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Two Main Types Of Cells In Nervous System Biology Essay

There are two main types of cells in the nervous system. These two types are neurons and neuroglia. A neuron is a nerve cell that transmits impulses of the nervous system. Three main parts make up a neuron: cell body, axon, and dendrite. The cell body of your neuron contains the nucleus and cytoplasm. The axon conducts impulses away from the cell body and is away from the cell body an individual slender projection from the cell body. A dendrite sticks out off of the cell body. It is shaped somewhat just like a tree branch.

Neuroglia is a kind of connective tissue that supports the neurons. Neuroglia protects the nervous system rather than conducting impulses. Neuroglia use a process called phagocytosis to get rid of any unwanted substances. Neuroglia come in three types; astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes are cells that own many processes for attachment.

Astrocytes are usually more plentiful than any other neuroglia, and are just present in the central nervous system. Astrocytes combined with walls of a blood capillary, prevent harmful substances from passing from the blood to the brain.

Microglia have branch like processes protruding from other bodies. The purpose of microglia is to remove debris, waste material, and pathogens from nervous tissue. Microglia upsurge in number when there can be an injury or infection of the tissue. Oligodendrocytes have processes that protrude from their body and coil around axons. Oligodendrocytes main purpose is to be a power insulator and help speed the conduction of nerve impulses.


The peripheral nervous system contains twelve pairs of cranial nerves and thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves. The peripheral nervous system transmits sensory and motor impulses to and from the central nervous system and other areas of your body.

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is constructed of nerves. According to Comprehensive medical Terminology 3rd Edition by Betty Davis Jones, "A nerve is a cord like bundle of nerve fibers that transmits impulses to and from the brain and spinal cords to other parts of the body. A nerve is macroscopic (i. e. , in a position to be observed without aid from a microscope). A ganglion is a knot like mass of nerve cell bodies located beyond your CNS. "

The peripheral nervous system also has afferent and efferent nerves. Afferent nerves are sensory nerves that carry impulses from the body to the central nervous system. Efferent nerves are motor nerves that carry impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. Efferent nerves make the organs react to a command by completing an action. You can find two smaller nervous systems within the PNS called the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The main difference between your somatic and autonomic nervous system is that the somatic nervous system is under voluntary control of the skeletal muscle contractions and the autonomic nervous system operates under involuntary control of the smooth and cardiac muscle as well as glandular activities and secretions.


The two main the different parts of the central nervous system are the spinal cord and the brain. There's a protective membrane that surrounds the contents of the central nervous system. The membrane is made up of connective tissue called meninges as well as cerebrospinal fluid. The meninges are made of three layers of membranes. The first layer is the dura mater. The dura mater is a hardcore white connective tissue. The next layer of the meninges is the arachnoid membrane. The arachnoid membrane is a thin layer of strands that connect to the innermost layer of meninges. The 3rd layer is the pia meter. The pia meter is bound tightly to the top of CNS contents.


The brain, one of the organs within the central nervous system can be divided into four sections. The first section is the cerebrum. The cerebrum controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movements. The next section is the cerebellum. The cerebellum maintains muscle tone and coordinates normal movement as balance. The third section of the brain is the diencephalon which contains the thalamus, and the hypothalamus. The thalamus receives sensory stimuli and relays these to the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus activates, controls, and integrates the peripheral autonomic nervous system, processes, plus some sensory functions like body temperature, sleep, and appetite. The fourth and final section of the brain is the mind stem.

"The mind stem serves as a pathway for conduction of impulses between the brain and spinal cord. It controls such vital functions as respiration, blood pressure, and hear rate. (Davis Jones, 2008)"


There are many pathological conditions that one may come across. Following will be a set of the just a few along with a description and treatment options for each.

Anencephaly is in which a child is born with out a brain and spinal cord. It is a congenital disorder. A kid born with this disorder cannot live. Anencephaly can be detected during pregnancy through amniocentesis or ultrasonography.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is pain caused by pinching or compressing of the median nerve. Inflammation and swelling of the tendons is what can cause the pinching or compression. The pain of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the worst at night time. The inflammation associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is caused by repetitious overuse of the fingers, hands, or wrists. There's a treatment for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome which include taking anti-inflammatory medication, applying splints, attending physical therapy, and stopping the overuse. If these actions do not repair the problem, surgery may be necessary to relieve the pressure.

A cerebral contusion is a "bruise" of the mind tissue that appears when the mind strikes the inner skull. Cerebral contusions cause swelling of the mind. Symptoms steady with a cerebral contusion are combativeness, increased intracranial pressure, and altered degrees of consciousness. Treatments for cerebral contusions are close observation, hospitalization, maintain cerebral perfusion, and administer corticosteroids, and osmotic diuretics.

A headache or cephalagia is another pathological condition. Cephalagia is chronic to acute agony in the cranial cavity. A headache may be the result of an illness or other condition, but may also be benign. Treatment for headaches includes going for a mild analgesic.

Petit mal seizures are a type of seizure where there's a sudden short time of unconsciousness. Unconsciousness associated with petit mal seizures last just a few seconds. Signs of a petit mal seizure are blank facial expression or repeated blinking for a short while. Most people experiencing petit mal seizures are small kids prior to puberty.

Peripheral neuritis is inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves. Other disorders are associated with peripheral neuritis such as trigeminal neuritis, Bell's palsy, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Each disorder produces unique symptoms and has different treatments.

Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor in the sympathetic nervous system. Neuroblastoma occurs in the adrenal medulla and usually spreads to the liver, lungs, lymph nodes, and bone.

Parkinson's disease is a slow deterioration of the nerves in the brain stem's motor system. Signs and symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease are stooped posture, bowed head, shuffling gait, expressionless face, muffled speech, and difficulty swallowing. Treatment for Parkinson's disease is drug therapy, controlling the symptoms, and physical therapy. A surgical technique called a pallidotomy is sometimes used, but is not necessarily successful.

Shingles is a viral infection in adults who have had chicken pox. Shingles causes inflammation of the spinal or cranial nerve pathway. Symptoms commonly associated with shingles are server pain, fever, itching, GI disturbances, headache, general tiredness, and increased skin sensitivity. Treatment for shingles includes antiviral medications, analgesics, and corticosteroids.

Spinal bifida cystic is a problem in which the back part of 1 or more vertebrae is not normally closed. On this opening, cysts come through the fifth lumbar.

There are a great deal of other pathological conditions a person may develop all of which have different symptoms, effects, and treatments.

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