by the info systems of an organization to help analyze the business, along using its environment and formulate and be sure it achieves its goals (Avison D, Fitzgerald G, 2003). Strategic planning is the outlining of decisions of source of information allocation, and steps essential to achieve focuses on or goals specified by the very best management and also have an extended time period and keeps at heart factors like range, source of information development, competitive edge and synergy.

(Griffin R, 2008, Pg. 65)

The proper planning team considers the political, economical, sociological, scientific, environmental, and legal aspects along with fiscal realities, geographical locations, and local and inter departmental aspects for coming to a permanent plan for the growth of the organisation. (www. idrc. ca)

Senior management are helped by Tactical level systems in regards to long term fads and proper issues.

ESS or Professional support systems support this tier of management.


Tactical is the center degree of management and it is the broadest spectral range of management. Most of the tactical management is undertaken by the rule of 'management by exception' which works on the idea of the subordinate reporting to the management if the matters aren't proceeding according to plan. This also entails a clear classification of the functions and what constitutes normal performance or procedures.

At this level, managers face complexity and uncertainty and require judgement, understanding and much interpersonal skill to carry out their tasks. ( Lucey T, 2005, pg 275). At this level both formal and casual information are essential and requires a constant flow, therefore the reliability on personal computers is less. But decision support systems play the most important part in assistance and decision making.

AAH Pharmaceuticals has a proper designated framework in this respect and the same has been progressed in the manner to ensure that the business can achieve the required level of control over the machine, for which they have got allocated different level of managers for handling different accounts and all of them are positioned under the strategic arm which is managed by the secretary who would run different departments customised to meet up with the needs of specific customers like the Dispensing Doctor market, Community Pharmacy, Hospital Pharmacy, and ends at the manufacturing or the procurement side of the business enterprise. This wholesome integration creates value to every section in the source string and the same can be monitored effectively by the individual department mind and permit appropriate tracking is made possible by the use of the machine.


At operational level a detailed planning was created to execute the projects that were planned. (Melnik G, Holz H, 2004, Pg. 133)

At this stage the aspects of implementation of the strategic objectives are designed and the same are carried out by the functional clubs. The initiation of the functional period happens at the tactical level where the required software and training is organized.

At Operational level / Managers will

Estimate the amount of risk that is engaged according to the traditions mandate, business sectors, commodity, geographical areas, and / or mode of travel.

The same is then accompanied by conducting a hazard analysis or risk identification process which is normally undertaken within the proper planning.

The implementation of the control options created by the proper planning team are carried out by the functions level managers.

At Operational level managers also carry out the version of nationwide priorities into field / functional strategies which would include the Implementation schedule, allocation of resources, plan the day to day activities, monitor the progress up against the programs, and compare and record the regional accomplishments which are helped bring down from the national strategic ideas.

Their activities are highly dependent on formal MIS which would be required to deal with the several aspects of the system and mostly it might be based on the inputs that are received from various sources.

Most of the info systems at the operational level are mainly based on the computer systems and the linear encoding of the different factors to ensure that they are fool proof and be able to undertake different permutations and calculations on an automatic manner. However, strategies based over encounters over a while are also known as as Emergent Strategies. Strategy is gradually shaped over time and predicated on true to life experience somewhat than theoretical positioning. (S Nigel et al. , 2007, Pg 66)

AAH Pharmaceutical has a well organized top management with relevant experience in the field of pharmaceutical industry. They designate the future plan of action by constantly updating and making use of new technologies in the info technology area by implementing relatively new forms of information management.

For example AAH pharmaceutical is planning to migrate to a fresh platform together with Rx systems Ltd and can develop a solitary PMR( patient medical record) system for pharmacies. (www. zenopa. com) This technique will be an extension to the hyperlink system already used and you will be known as ProScript Website link.

The strategic arm grips the collaboration planning and modalities mixed up in evolvement of the partnership. This can help the organisation to achieve a strategic benefits in comparison to the competitors using its advanced management information system.

Towards this goal the business has deployed differing people to handle certain requirements of varied customers and the same are checked on regular basis and validated before any orders are processed to ensure that the issues related to customs are retained within tolerance limitations. Any excesses would be reported and corrective options performed either by the tactical management or the tactical management clubs.

Health treatment information systems

are usually scientific and administrative. Administrative information systems deals with financial data and facilitates the general businesses of a health care organization.

While as opposed to this clinical information system handles medical or medical information which is utilized to maintain data when it comes to diagnosis, treatment of patients. They maybe formulated for each separate sector of the health organization or may cover all areas of patient care. (Wager K et al. , 2005, Pg 92)

Link Progression Software

AAH mainly handles Pharmacies both in community & clinics along with way to obtain medicines. AAH also apart from delivering pharmacies offers a whole computer founded system designed to record, dispense, order also to conduct all the relevant process for a competent pharmacy management programme. A lot of the unbiased pharmacies have AAH as their key supplier for medicines that's why they use AAH software for daily functioning of these business. Handling Information System provided by the AAH is sturdy which is latest in terms of technological progress and at par with the many other players in the industry like Boots which includes got its own managing system.

AAH's system is called 'Hyperlink EVOLUTION'.


The primary goal of the software is to help the users to carry out their daily pharmacy activities along with providing expert tools related to management, audit and consumer controls.

AAH Pharmaceuticals specifically made this to be able to provide their customer the IT support. This allows pharmacies to save lots of costs in conditions of investing in IT equipment such as computer systems, printers, labellers and other specialized equipment. AAH provides a customer support series in order to solve any issues. This key feature has made AAH an apparent choice in terms of choosing a dealer and has helped them build their business to a level where AAH resource nearly every pharmacy in the united kingdom in some capacity.

Some of the key functions are the following:

Dispensing System for prescriptions.

Incorporates a Database of medical information and allows looking at information about medications its use, relationships, side effects, dosage and other information.

Contains vast series products which cover almost everything available in the treatments market of the united kingdom.

Recording of Patient Medical Files.


Most important feature is the fact this implies any interactions or issues with patient's prescription and provides the depth of the problem such 4 celebrity interaction which means a severe interaction that requires immediate attention

Online placing your order system

Online stock checking

Allows the user to print question of medicines and medical records

Allow an individual to compute cost and large amount of drugs dispensed in a certain period of time

Clinical Audit

Monthly prescription counts


The AAH Hyperlink Advancement is software which is mainly designed for operational level management where statistics and information will be required accessible to make decisions. This software is the key source for pharmacies to manage their daily work.

The software provides an administrator based consumer control where the Administrator can monitor and designate obligations for user according with their role in the business.

At Larvic Pharmacy, one of AAH Pharmaceuticals customers, the administrator is the Lines Manager who is responsible for handling the entire daily duties and supervises other staff members.

Financial and Operational Benefits of Link Evolution

Just with time (JIT) function of Hyperlink Development for Special products

Special products are medicines which are not ready made and require time for formulation regarding to specs. The order pad shows the merchandise which is special obtain. These products are tranquil expensive and can't be returned in case there is inappropriate order so requires a supplementary approval to go ahead with the order. Whenever an order is positioned for a special product, a particular pop up comes up in the primary warehouse, where a proper employee makes a call to relevant customer to use verbal consent also to approve the order for even more process. This service makes the AAH stand out from its competitors as these products require special laboratory techniques & personnel that are costly to keep.

Daily Tasks

The software is accountable for saving patient medical information, printing label, endorsing prescription, providing staff information and prices of products, place order through the telephone line & print records such as files & demands.

Managerial Task

Link Evolution give a wide variety of tool concerning security, monitoring, verifying, products recalls, audit logs, professional medical audits, prescription matters and other available choices such as back ups, checking prior entries, amendments & remote control accessibility are some of them.

Link Advancement allows the manager to monitor

the progress of the average person employees and also overall progress of the business enterprise. It gives out details such as amount medications dispensed using time frame and gives a forecast of the overall cost & revenue that pharmacy will earn.

Features of Software

Patient Medical Record

Link Development provides customer to record patient data and prescription that will allow them to track record their details including details such as name, address, contact numbers and other related information. These details help the pharmacy staff to check earlier medication of the individual and help them indicating any discussion or issues to the patients and help doctors in deciding what's best for the individual.

Patient can be searched by different inputs such as fore names, surnames, address and time frame of birth

PMRs Item Counts

Software has a particular feature that allows staff to counts the amount of items dispensed for a particular patient in time order. This feature allows the user to forecast the day when the patient is due for next resource.

Detailed Order Pad

Link's order Pad gives the user an in depth view of all products that can be bought with both generic and branded products with their prices. A lot of the products are posted with exact standards that allows easy collection of the correct products.

Ordering is one the most crucial feature of Link Software. With the help of this feature individual can order medications while labelling a prescription.


Labelling is the most crucial feature of the service as it is most used option of the program. Labelling options gives a fast and easy use design which is not hard to look at and the personnel trained in this aspect is very minimal.

The Software is linked with an endorser and computer printer. The endorser allows the user to print the facts of the dispensed items and the pharmacy address on the side of the prescription rendering it easier for the Prescription Prices Firm (PPA) to reimburse the correct amount for each dispensed treatments.

Managing Feature


Link allows customer to select specific drugs from patient information for ordering. These need can be printed out and also to be uploaded in the relevant doctor's practice or in some instances given to the individual.

User Control

Administrator account allows keeping a control for professionals to check and restrict end user from being able to access data that they are not likely to access.

User control also allows the administrator to assign specific assignments to the users such as locum pharmacist, director, technician & shop helper.

Link Progression Information system and Risk Management

Backs up the data on to a distant server which allow the user to obtain piece of mind in case there is a system inability or malfunctioning

It also really helps to deal with product recalls which is quiet helpful as not many delicate wares have this feature which can tell them a particular product when also to whom its been given over the certain amount of time

Audit log provides set of all the occurrences occurring in particular date and time order. In case there is a forgery or misconduct these logs allow visitors to checks the facts of the situations occurring in a specific time & day. For an example: In the event a forgery of Patient record the log gives the exact time, day & user who amended the facts and thus gives concrete information in solving most forgery issues

Link software offers an option to merge two patients in the event the same patient has been created in the machine more often than once. This can help the staff in managing reliable record keeping also to avoid any faults.


Although the program is robust, processed and provide almost all the useful tools that are necessary for day to day operation but there is always room for improvement.

As a worker for the Pharmacy the writer is responsible for controlling information and feels that we now have some improvements can be made to boost services which are the following:

Computer failures, Human being problems and environmental dangers are threats to this system

Addition of something tool where employees can generate patient lists regarding to different characteristics of services provided as they offer with services such as Device Dosage Dispensing which requires a different approach from regular patients.

Patient Medical Files held onto as a group which allows to record patient's data into a family group classification. It can help to recognize patient family members if indeed they come to collect drugs or information about their family. This can also allow being able to access their records easier.

A service tool that will allow checking how many addresses a person patient is registered at. This is actually important to reduce any errors or confusions regarding patient documents. This has took place before that a patient's treatments was delivered to wrong house because of their similar names.

Generate and printing prescription collection lists. At the moment staff has to use MS Office to achieve that.

Stock checking will allows ordering enough stock before it works out.

Electronic Prescription Endorsement where prescription can be scanned instead of endorsing them manually.


From these it can be seen that the company has an extremely structured and efficient mechanism in place for the simple functioning of the whole process and the robustness of the system that is in place at AAH can be grasped by the fact that the business's software was the first to be given approval for Electronic Prescription Service (EPS) which has been put in place by the National Health Service (NHS) and the same can be considered to be of immediate relevance and the effectiveness of the info management system that is set up in the business. The overall framework which is discussed above is a great way in which a proper control measure and the desired result of information systems can be achieved if the machine is set up and the same is looked at always with a view to up grade the same on constant basis.


Explanations of terminologies used in this text

Executive Support System (ESS):

Is some type of computer based system which is directly under the control of an professional. This technique provides current position information on internal and exterior conditions of the organizations.

Most of that time period while, setting a new ESS system, it is necessary by the system analyst to create this in line with the demand and requirement of the CEO and his staff.

Decision Support System (DSS)

Decision support systems support management level systems. They go beyond simply confirming information and incorporate guidelines, formulas, or specific display that can help end users make decisions. Scheduling and staffing are areas where decision support can be helpful. For e. g. how many people should be employed at a given time period or at a specific event. (Jossey P, 2004, Pg 60)

Intelligent Support System (ISS)

Knowledge Management System (KMS)

KMS are generally considered as an extension of traditional directories with collecting and arranging the result of studies, memos and financial assertions.

In business information systems, KMS entails the capturing, storing, retrieving and distributing the data for others to increase the quality, efficiency of decision making over the organization. Gelinas U, Dull R, 2009, Pg 174,

Transaction Handling System (TPS)


This system process program, information and process business exchange such as receiving customer order, positioning an order with a vendor or making a payment. (Baskerville R et al. , 2000, pg 68)

This also contains, online applications that link an organization with its customers and suppliers.

Link Evolution uses on similar steps and used at operational degree of the three tiers of management.

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