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Two psychological solutions/perspectives

Psychodynamic Perspective and Cognitive Perspective:

Psychology is characterised by a variety of different solutions, each emphasising different factors in their explanations of mind and behaviour. This essay is going to outline two of the five techniques that are psychodynamic and cognitive methods.

The Psychodynamic procedure was mainly initiated by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and he explained behaviour in terms of unconscious drives and the dynamics of the identification, ego and superego. Nevertheless the cognitive approach was developed by Piaget in the (1950's) and this was because of a growing dissatisfaction with the behaviourist way. Within the psychodynamic approach, focus is more on what occurs in human heads, in other words it is a natural process which humans are delivered with and it establishes behaviour patterns concerning human relationships, experience and environment. Nevertheless the cognitive approach concentrates about how humans process information (stimuli/input) and how we react to what we've prepared in (output) which is also an all natural process as humans are delivered with this function. The main areas of review in cognitive mindset are notion, attention, memory space and vocabulary.

Freud assumed that the mind is split into three parts; mindful, unconscious and preconscious and that sex was the central motivating pressure, although following psychoanalysts' preferred to emphasise the value of public factors, plus they highlighted the value of years as a child experience. The three components id, ego, and superego affect your brain or human behaviour in four different categories. The first one is the unconscious process, which humans haven't any direct knowing of. Psychodynamic issue is the second one where by different parts of the mind are in regular struggle with each other. The third is mental drives which Freud thought that behaviour is determined by erotic and extreme drives. And the fourth is development, which brings out personality in humans through interactions specifically during child hood.

Cognitive psychologists assume that the analysis of inner mental process is important in understanding behavior. Their emphasis is upon the role of mental process in activities such as learning and visible perception. Compared with computers, cognitive functions positively organise and manipulate the info we obtain. Because analogies and metaphors are being used in cognitive psychology to help us understand how the brain manages, there is no unifying theory and cognitive mindset faces opposition from other psychologists. This is due to the fact that the mind is, nothing like other organs of your body, its structure does not reveal anything about how precisely it functions, which is a huge mass of skin cells and fibres.

The main method Freud found in his investigations was the research study method, when dealing with his clients and also used professional medical interview methods to probe their recent and question with their behaviour. That is similar to the cognitive procedure, where evidence of case studying has been used to review brain damaged patients which is crucial in ram research.

The psychodynamic methodology was the first approach to try and attempt to explain mental disease in psychological terms and has had an enormous effect on the understanding and treatment of mental disorders. A good example of this is Psychoanalysis and Fantasy Therapy which aims to help make the unconscious material mindful so it is easier to offer with as Freud believed that dreams revealed our invisible thoughts and needs. Evidence to support this was carried out by Sandell (1999) who examined the symptoms of 756 patients before and after three years or state-funded psychoanalysis and found that patients had significantly fewer symptoms following the therapy.

Cognitive methodology on the other palm, investigates using thorough technological methods and has provided explanations of several aspects of human behaviour and has had useful useful applications. The actual fact that it creates use of experimental research, studies on brain broken patients, computer stimulations and advanced techniques of learning the brain. The other approaches have also affirmed the variation between short term memory and long-term memory. Both strategies declare that children are qualitatively not the same as men and women. Freud's theory is centred typically on mental and social development, whereas Piaget's concern has been intellectual expansion which he views as arising from an conversation between biological expansion and environmental stimulation.

Research methods such as free connection and dream research in psychodynamic methodology have been trusted but experimentations have been found in the cognitive approach. Both strategies have similar efforts to mindset such as memory space where in psychodynamic methodology Freud explained theoretically that forgetting is induced by repression, and cognitive psychologists gave a good example of Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) multi-store model which suggested that memory is made up of a series of stores. Abnormality is another similarity where both methods have identified the cause of stress and depression within individuals. Psychologists in both techniques have introduced remedies that may be of good use in the treating depression and mental disorders.

Other contributions designed to mindset in both techniques experienced effective explanations in a multitude of matters; such as personality development, moral gender development and aggression in the psychodynamic approach. Alternatively cognitive approach has added to a wide selection of applications such as education, and health campaign.

Both approaches have had a large effect on psychology. For instance 100 years on Freud's ideas and psychiatry are still discussed and used in both theoretical and practical manner. Cognitive way has also influenced and integrated with all the other methods in the regions of study to produce public learning theory, public cognition, cognitive neuropsychology and unnatural intelligence.

Major weaknesses have been recognized in both techniques, due to the kind of methods used in their research programs. The unscientific approach followed by Freud, makes it very hard to test almost all of his theories. He never completed any experiments to test his ideas and he relied on the observation methods. The fact that he used very small numbers of people in his tests, convincing research was greatly lacked. Every school and culture of people have differ ways and values, so his results cannot be generalized to all or any cultures.

Cognitive models have been accused of disregarding the huge difficulty of human working, unrealistic and ignoring the biological influences and grounding of mental procedures. They are also accused to be too cold therefore ignoring the mental life of humans and their mindful experience and possible use of free will. Genetic factors like hereditary correlations of mental disorders aren't considered. The approach relies largely on manipulated experiments to see human behaviour may lack ecological validity.

Despite some weaknesses in both psychodynamic and cognitive techniques, humans today have achieved treatment to various disorders of your brain and brain through ideas and sensible treatments such as psychoanalysis remedy which is a powerful form of treatment but little is known to why it is effective. Cognitive behavioural therapy is also a popular and successful form of treatment for issues such as obsessive disorders. "Piaget's theory emphasises the fundamentally rational nature of human beings and also views immature reasoning and intellectual working to be profoundly different from that of older adults". Taylor I 1999 Active psychology Pearson publishers

Bibliography:

  • Eysenck M. W 2000 Mindset A Students
  • Gross R 2001 Mindset the Science of Brain and Behaviour Fourth Model Green Gate Publishers
  • Hand Book Psychology Press Ltd
  • Hill G 2001 AS & AN EVEN Psychology Oxford University or college Press
  • Taylor I 1999 Lively mindset Pearson publishers
  • http://www. psychologistworld. com/cognitive
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