Keywords: computer types, record of personal computers, computer development history
A computer is a programmable machine. It accepts information by means of digitalized data and manipulates it for a few result predicated on a program or series of instructions about how the data is to be processed.
It contains at least one control factor, typically a central control unit (CPU) plus some form of storage area. The processing factor provides out arithmetic and logic procedures, and a sequencing and control device that can change the order of procedures predicated on stored information.
The first use of the word "computer" was saved in 1613 in a publication called "The young man's gleanings" by British writer Richard Braithwaite" I've browse the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that ever breathed, and he reduced thy days into a brief quantity. " It described someone who carried out computations, or computations, and the word prolonged with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the term began to take on its more familiar so this means, a machine that provides out computations.
Computers are also categorized based on physical set ups and the goal of their use. Predicated on Capacity, quickness and reliability they can be divided into four categories of computers:
- Microcomputer: A little, single-user computer based on a microprocessor.
- Minicomputer: A multi-user computer with the capacity of aiding up to a huge selection of users simultaneously.
- Mainframe: A powerful multi-user computer capable of encouraging many hundreds or a large number of users together.
- Supercomputer: An extremely fast computer that can perform vast sums of instructions per second.
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). It offers a microprocessor, memory, and type/output (I/O) facilities. Microcomputers became popular in the 1970s and 80s with the development of progressively powerful microprocessors.
Microcomputer or pc can be defined as a little, relatively inexpensive computer created for an individual individual. Businesses use microcomputers for word handling, accounting, desktop publishing, and for operating spread sheet and database management applications. At home, the most popular use for microcomputers is for doing offers and lately for surfing the web.
The characteristics of an microcomputer are Displays, keyboards and other devices for insight and productivity may be integrated or different. Computer memory in the form of RAM, with least one other less volatile, ram safe-keeping device are usually combined with CPU on a system bus in one device. Other devices that make up a whole microcomputer system include batteries, a power unit, a computer keyboard and various suggestions/output devices used to mention information to and from a individual operator (printers, screens, human program devices). Microcomputers are made to serve only one user at a time, although they can frequently be revised with software or hardware to concurrently serve more than one user. Microcomputers fit well on or under tables or tables, so that they are within easy access of users. Bigger computers like minicomputers, mainframes, and supercomputers take up large cabinets or even dedicated rooms.
Actual microcomputer can be generally grouped by size and chassis / circumstance. The framework or case is the steel frame that assists as the structural support for electric components. Every computer system requires at least one chassis to accommodate the circuit planks and wiring. The chassis also contains slot machine games for expansion boards. If you want to insert more planks than there are slots, you will need an expansion chassis, which provides additional slots. You will find two basic flavours of chassis designs-desktop models and tower models-but there are numerous variations on these two basic types. Then come the lightweight personal computers that are computers small enough to carry. Portable pcs include notebook and subnotebook pcs, hand-held computers, palmtops, and PDAs.
The term refers to a computer in which the power supply, motherboard, and mass safe-keeping devices are stacked on top of the other person in a cupboard. This is as opposed to desktop models, in which these components are housed in a far more compact box. The main benefit of tower models is that there are fewer space constraints, making installing additional storage area devices easier.
A computer made to fit comfortably together with a table, typically with the keep an eye on sitting on top of the computer. Desktop model computers are wide and low, whereas tower model personal computers are narrow and tall. For their condition, desktop model computer systems are generally limited to three inside mass storage area devices. Desktop models designed to be very small are sometimes referred to as slim line models.
Notebook is incredibly lightweight personal computer. Notebook computers typically weigh less than 6 pounds and are small enough to fit easily in a briefcase. Aside from size, the main difference between a portable computers and an individual computer is the screen. Mobile computing use a number of techniques, known as flat-panel systems, to produce a light and non-bulky screen. The grade of notebook display screens varies significantly. In conditions of computing vitality, modern mobile computing are nearly equal to personal computers. They have the same CPUs, memory capacity, and disk drives. However, all of this power in a small offer is expensive. Notebook computers cost about doubly much as similar regular-sized computers. Notebook computers come with battery packs that enable you to perform them without plugging them in. However, the batteries need to be recharged every few time.
A small, lightweight computer small enough that it can sit on your lap. Nowadays, laptops are more often called notebook computers.
A lightweight computer that is just a little lighter and smaller when compared to a full-sized notebook computer. Typically, subnotebook personal computers have an inferior keyboard and display, but are in any other case equivalent to mobile computing.
A lightweight computer that is small enough to be kept in one's hands. Although extremely convenient to transport, handheld computers have never replaced mobile computing for their small keyboards and displays. Typically the most popular hand-held computers are those that are specifically made to provide PIM (private information supervisor) functions, such as a calendar and address book. Some manufacturers are trying to solve the tiny key pad problem by exchanging the key pad with an electric pen. However, these pen-based devices rely on handwriting identification technologies, which are still in their infancy. Hand-held personal computers are also called PDAs, palmtops and pocket pcs.
Palmtop is small computer that basically ties in your palm. Compared to full-size computers, palmtops are seriously limited, however they are practical for several functions such as cellphone books and calendars. Palmtops that use a pen rather than keyboard for insight are often called hand-held pcs or PDAs. Because of their small size, most palmtop personal computers do not include disk drives. However, many contain PCMCIA slot machines where you can add disk drives, modems, storage, and other devices. Palmtops are also called PDAs, hand-held computer systems and pocket personal computers.
PDA is short for personal digital helper, a portable device that combines computing, telephone/fax, and network features. An average PDA can work as a mobile phone, fax sender, and personal organizer. Unlike portable pcs, most PDAs are pen-based, by using a stylus rather than keyboard for input. Which means that they also combine handwriting reputation features. Some PDAs can also react to voice type by using tone recognition solutions. The field of PDA was pioneered by Apple Computer, which released the Newton Subject matter Pad in 1993. Quickly thereafter, several other manufacturers offered similar products. At this point, PDAs experienced only humble success in the marketplace, because of their high price tags and limited applications. However, many experts believe that PDAs will eventually become common gadgets.
PDAs are also known as palmtops, hand-held personal computers and pocket computers.
Another type of computer is Micro Computer which is design to support more than one user at a time but it can be used by one individual at the same time. It is your computer of an size intermediate between a microcomputer and a mainframe computer and carries a microprocessor, memory, source and output facility and it comes with at least one type of data safe-keeping, usually RAM. Typically, mini computer systems have been stand-alone personal computers sold to small and mid-size businesses for basic business applications also to large enterprises for department-level businesses. . Mini pcs were made for control, instrumentation, individual discussion, and communication switching as distinct from calculation and record keeping. They have got great storage space capacity and work at a high speed rate. It really is often use in place where several folks have to work at once, so it let many users use data at exactly the same time without the inconvenient. Mini computer systems aren't only used in firm for work but many of mini computers are also used as pc. It has a sizable cheap array of silicon logic gate which allows tool programs and self-booting kernel to be stored within microcomputers. These stored programs let the minicomputer to automatically load further more sophisticated software from exterior storage device without the user intervention.
The Minicomputers were first built-in in 1960s plus they immediately became an enormous success as 40, 000 of the minicomputer systems were immediately sold of earning the computers hugely available to everyone. With such an effective market likelihood many companies stepped directly into endeavor in the minicomputer market. One of the most successful among these two hundred companies was DEC that launched the minicomputer models PDP-11 and VAX 11/780.
Some significant characteristics and historical facts about the tiny computer system have been summarized the following:
They are much smaller in proportions than the mainframe personal computers. As such they do not occupy an entire room but usually take up space similar in proportions compared to that of a typical refrigerator.
They are significantly less expensive than the mainframes.
Their invention was possible because of the technology of core ram technology and transistors.
Minicomputers can provide parallel usage of up to 100 users. Hence these were used in places such as business organizations for keeping billings and budget.
Some of the very first companies to produce the minicomputer systems were Hewlett Packard, December and Data Basic.
A few types of minicomputers which were a noticeable success over time are:
DEC VAX series and PDP series
Hewlett Packard HP3000 series
Prime Computers, Leading 50 Series
Norsk Data, Nord-1, Nord-10, Nord-100
IBM Midrange Computers
Control Data Corporation's CDC 160A, CDC-1700
Data Standard Nova
Honeywell-Bull Level 6/DPS Level6/DPS 6000 series
Minicomputers have eventually advanced in to microcomputers. With the kick off of microcomputers, the general public have
Had a greater usage of the good thing about incorporating computer systems in the daily stride with their lives.
In another palm we've the Mainframe Computer which is very costly than the Minuscule computer. In comparison the mainframe computer perform much better than the mini computer, it can process data at an extremely broadband rate, for example, an incredible number of teaching per second and Compared to a typical Computer, mainframes commonly have hundreds to a large number of times as much data storage area online, and can access it much faster. They contain a sizable quantity of self-maintenance features, including built-in security features and high data managing capacity. Due to mainframe's ability to take care of high level data ventures they are used by the largest firms in almost all the industry such as finance institutions, government businesses and organizations which need to store great volume of complicated and important data at a high security level, meaning this is actually the soundest than other kind of computer.
Mainframes are designed to handle very high volume type and output and emphasize throughput processing. This type of computer can work for long period without being interrupted, they can be reliable. It could run multiple different example of different operating system and are designed for the work of several users at the same time. The word RAS (reliability, supply and serviceability) is a defining attribute of the mainframe computer. Test, development, training, and development workload for applications and databases can run on an individual machine, except for extremely large requirements where the capacity of one machine might be limiting. They're usually secured by multiple levels of security and ability backup, both internal and external. Among the self-protection measures commonly within mainframes are an increased heat-protection mechanism. Because these personal computers run all day along with 24x7x365 ability, a sizable amount of heating generated must be expelled. The followers in mainframe computers are being among the most efficient supporting in keeping the data centers cool.
They are huge computer systems installed in space centers, nuclear electric power channels etc. They are used for performing complicated mathematical calculations. Only experts and mathematicians can operate them. They are experiencing huge memories & tremendous processing speed. They are being used for weather forecasting, computer animation graphics. . .
Mainframes run multiple periods, and with high trustworthiness. Companies can run their IT procedures for a long time without problems or interruptions with minimum amount down time. Administration is super easy because of the fact that applications tiers are monitored in one Server.
A central computer together can replace dozens or hundreds of smaller PCs, reducing management and administrative costs while providing a much better scalability and trustworthiness.
Mainframes can run several operating system at once, that allows companies to perform multiple trainings with a super-fast swiftness, high reliability, and high secure.
Supercomputer is a broad term for just one of the speediest computers currently available. Supercomputers are extremely expensive and are used for special applications that require immense levels of mathematical computations (number crunching). For example, weather forecasting takes a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers methodical simulations, (animated) graphics, smooth dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and evaluation of geological data (e. g. in petrochemical prospecting). Perhaps the best known supercomputer maker is Cray Research.
Approaches to supercomputer architecture have taken dramatic turns since the first systems were unveiled in the 1960s. Early on supercomputer architectures pioneered by Seymour Cray relied on compact ground breaking designs and local parallelism to achieve superior computational peak performance. However, with time the demand for increased computational electric power ushered in the age of massively parallel systems.
Here are some examples of supercomputer:
- IBM Roadrunner
- Cray Jaguar
- Fujitsu K computer
- IBM Sequoia
- Cray Titan
The primary benefits that supercomputers offer is lowered control time. Computer velocity is commonly measured in "floating point operations, " or "FLOPS. " Average home pcs can perform up to a hundred billion of these functions per second, or 100 "gigaflops. " Supercomputers, however, are thousands of times faster, and therefore calculations that could take your family computer hours or times can be solved by the supercomputer in a matter of seconds.
Supercomputers are usually used to take on large, real-world issues that would be too time consuming on regular pcs. For example, weather forecasters use supercomputers to generate models of the elements and also to forecast the elements. Obviously, forecasts have to be made in a well-timed manner to make sure they are useful therefore the better the computer the better. Only supercomputers be capable of perform these computations in a timely fashion. Among the sayings of computing is that the higher the technology, the more trivial the application and the most effective computers on the globe are being used by digital effects/computer computer animation companies. The pure processing vitality of supercomputers means they can be utilized to do stuff that ordinary computers simply couldn't take care of. Supercomputers also have allowed great strides in filmmaking and special effects.
There have no great difference between mainframe computer systems because like the mainframe it requires up a huge space and cost high. It needs trained personnel to are designed for and use the supercomputer and it could only be good for specific application. It is high power ingestion, it use a lot of electricity, for case, about millions Rupees in a 12 months.
Other disadvantage is the fact supercomputers require substantial external storage area drives whose bandwidth is fast enough to accommodate the info being examined and produced. If storage space and bandwidth can't match the data movement, the supercomputer will not be able to just work at its full capacity.
Unlike regular desktop computers that could finish calculating problems in a few minutes or in a single day, supercomputers focus on tasks that require intensive calculations which can take extremely long periods to complete. For example, a supercomputer could spend months performing calculations to support research on weather change or to help cure an illness, presenting a drawback to folks who are in a hurry for quick results.
After all we can say that computer has made his way since 19xx. It offers begun with the microcomputer which consisted of simple technology. Then we have the minicomputer which becomes more and more personal and superior for users. It makes great progress when the mainframe computer comes in 19xx (place the date). It comes with more performance and more recollection with high security level. Their process increased more than 100 times and lastly when the famous supercomputer comes which is 1000 times more powerful than the predecessor. And nowadays with the great evolution we've four type of computer.