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Turning Individuals Into Team Players Management Essay

A team serves as a an organization whose individual efforts lead to performance is higher than the sum of the average person inputs. A team creates positive synergy through coordinated effort.

Teams are essential for the reason that when effectiviely used assist in employee motivation due to participation in activities and decision making and are usually more flexible and responsive to changing events. They have got better decision making, are better, and have more personal ownership.

Some options to turn individuals to team players are discussed below.

Hiring the right Individuals

Some individuals will have previously the interpersonal skills to work team players. Usually, when employing staff, aside from their technical skills, it is important to ensure that the candidates have the necessary skills to fulfil their roles as team members.

There are other ways to check on if individuals have capacity to be team members. These would include tests with different type of scenarios that the individual would be involved in a see how a lot of a team member / team role he'd play.

According to Daniel(2007)Some questions that may be asked to show ability to work in a team are the following "Share an experience that required you to definitely build a team. What criteria did you use in selecting associates? What challenges and successes did the team have? How did you address members who weren't being area of the team?"

Some candidates do not have team skills when working. Usually in that situation a manager can either opt to have them been trained in an effort to convert them into team players, or transfer the given individual to another unit that doesn't require teams, or decide not hire the candidate.

On this note eliminating bad employees helps develop a good environment. Individuals remaining in the organization should be those that generate a good working atmosphere, and owing to that'll be willing to come quickly to come to work since they love the enviroment and people they will work with.

Training

There are different ways in which individuals can learn to become team players.

There are trainining exercises that can be used to show the value of team accomplishments, and to go through the satisfaction that team work can offer.

Workshops can be offered to help employees improve their skills. These skills include communication, problem solving, negotiation and conflict management, amidst other skills.

They should be studied through different models of group development, such as the five stage group-delevopment model which emphasises on the five stages that groups should go through. These stages are the forming stage, storming stage, norming stage, performing stage and the adjourning stage.

Training also contains team development exercises and retreats that assist associates to increase their trust and openness.

Employees during should be reminded that teams take longer time for you to make decisions than individuals and thus have to learn to become a little more patient.

Proper rewarding systems

Organization's reward systems should be reworked to encourage cooperative efforts rather than competitive ones. Group-based appraisals should be encouraged to bolster team effort and commitment.

Promotions, pay raises, and other kinds of recongnition should get to those who work effectively as collaborative associates.

Examples that needs to be rewarded include training new members, sharing information with colleagues, resolving team conflicts.

Another way to carefully turn an individual into a team player is to introduce him in to a climate of trust. Members of effective teams exhibit trust amongst each other and their leaders. Trust is what will facilitate cooperation and brings bonds and belief that the other members won't take benefit of them / their efforts.

The individuals also needs to be put in positions they can utilize almost all their potential strenghts and talents. Positions that they can feel suitable for.

With all these discussed above, you can turn individuals in to a team, benefiting the individuals and the business.

Q2. 30 Points

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Diversity on Teams

Gordon Allport defined personality as "the dynamic organization within the individual of these psychophyisical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. " (Robins and Judge 2009:139)

It can aslo be described as the total ways a person reacts to and interacts with others.

It is because both heredity and environmentally friendly factors, although research in personality development tends to better support the value of heredity over the environment.

Personality traits can be defined as the enduring characterstics than describe and individual's behavior.

Diversity in an organization is recognition that all individuals are different. This means accepting and understanding that each individual is exclusive, and recognizes our differences. Diversity can be such as race, gender, sex, religion, and other ideologies. Along with the acceptance of the, the organizations try to create a climate of equality and mutual respect. (http://gladstone. uoregon. edu/~asuomca/diversityinit/definition. html)

There are 2 perspectives that have guided most diversity initiatives. They are the discrimination-and-fairness paradigm, and access-and-legitimacy paradigm.

Advantages

Over time, culturally and demographically diverse groups may perform better, if indeed they can overcome their initial conflicts. This is because they have distinctions in opinion, which provides an opportunity to solve problems in unique ways.

Surface level diversity can result in openness even though there was no deep level diversity. This sort of diversity of a group may subconsciously cue teams to be more open minded in their views and even more creative.

Diversity in teams brings different, important and competitively relevant knowledge, ideas, constructive arguments and perspectives about how precisely to do work. "When permitted to, members of the groups can help companies grow and improve by challenging basic assumptions about organizations functions, strategies, procedures and operations. In so doing they identify more with the work they do" (Thomas and Ely 1996).

It also causes increased creativeness which contributes to generation of better problem definitions, more alternatives due to the different backgrounds and thus better and sounder decisions and solutions.

With a new emerging paradigm Connecting Diversity to Work Perspectives, for the organization to make the paradigm shift, there are eight pre-conditions required for the organizations to make use of identity-group differences in the service of organizational learning, growth, and renewal. These include

The leadership must understand that a diverse workforce will embody different perspectives and approaches to work, and must truly value variety of judgment and insight.

The leadership must recognize both the learning opportunities and the challenges that the expression of different perspectives presents for an organization.

The organizational culture must create an expectation of high standards of performance from everyone.

The organizational culture must stimulate personal development.

The organizational culture must encourage openness.

The culture must make staff feel valued.

The organization must have a proper articulated and widely understood mission.

The organization must have a relatively egalitarian, nonbureaucratic structure.

An good thing about shifting to the paradigm is the fact that such organizations have zero tolerance to racism, homophobia, sexism and sexual harrassment.

Disadvantages

Diversity seems to lead to increased group conflict, especially in the early stages of a group's formation. This conflict often brings about lower group morale and sometimes group members dropping out.

Organizations that adopt the discrimination-and-fairness paradigm have issues in that they insist that everyone is the same, and in emphasizing on equal treatment, put pressure on employees to make certain that important differences among them do not count. Genuine disagreements can sometimes be wrongly interpreted

Organizations that adopt the access-and legitimacy paradigm tend to emphasize the role of cultural influences in a company without really analyzing those differences to observe how they actually affect the task that has been done. The organizations make themselves vulnerable for the reason that they really know very well what happens in those areas and exactly how they would get back to their feet if the individuals employed in those areas.

The access-and-legitimacy paradigm can also leave some employees feeling exploited. Many organizations by using paradigm have diversified only in the areas that they interact with market segment. With time, those employed in those functions feel devalued and overused and start to sense that opportunities in other areas of the organization are closed to them.

Also out of this paradigm, employees feel like if there is dependence on the organizations to be downsized, it is the special departments that are first targeted thus can kill the morale of the employees.

Diversity also can lead to insufficient cohesion, lack of trust and break in communication. The break in communication happens from the difference in meaning of words, expressions and intonations. This may sometimes leads to stress among the associates. It can also cause lots of disagreements and also cause inability to obtain consensus even on trivial issues. .

Q3. 40 Points

Why is situational Leadership so important - compare Situational Leadership to Charismatic Leadership - provide one example of each.

Leadership can be explained as the capability to positively influence people and systems to have a meaningful impact and achieve results. It may also be defined as the process where a person influences another or others towards attainment of organizational goals.

In the workplace today, good and effective leadership is important to be able to adopt organization to raised heights, maximize inputs at reduced costs and for cultivation of good and enjoyable working environment.

There are many different styles / approaches of leadership. From different theories of leadership there is absolutely no right or wrong leadership style.

In my judgment there are two typical theories that describe situational leadership models.

Goleman's Style of Situational Leadership - combines his five components of emotional intelligence (self awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills) to formulate a total of six situational leadership styles which can be described below. Goleman emphasizes the need for a manager to improve between these six styles as conditions around them change.

These are

Coercive Leadership Style - accomplishes task by bullying employees, works best whenever a fast company turnaround is necessary.

Authoritative Leadership Style - an expert that knows what must get done, works best when the workgroup is without clear direction.

Affiliative Leadership Style - promotes harmony and helps solve problems, is most effective when morale is low and teambuilding is needed.

Democratic Leadership Style - gives followers a vote in nearly every decision, a period consuming style that requires knowledgeable employees.

Pacesetting Leadership Style - sets high work standards for themselves and the followers, works best when followers are skilled and morale is high.

Coaching Leadership Style - clearly defines roles and tasks, focus is on two way communication, is most effective when followers are experienced and agreeable.

Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory - In this model, Blanchard and Hersey describe two fundamental concepts - that of leadership style as well as the development degree of the individual being led. It focuses on follower's readiness; their ability and willingness. It assumes that leaders should adapt their style to follower development style (or 'maturity'); based on how ready and willing the follower is to perform required tasks (that is, their competence and motivation).

Telling Leaders - defines the roles and tasks all, and supervises them very closely. Makes all important decisions. These leaders tell others what to do.

Selling Leaders - defines the rolls and the tasks of all, but also seeks ideas and suggestions. Decisions are made predominantly by the first choice, however the communication style used is two-way.

Participating Leaders - participating leader helps to facilitate discussion and takes part in the decision-making process, but ultimate control has been the staff

Delegating Leaders - mixed up in workgroups' decisions and helps to solve problems, but ultimate control has been the teams.

Development Levels of Followers

Blanchard and Hersey's situational leadership model also recognized the value of the development degree of those being led. Their theory states that the leader's style needs to reflect, in part, the competence and commitment of the followers. Those two dimensions were then used to develop the following four development levels of those being led:

* Low Competence, High Commitment

* Some Competence, Low Commitment

* High Competence, Variable Commitment

* High Competence, High Commitment

(Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. H: 1999)

In Blanchard's model of leadership, there exists an ideal kind of leadership style to use to each development level. A lot of that logic is equivalent to that within Goleman's model.

Situational leadership can thus be thought as the sort of leadership that adapts with the changes in condition, environment. An Effective leader should be able to utilize different leadership styles as conditions change. This may also be a combination of one or two of the styles.

Why is situational Leadership so important?

Situational leadership is important because with this type of leadership, successful leaders have the ability to quickly distinguish which style best pertains to a specific situation, and utilize that style to attain the best results possible in the business.

Situational Leadership is also important because it helps leaders be familiar with the pros and cons of every leadership technique and exactly how this knowledge can be applied to given work circumstances.

It's also important for leaders to make out their inherent leadership style because that may also be the leadership style they will fall back to in times of pressure and anxiety. "

Situational leadership is important due to way it is flexible. It emphasizes that managers change their management styles depending about how they perceive their followers (motivation and capacity).

It attracts all sorts (development levels) of folks within an organization.

Example of Situational Leadership

A good example of situational leader is within an office scenario where you have a combination of old and experienced staff, blended with new and inexperienced staff. The leadership sytle used to control the experienced staff whould be ideally through delegation, as the new and inexperienced staff would be through telling (authoritative) until such a time that they can be confident and experienced enough for other styles to be used.

Charismatic Leadership

In this theory, followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership capabilities when they observe certain behaviors with their leaders.

Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders

Vision and articulation. Includes a vision-expressed as an idealized goal

Personal risk. Ready to undertake high personal risk, incur high costs and engage in self-sacrifice to attain the vision.

Environmental sensitivity. Able to make realistic assessments of environmentally friendly constraints and resources needed to result in change.

Sensitivity to follower needs. Perceptive of others' talents and responsive to their needs and feelings.

Unconventional behavior. Partcipates in behaviors that are perceived as novel and counter to norms.

Charismatics Influence Followers By:

Articulating the vision

Setting high performance expectations

Conveying a new group of values

Making personal sacrifices

Charisma is apparently most successful when the follower's task has an ideological component or when the environment invovles a higher amount of stress and uncertainty.

This may describe why, when charismatic leaders surface, it's apt to be in politics, religion, wartime, or when a businness firm is in its infancy or facing a life-threatening crisis. (Robins and Judge: 2009)

In addition to ideology and uncertainty, another situational factor limiting charisma appears to be level in organization.

"Creation of vision is a key component of charismatic leaders. But visions typically connect with entire organizations Charisma has therefore probably more direct relevance to expaining the success and failures of chief executives than of lower- level managers. " (Robins and Judge: 2009)

"Charismatic leaders also rely heavily on the personal charm and perceptions - that could be significantly influenced by rumors or "negative press. "" ("Charismatic leaders, ")

From above it is clear that not absolutely all charismatic leadership is good for the organizations. Some will take over the authoritarian style and being consumed in their own vision might finish up bringing the organization financially.

Example of Charismatic Leadership

A very good example of charismatic leadership is one shown by Steve Jobs The CEO of Apple Inc. His will, charisma and sense of style lead to the rise, fall and rise again of Apple Computers between 1982 and today. He left Apple due to his vision that was not accepted in Apple Inc. He was later hired back in 1996 after selling his OS to Apple through his company NeXT. The then CEO Gil Amelio was ousted by the board to give Steve the possibility to lead Apple Inc. With him as the CEO he has taken Apple through unconventional ways to great heights.

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